Thursday, February 15, 2018

Nature contents: 15 February 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 554 Issue 7692
This Week  
SpaceX ignites big dreams
The successful launch of the Falcon Heavy rocket was a stunning moment that opens the way for commercial exploration of deep space.
Don’t jump to conclusions about climate change and civil conflict
Many studies that link global warming to civil unrest are biased and exacerbate stigma about the developing world.
From proposals to snarks: the messages that scientists sneak into their papers
Researchers have hidden secret notes in their manuscripts for decades, but there are risks.
World View  
Train PhD students to be thinkers not just specialists
Many doctoral curricula aim to produce narrowly focused researchers rather than critical thinkers. That can and must change, says Gundula Bosch.
Seven Days  
Spaceflight success, harassment policy and ancestry research
The week in science: 9–15 February 2018.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
Tree rings reveal increased fire risk for southwestern US
Historical record of wildfires points to climate patterns that could prime the region for an intense fire season.
Cally Carswell
  Trump science budget sows confusion
US president makes last-minute decision to abandon proposal for major cuts to National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation and Department of Energy’s science office.
Lauren Morello, Giorgia Guglielmi, Sara Reardon et al.
Wild primates threaten efforts to wipe out skin disease
Efforts to combat disfiguring skin disease fail to account for primate hosts.
Lucas Laursen
  Deluge of astronomical data will soon hit South Africa
The expansion of a telescope network creates a thirst for more data-handling expertise and infrastructure.
Sarah Wild
US science agency will require universities to report sexual harassment
The National Science Foundation says institutions it supports must disclose when researchers are found to have violated policies or are put on leave pending investigation.
Alexandra Witze
The quantum internet has arrived (and it hasn’t)
Networks that harness entanglement and teleportation could enable leaps in security, computing and science.
Davide Castelvecchi
Nature Podcast: 15 February 2018
This week, refocussing ageing research, a transportable atomic clock, and researching while pregnant.
Find drugs that delay many diseases of old age
Simply extending lifespan is not enough. We need treatments that boost resilience to multiple age-related diseases, argue Ilaria Bellantuono and 12 co-signatories.
Ilaria Bellantuono
Books and Arts  
The past, present and future of human evolution
María Martinón-Torres weighs up an original study on where we come from — and where we’re going.
María Martinón-Torres
How poets and filmmakers construe complexity at the Crick Institute
Philip Ball tours a cross-disciplinary exhibition exploring patterns in bioscience.
Philip Ball
Humanizing the digital revolution, the secret life of yeast and Lyme disease through a climate lens: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week’s best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Teach young scientists the importance of societal impact for research
Sascha Friesike, Benedikt Fecher, Gert G. Wagner
  US bill illustrates how conservation triage can lead to extinctions
Guillaume Chapron, Yaffa Epstein, José Vicente López-Bao
Coordinate international Earth observations for maximum impact
Barbara J. Ryan
  Japanese photo of Rosalind Franklin unearthed
Yoshihiko Watanabe
Better management of groundwater needed in Pakistan
Muhammad Arif Watto, Safdar Bashir, Nabeel Khan Niazi
A molecular atlas of cell types and zonation in the brain vasculature
Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the murine blood–brain barrier provides molecular definitions of the main vascular cell types, classifies perivascular cell types and sheds light on the organization of the arteriovenous axis.
A coherent spin–photon interface in silicon
A single spin in silicon is strongly coupled to a microwave-frequency photon and coherent single-spin dynamics are observed using circuit quantum electrodynamics.
MEK drives BRAF activation through allosteric control of KSR proteins
KSR–MEK complexes allosterically activate BRAF through the action of N-terminal regulatory region and kinase domain contacts, thus challenging the accepted role of KSR as a scaffold for MEK recruitment to RAF.
TGFβ drives immune evasion in genetically reconstituted colon cancer metastasis
A combination of TGFβ inhibition and checkpoint-inhibition therapy provokes a potent cytotoxic response against metastatic tumours derived from colorectal cancers in mice.
Meridional overturning circulation conveys fast acidification to the deep Atlantic Ocean
There has been a reduction of about forty per cent in the transport of carbonate ions to the deep North Atlantic Ocean since preindustrial times, severely endangering cold-water corals.
TGFβ attenuates tumour response to PD-L1 blockade by contributing to exclusion of T cells
In humans, TGFβ signalling is associated with lack of response to immunotherapy in immune-excluded tumours; in mouse models of this immune phenotype, robust tumour infiltration by T cells and tumour regression are observed only when checkpoint inhibition is combined with inhibition of TGFβ signalling.
Peptidoglycan synthesis drives an FtsZ-treadmilling-independent step of cytokinesis
Single-cell fluorescence microscopy reveals that cytokinesis occurs in two stages in Staphylococcus aureus, an initial slow phase followed by a faster phase after MurJ protein recruitment to the midcell triggers peptidoglycan synthesis.
Global patterns of tropical forest fragmentation
Satellite data and modelling reveal that tropical forest fragments have similar size distributions across continents, and that forest fragmentation is close to a critical point, beyond which fragment numbers will strongly increase.
Tissue stiffening coordinates morphogenesis by triggering collective cell migration in vivo
Stiffening of the mesoderm owing to an accumulation of cells triggers collective migration of neural crest cells during morphogenesis.
Transcriptional regulation by NR5A2 links differentiation and inflammation in the pancreas
In mouse pancreas cells with only one copy of the Nr5a2 gene, the orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 undergoes a marked transcriptional shift from differentiation-specific to inflammatory genes, which results in an epithelial-cell-autonomous basal pre-inflammatory state.
A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon
A two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device is demonstrated, which can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm.
Erratum: Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption
Corrigendum: Immune evasion of Plasmodium falciparum by RIFIN via inhibitory receptors
Genomics of the origin and evolution of Citrus OPEN
The origin, evolution and domestication of Citrus and the genealogy of the most important wild and cultivated citrus varieties.
Guohong Albert Wu, Javier Terol, Victoria Ibanez et al.
Ketamine blocks bursting in the lateral habenula to rapidly relieve depression
The rapid antidepressant activity of ketamine results from reversal of increased burst firing and synchronization in the lateral habenula in rat and mouse models of depression.
Yan Yang, Yihui Cui, Kangning Sang et al.
Astroglial Kir4.1 in the lateral habenula drives neuronal bursts in depression
Increased expression of the potassium channel Kir4.1 on astrocytes in the lateral habenula drives neuronal bursting in rodent models of depression.
Yihui Cui, Yan Yang, Zheyi Ni et al.
Teneurin-3 controls topographic circuit assembly in the hippocampus
The transmembrane protein teneurin-3 is expressed in multiple topographically interconnected areas of the hippocampal region and acts in both projection and target neurons to control wiring specificity from CA1 to the subiculum.
Dominic S. Berns, Laura A. DeNardo, Daniel T. Pederick et al.
A parsec-scale optical jet from a massive young star in the Large Magellanic Cloud
Observations of a highly collimated, parsec-scale jet emitted from a massive young stellar object in the Large Magellanic Cloud indicate that jet launching and collimation are independent of stellar mass.
Anna F. McLeod, Megan Reiter, Rolf Kuiper et al.
Pulsating aurora from electron scattering by chorus waves
High-angular-resolution measurements allow the direct observation of the scattering of energetic electrons by chorus waves in the magnetosphere, which causes quasiperiodic electron precipitation that gives rise to pulsating aurorae.
S. Kasahara, Y. Miyoshi, S. Yokota et al.
A spin–orbital-entangled quantum liquid on a honeycomb lattice
A quantum-liquid state of spin–orbital-entangled magnetic moments is observed in the 5d-electron honeycomb iridate H3LiIr2O6, evidenced by the absence of magnetic ordering down to 0.05 kelvin.
K. Kitagawa, T. Takayama, Y. Matsumoto et al.
Freezing on a sphere
Freezing on a spherical surface is shown to proceed by the sequestration of defects into 12 icosahedrally coordinated ‘seas’ that enable the formation of a crystalline ‘continent’ with long-range orientational order.
Rodrigo E. Guerra, Colm P. Kelleher, Andrew D. Hollingsworth et al.
Southern Hemisphere climate variability forced by Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet topography
An Antarctic ice core reveals that, during the last ice age, the topography of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets shifted tropical Pacific convection eastward, increasing climate variability in the high southern latitudes.
T. R. Jones, W. H. G. Roberts, E. J. Steig et al.
Global patterns of declining temperature variability from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene
Temperature variability decreased globally by a factor of four between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene epoch, as a result of changes in the meridional temperature gradient.
Kira Rehfeld, Thomas Münch, Sze Ling Ho et al.
Fluctuating interaction network and time-varying stability of a natural fish community
A method for modelling time-varying dynamic stability in a natural marine fish community finds that seasonal patterns in community stability are driven by species diversity and interspecific interactions.
Masayuki Ushio, Chih-hao Hsieh, Reiji Masuda et al.
Cognitive performance is linked to group size and affects fitness in Australian magpies
Wild Australian magpies (Cracticus tibicen dorsalis) living in large groups show increased cognitive performance, which is associated with increased reproductive success.
Benjamin J. Ashton, Amanda R. Ridley, Emily K. Edwards et al.
Posterior parietal cortex represents sensory history and mediates its effects on behaviour
A working memory task in rats demonstrates that the posterior parietal cortex is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information.
Athena Akrami, Charles D. Kopec, Mathew E. Diamond et al.
c-MAF-dependent regulatory T cells mediate immunological tolerance to a gut pathobiont
The transcription factor c-MAF is required for the generation of Helicobacter-specific regulatory T cells that selectively restrain pro-inflammatory TH17 cells; the absence of c-MAF in mouse regulatory T cells results in pathobiont-dependent inflammatory bowel disease.
Mo Xu, Maria Pokrovskii, Yi Ding et al.
Asparagine bioavailability governs metastasis in a model of breast cancer
In a mouse model of breast cancer, asparagine bioavailability strongly influences metastasis and this is correlated with the production of proteins that regulate the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which provides at least one potential mechanism for how a single amino acid could regulate metastatic progression.
Simon R. V. Knott, Elvin Wagenblast, Showkhin Khan et al.
Mitochondria–lysosome contacts regulate mitochondrial fission via RAB7 GTP hydrolysis
Formation of inter-organelle contacts between mitochondria and lysosomes, regulated by lysosomal RAB7 GTP hydrolysis, allows for bidirectional regulation of mitochondrial and lysosomal dynamics.
Yvette C. Wong, Daniel Ysselstein, Dimitri Krainc
Structural basis for DNMT3A-mediated de novo DNA methylation
A crystal structure of DNMT3A and its regulatory partner DNMT3L bound to DNA reveals the mechanistic basis for DNMT3A-mediated DNA methylation and establishes its aetiological link to human disease.
Zhi-Min Zhang, Rui Lu, Pengcheng Wang et al.
Corrigendum: AMPA receptor-mediated regulation of a Gi-protein in cortical neurons
Yizheng Wang, Daniel L. Small, Danica B. Stanimirovic et al.
Erratum: Runx3 programs CD8+ T cell residency in non-lymphoid tissues and tumours
J. Justin Milner, Clara Toma, Bingfei Yu et al.
Erratum: Moving beyond microbiome-wide associations to causal microbe identification
Neeraj K. Surana, Dennis L. Kasper
News and Views  
The origin of pulsating auroras
Allison N. Jaynes
Brainpower boost for birds in large groups
Andrew Whiten
Burst firing sets the stage for depression
William M. Howe, Paul J. Kenny

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Working memory freed from the past
Laura Busse
The two faces of a magnetic honeycomb
Martin Mourigal
On the trail of invasive cells in breast cancer
Douglas S. Micalizzi, Shyamala Maheswaran
Careers & Jobs
A guide to juggling fieldwork and pregnancy
Emily Sohn
Career Briefs  
Watch your language
The score of a lifetime.
Eric Lewis
  Science jobs of the week


Deputy Principal (Research and Enterprise)


St. George's University of London 


A New Opportunity for Early Career Researchers


CIFAR Canadian Institute for Advanced Research 


Director of the NIH BRAIN Initiative


National Institues of Health (NIH) National Institue of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) 


Independent Junior Research Group Leader


University of Würzburg / Helmholtz Institute for RNA-Based Infection Research 


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natureevents directory featured events


Conference on Global Climate (CGC 2018)


23 March 2018 Guilin, China


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