Wednesday, September 28, 2016

[NASA HQ News] NASA, China to Collaborate on Air Traffic Management Research

  September 28, 2016 
RELEASE 16-097
NASA, China to Collaborate on Air Traffic Management Research

NASA and the Chinese Aeronautical Establishment (CAE) have signed a memorandum of understanding to cooperate on aeronautics research that will advance air transportation automation for U.S. and Chinese aviation operations in China.

The details of the agreement were discussed during NASA Administrator Charles Bolden's visit to China in August, when he met with officials from CAE and the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC).

"China is expected to see a substantial increase in air travel in the near future," Bolden said. "Our ability to work closely together will help to improve predictability of ground delays so air carriers can better plan departures to increase efficiencies. That will have a positive impact on U.S. carriers operating in China and the global aviation community."

This five-year collaborative effort will acquire and analyze data from Chinese airports to identify potential efficiencies in air traffic management. The results of this collaboration are expected to lead to improvements in air transportation concepts and technologies, which will be beneficial to all nations.

This research complements the work currently being performed by the Airspace Operations and Safety Program within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. NASA will accomplish this work in coordination with U.S. airlines and industry. It is also highly synergistic with work being performed by CAE and its partners, which includes CAAC, the China Civil Aviation Authority, the China Air Traffic Management Bureau, Chinese airports and airlines.

For more information about NASA's aeronautics research, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/aero

-end-

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Nature contents: 29 September 2016

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 537 Issue 7622
 
This Week  
 
 
Editorials  
 
 
 
Young researchers thrive in life after academia
Alternative career paths should be celebrated, not seen as a compromise.
The maximum climate ambition needs a firm research backing
We need to know what the 1.5 °C warming target will involve — even if we don’t reach it.
The challenges facing Habitat III
United Nations conference on cities needs to set goals for the next 20 years.
 
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World View  
 
 
 
Encourage governments to heed scientific advice
To stop evidence-based policy losing its clout, researchers need to engage with policymakers and understand their needs, says Bill Colglazier.
 
Seven Days  
 
 
 
African elephants, forensic science and China’s gene bank
The week in science: 23–29 September
Research Highlights  
 
 
 
Glaciology: Greenland ice loss underestimated | Biotechnology: Portable way to make proteins | Epigenetics: CRISPR edits gene methylation | Stem cells: Targeting pain of spinal-cord injury | Materials: Graphene jiggles up and down | Agriculture: Maize engineered to kill pest | Astronomy: Early star-forming gas found | Neuroscience: Ants get addicted to morphine | Computer science: Ancient scroll virtually unrolled | Ecology: Rats and cats drive extinctions
 
 
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News in Focus
 
Daring Chinese telescope is poised to transform astronomy
Construction of the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is complete, but debugging has only just begun.
David Cyranoski
  Facebook couple commits $3 billion to cure disease
Chan Zuckerberg Initiative aims to have major impact by 2100.
Erika Check Hayden
Cuban crocodiles pose conservation conundrum
Genetic analyses of endangered animals reveal high level of interbreeding with hardier American species.
Sara Reardon
  Worldwide brain-mapping project sparks excitement — and concern
Worries include how to coordinate research programmes and resources from different countries.
Sara Reardon
Solar on the steppe: Ukraine embraces renewables revolution
Former Soviet nation bids for independence from Russian fossil fuels.
Quirin Schiermeier
  Zimbabwean scientists fight to preserve national academy
Research struggles in a country in economic free-fall.
Sarah Wild
Features  
 
 
 
Can Cuban science go global?
Tensions between Cuba and the United States are easing. But researchers still struggle to join the scientific world.
Sara Reardon
Multimedia  
 
 
Nature Podcast: 29 Sept 2016
This week, the chemistry of life’s origins, two million years of temperatures, and studying the heaviest elements.
Podcast Extra: Futures
Futures is Nature's weekly science fiction slot. Miranda Keeling reads you our favourite from September, ’Try Catch Throw’ by Andrew Neil Gray.
Correction  
 
 
CORRECTION
 
 
Advertising.
 
 
Comment
 
Boost resilience of small and mid-sized cities
Smaller settlements are growing faster than megacities — and they need more protection from extreme events, write Joern Birkmann and colleagues.
Joern Birkmann, Torsten Welle, William Solecki et al.
Where to put the next billion people
Richard T. T. Forman and Jianguo Wu call for global and regional approaches to urban planning.
Richard T. T. Forman, Jianguo Wu
Give cities a seat at the top table
Building more strategic links between urban innovation and global governance will help to tackle today's grand challenges, argues Michele Acuto.
Michele Acuto
Books and Arts  
 
 
 
Cities: Humanizing the urban fabric
Austin Williams examines two books that probe the dynamic relationship between people and city.
Austin Williams
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Physics: Finding the time
Andrew Jaffe takes the measure of two books on the tangled concept of the temporal.
Andrew Jaffe
Correspondence  
 
 
 
Food systems: Nourish as well as feed the world
Sandy Thomas
  Species loss: diverse takes on biodiversity
Andrew Beattie
Species loss: a crude view of climate
Nikhil Advani, Susan Evans, Arjette Stevens
  Species loss: climate plan saves only trees
Tim Caro, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder
Meteorology: Mobile networks aid weather monitoring
Pinhas Alpert, Hagit Messer, Noam David
 
 
 
Specials
 
Outlook: The dark universe  
 
 
 
The dark universe
Richard Hodson
  Dark matter: What's the matter?
Jeff Hecht
Revealing the unseen Universe
Mark Zastrow
  Q&A: George Smoot
Richard Hodson
Dark energy: Staring into darkness
Stephen Battersby
  Q&A: Brian Schmidt
Richard Hodson
The dark universe: 4 big questions
Neil Savage
 
Sponsor
Sponsor
 
 
Research
 
NEW ONLINE  
 
 
 
Animal behaviour: Lethal violence deep in the human lineage
Frizzled proteins are colonic epithelial receptors for C. difficile toxin B
Here, a genome-wide CRISPR–Cas9 screen is used to identify the Wnt receptors frizzled as physiologically relevant Clostridium difficile toxin B receptors, providing new therapeutic targets for treating C. difficile infections.
De novo phasing with X-ray laser reveals mosquito larvicide BinAB structure
The structure of the bacterial toxin BinAB, which is used to combat mosquito-borne diseases, reveals pH-sensitive switches and carbohydrate-binding modules that may contribute to the larvicidal function of the toxin.
Atom-at-a-time laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium
Resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium (atomic number 102) reveals its ground-state transition and an upper limit for its ionization potential, paving the way to characterizing even heavier elements via optical spectroscopy.
The phylogenetic roots of human lethal violence
The percentage of human deaths caused by interpersonal violence reflects our membership of a particularly violent clade of mammals, although changes in socio-political organization have led to marked variations in this proportion.
Enhanced flexoelectric-like response in oxide semiconductors
Semiconducting single crystals of doped barium titanate and titanium dioxide exhibit a flexoelectric-like response upon bending that is much larger than in their undoped, insulating counterparts, reaching unprecedentedly large effective flexoelectric coefficients.
Autocrine BDNF–TrkB signalling within a single dendritic spine
Live fluorescent imaging of murine hippocampal slices shows that NMDAR-dependent glutamate signalling leads to postsynaptic BDNF release, with associated signalling of its receptor, TrkB, on the same dendritic spine, suggesting autocrine BDNF signalling.
A cross-modal genetic framework for the development and plasticity of sensory pathways
In the neocortex, sensory information flows into areas specific for a particular modality through parallel thalamocortical circuits, consisting of first order and higher order nuclei connecting to primary and secondary cortical areas, respectively; here, the authors identify common developmental genetic programs that organize these conserved features in parallel sensory pathways.
XPO1-dependent nuclear export is a druggable vulnerability in KRAS-mutant lung cancer
A multi-genomic approach identifies the addiction of KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells to XPO1-dependent nuclear export, offering a new therapeutic opportunity.
Projected land photosynthesis constrained by changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2
Analysis of observations and model projections provides large-scale emergent constraints on the extent of CO2 fertilization, with estimated increases in gross primary productivity for both high-latitude and extratropical ecosystems under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.
Rho GTPase complementation underlies BDNF-dependent homo- and heterosynaptic plasticity
The three small GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 are differentially involved in structural long-term potentiation of rodent dendritic spines, simultaneously ensuring signal specificity and also priming the system for plasticity.
The lipolysis pathway sustains normal and transformed stem cells in adult Drosophila
Attenuating the lipolysis pathway in Drosophila melanogaster by modulation of the COP1–Arf1 signalling complex induced necrosis in stem cells and led to their engulfment by differentiated cells.
Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years
Reconstruction of global average surface temperature for the past two million years shows continuous cooling until about 1.2 million years ago, followed by a general flattening, with close coupling of global temperature and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations over the past 800,000 years.
Two distinct RNase activities of CRISPR-C2c2 enable guide-RNA processing and RNA detection
The CRISPR-associated bacterial enzyme C2c2 is shown to contain two separable, distinct sites for the highly sensitive detection and cleavage of single-stranded RNA.
Genome-wide associations for birth weight and correlations with adult disease
Multi-ancestry genome-wide association analyses for birth weight in 153,781 individuals identified 60 genomic loci in which birth weight and fetal genotype were associated and found an inverse genetic correlation between birth weight and cardiometabolic risk.
Erratum: Replication fork stability confers chemoresistance in BRCA-deficient cells
Corrigendum: An early geodynamo driven by exsolution of mantle components from Earth’s core
Corrigendum: An essential receptor for adeno-associated virus infection
Corrigendum: Noncanonical autophagy inhibits the autoinflammatory, lupus-like response to dying cells
News and Views  
 
 
 
Plant science: Hybrid vigour characterized
James A. Birchler
Imaging techniques: MRI illuminated by γ-rays
Richard Bowtell
Microbiology: The bacterial cell wall takes centre stage
Kevin D. Young
 
Nature Reviews Cancer Focus on Tumour Metabolism

This Focus explores the dynamic and varied metabolism in tumour cells, discussing the importance of these pathways for many tumorigenic processes, such as tumour progression, survival, growth, epigenetic changes and how these can be translated to the clinic. 

Access the Focus free online.

Produced with support from Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Food security: A collaboration worth its weight in grain
Leah H. Samberg
 
Biogeochemistry: Long-term effects of permafrost thaw
Donatella Zona
Physiology: Forecast for water balance
Michael J. Krashes
 
Chemistry: Small molecular replicators go organic
Annette F. Taylor
Articles  
 
 
 
The architecture of the mammalian respirasome
Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; a cryo-electron microscopy structural study of the respirasome is presented.
Jinke Gu, Meng Wu, Runyu Guo et al.
The architecture of respiratory supercomplexes
Respirasomes are supercomplexes of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes that are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production; cryo-electron microscopy structures of mammalian (sheep) respirasomes are presented.
James A. Letts, Karol Fiedorczuk, Leonid A. Sazanov
Genomic architecture of heterosis for yield traits in rice
Insights into the genomic architecture of heterosis for grain yield in rice are presented, and further mapping of grain yield loci resolves candidate genes that could be useful for breeding.
Xuehui Huang, Shihua Yang, Junyi Gong et al.
SEDS proteins are a widespread family of bacterial cell wall polymerases
SEDS proteins are core peptidoglycan polymerases involved in bacterial cell wall elongation and division.
Alexander J. Meeske, Eammon P. Riley, William P. Robins et al.
Letters  
 
 
 
The awakening of a classical nova from hibernation
Long-term pre- and post-eruption observations of the classical nova V1213 Centauri reveal that its progenitor was a dwarf nova and that the mass-transfer rate increased considerably as a result of the nova explosion.
Przemek Mróz, Andrzej Udalski, PaweĊ‚ Pietrukowicz et al.
A method for imaging and spectroscopy using γ-rays and magnetic resonance
A new imaging and spectroscopy approach combines the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to manipulate nuclear spins with the high sensitivity of γ-ray detection, enabling a greatly reduced number of nuclei to be used compared to conventional NMR signal detection.
Yuan Zheng, G. Wilson Miller, William A. Tobias et al.
Autocatalytic, bistable, oscillatory networks of biologically relevant organic reactions
A few-component network of biologically relevant, organic reactions displays bistability and oscillations, without an enzymatic catalyst.
Sergey N. Semenov, Lewis J. Kraft, Alar Ainla et al.
Directed evolution of artificial metalloenzymes for in vivo metathesis
An artificial metalloenzyme is compartmentalized and evolved in vivo for olefin metathesis—an archetypal organometallic reaction without equivalent in nature; the evolved metathase reveals broad substrate scope and compares favourably with commercial catalysts.
Markus Jeschek, Raphael Reuter, Tillmann Heinisch et al.
Key new pieces of the HIMU puzzle from olivines and diamond inclusions
Trace-element analyses of olivine phenocrysts and diamond inclusions indicate that carbonatite-metasomatized subcontinental mantle may be the source of the HIMU mantle end-member, as opposed to recycled basaltic oceanic crust.
Yaakov Weiss, Cornelia Class, Steven L. Goldstein et al.
Closing yield gaps in China by empowering smallholder farmers
The authors report on attempts to increase the yield of smallholder farms in China using ten practices recommended by the Science and Technology Backyard for farming maize and wheat at county level.
Weifeng Zhang, Guoxin Cao, Xiaolin Li et al.
CHD8 haploinsufficiency results in autistic-like phenotypes in mice
Heterozygous Chd8 mutant mice display autistic-like behaviours and small but global changes in brain gene expression, which are associated with delays in neuronal development.
Yuta Katayama, Masaaki Nishiyama, Hirotaka Shoji et al.
Thirst neurons anticipate the homeostatic consequences of eating and drinking
Feedback from the oral cavity to thirst-promoting neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) during eating and drinking is integrated with information about blood composition, providing a prediction of how oral consumption will affect fluid balance and leading to changes in behaviour.
Christopher A. Zimmerman, Yen-Chu Lin, David E. Leib et al.
Clock-driven vasopressin neurotransmission mediates anticipatory thirst prior to sleep
Clock neurons projecting from the suprachiasmatic nucleus activate a thirst-related brain area in mice to cause a surge in drinking just before sleep and thereby to prevent dehydration during the sleep period.
C. Gizowski, C. Zaelzer, C. W. Bourque
Ecogenomics and potential biogeochemical impacts of globally abundant ocean viruses
The assembly and analysis of complete genomes and large genomic fragments have tripled the number of known ocean viruses and uncovered the potentially important roles they play in nitrogen and sulfur cycling.
Simon Roux, Jennifer R. Brum, Bas E. Dutilh et al.
Rewriting yeast central carbon metabolism for industrial isoprenoid production
Yeast central carbon metabolism has been engineered to achieve a more efficient isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway, an advance that brings commodity-scale production of such compounds a step closer.
Adam L. Meadows, Kristy M. Hawkins, Yoseph Tsegaye et al.
Single-cell analysis of mixed-lineage states leading to a binary cell fate choice
Stem cells generate progenitors that transition through a series of dynamically unstable states with mixed-lineage gene expression, culminating in the specification of cell-fate.
Andre Olsson, Meenakshi Venkatasubramanian, Viren K. Chaudhri et al.
 
 
Nature Outlook Open Innovation

In the competitive world of drug discovery and development, secrecy is no longer as important as it was. As it has become more difficult and costly to produce therapies, competitors have begun to view greater collaboration and openness as a way to improve the efficiency of research.

Available free online

Produced with support from Boehringer Ingelheim
 
 
Careers & Jobs
 
Feature  
 
 
 
Reproducibility: Seek out stronger science
Monya Baker
Futures  
 
 
The sixth circle
How to connect with history.
J. W. Armstrong
 
 
 
 
 

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