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Yiyang Gong, Mark J. Wagner, Jin Zhong Li and Mark J. Schnitzer
Genetically encoded optical voltage sensors measure the electrical activity of various tissues with limited effectiveness, due to the sensors' suboptimal performance metrics. Gong et al. create a sensor with increased brightness, fast kinetics and improved dynamic ranges when compared with previous sensors.
Jorg J. M. Massen, Andrius Pašukonis, Judith Schmidt and Thomas Bugnyar
Social intelligence requires the understanding of third-party relations, which is known to occur in humans and primates. Here, Massen et al. show that ravens respond differently to sound recordings of dominance interactions between other ravens, suggesting that ravens also understand third-party relations.
Martin Jutzeler, Robert Marsh, Rebecca J. Carey, James D. L. White, Peter J. Talling and Leif Karlstrom
Pumice rafts result from volcanic eruptions into and onto water, and can be extensive and potentially hazardous, but tracking their dispersal is difficult. Jutzeler et al. combine satellite imagery and an ocean model to accurately forecast pumice raft dispersal routes.
Camille Berthelot, Frédéric Brunet, Domitille Chalopin, Amélie Juanchich, Maria Bernard, Benjamin Noël, Pascal Bento, Corinne Da Silva, Karine Labadie, Adriana Alberti, Jean-Marc Aury, Alexandra Louis, Patrice Dehais, Philippe Bardou, Jérôme Montfort, Christophe Klopp, Cédric Cabau, Christine Gaspin, Gary H. Thorgaard, Mekki Boussaha et al.
Although whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are rare events, they have an important role in shaping vertebrate evolution. Here, the authors sequence the rainbow trout genome and show that rediploidization after WGD occurs in a slow and stepwise manner.
Jimena Giudice, Zheng Xia, Eric T. Wang, Marissa A. Scavuzzo, Amanda J. Ward, Auinash Kalsotra, Wei Wang, Xander H. T. Wehrens, Christopher B. Burge, Wei Li and Thomas A. Cooper
Alternative splicing is a process during gene expression that increases the diversity of proteins encoded by a single gene. Here, the authors perform RNA-sequencing on cardiac cells from mice and show that extensive changes in gene expression and alternative splicing occur during the first month after birth.
Bernd Kulessa, Daniela Jansen, Adrian J. Luckman, Edward C. King and Peter R. Sammonds
Signs of instability in the Antarctic Larsen C ice shelf have raised concerns that it might soon collapse like its northern neighbour Larsen B. Kulessa et al. combine an ice-shelf model with satellite and geophysical data to show that despite dynamic similarities, Larsen C is presently stabilized by marine ice.
Klaus F. Wagenbauer, Christian H. Wachauf and Hendrik Dietz
Sequence-programmable self-assembly of DNA enables the formation of a variety of complex structures; however, determining the quality of these multi-chain structures is challenging. Here the authors address this problem by using a fluorescent probe to measure the amount of unpaired bases in the DNA assemblies.
Rahul Mukherjee, Abhay V. Thomas, Dibakar Datta, Eklavya Singh, Junwen Li, Osman Eksik, Vivek B. Shenoy and Nikhil Koratkar
The use of metallic lithium electrodes in batteries would lead to dendritic growth problems. Here, Mukherjee et al. use porous graphene electrodes to entrap lithium metal at defect sites, achieving much improved specific capacities over extended cycling.
Akane Kubota, Shogo Kita, Kimitsune Ishizaki, Ryuichi Nishihama, Katsuyuki T. Yamato and Takayuki Kohchi
Flowering is triggered by changes in day length, which are detected by a network of genes including GI and FKF1. Kubota et al. show that GI and FKF1 homologues control transition from vegetative- to reproductive growth in the liverwort, revealing a more ancient than expected evolutionary origin for flowering control.
B. A. Bell, D. A. Herrera-Martí, M. S. Tame, D. Markham, W. J. Wadsworth and J. G. Rarity
Noise and decoherence are serious problems for scalable quantum computing schemes. Using an all-optical approach, Bell et al. explore the use of four-qubit graph states for encoding quantum information, and show that they can reliably detect and correct errors against loss.
Konstantinos Drosopoulos, Chan Tang, William C. H. Chao and Spiros Linardopoulos
Cells with multiple centrosomes, as are often observed in cancer, can still divide successfully because the centrosomes cluster to form a single spindle pole body. Drosopoulos et al. show that degradation of the kinesin Eg5 by APC/C-CDH1 is required for centrosome clustering.
Stefan Köster, Katharina van Pee, Martina Hudel, Martin Leustik, Daniel Rhinow, Werner Kühlbrandt, Trinad Chakraborty and Özkan Yildiz
The cytolysin, listeriolysin O (LLO), is expressed by Listeria and forms pores in the phagosomal membrane in response to decreased pH. Here, Yildiz et al. solve the crystal structure of LLO, identify residues that serve as the pH sensor, and determine the mechanism of pore formation in host membranes.
Kimberly J. Christie, Anand Krishnan, Jose A. Martinez, Kaylynn Purdy, Bhagat Singh, Shane Eaton and Douglas Zochodne
Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a key inhibitor of cell cycle progression and its deletion is implicated in cancer. Here, the authors show that Rb is also involved in regulating nerve regeneration, since silencing Rb promotes neurite outgrowth and recovery of sensorimotor responses after nerve injury.
It is difficult to spatially resolve molecular orbitals of molecules on highly reactive semiconductor surfaces. Here, Xu et al. use scanning tunnelling microscopy to study pyridazine molecules on a clean germanium surface, and hybridized molecular orbitals are directly imaged.
Guillaume Lajoinie, Erik Gelderblom, Ceciel Chlon, Marcel Böhmer, Wiendelt Steenbergen, Nico de Jong, Srirang Manohar and Michel Versluis
Laser-induced vapourization has great potential in many applications, but the underlying physical mechanisms are not clear. Here, Lajoinie et al. study oil-filled polymer microcapsules using coupled optical and acoustic detection, and report new insights into the laser-activated processes.
Xingyun Li, Xiulian Pan, Liang Yu, Pengju Ren, Xing Wu, Litao Sun, Feng Jiao and Xinhe Bao
Acetylene hydrochlorination is an industrially important reaction but is, in many instances, still catalyzed by mercury chloride. Here, the authors report a nanocomposite of pyrrolic nitrogen-doped carbon capable of activating acetylene, which also exhibits promising performance in vinyl chloride formation.
David G. Rand, Alexander Peysakhovich, Gordon T. Kraft-Todd, George E. Newman, Owen Wurzbacher, Martin A. Nowak and Joshua D. Greene
Whether or not intuition favours cooperative decision making has been controversial. Rand et al. carry out a meta-analysis of 15 studies involving volunteers playing economic games, and confirm a role for intuition in cooperation, which varies according to the volunteers' previous experience with similar games.
Yunyi Kang, Stefano Tiziani, Goonho Park, Marcus Kaul and Giovanni Paternostro
Cellular oxidative stress is implicated in neurodegeneration. Here, Kang et al. show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3 and the signalling molecule PI3Kα play key roles in glutamate-mediated oxidative stress in neuronal cells, which can be prevented by Flt3- or PI3Kα-specific inhibitors.
Min Yan, Yan Zhang, Bin He, Jin Xiang, Zi-feng Wang, Fei-meng Zheng, Jie Xu, Ming-yuan Chen, Yu-liang Zhu, Hai-jun Wen, Xiang-bo Wan, Cai-feng Yue, Na Yang, Wei Zhang, Jia-liang Zhang, Jing Wang, Yang Wang, Lian-hong Li, Yi-xin Zeng, Eric W.-F. Lam et al.
Nasopharyngeal carcinomas often present as undifferentiated tumours. Here, Yan et al. show that reduced expression of IKK via promoter methylation results in the undifferentiated phenotype of the tumours and that treatment with retinoic acid can reverse these features.
Population dynamics depends on the interaction of dispersal and local adaptation, yet empirical evidence showing the role of these processes is scarce. Here, Peterson et al. show that in a wild population of salmon, gene flow is limited by selection against immigrants rather than by barriers to dispersal.
Swathi Srivatsa, Srinivas Parthasarathy, Olga Britanova, Ingo Bormuth, Amber-Lee Donahoo, Susan L. Ackerman, Linda J. Richards and Victor Tarabykin
The neocortex is responsible for higher level cognitive functions and long-range neural connections are critical for mediating these functions. Here, Srivatsa et al. show that axon guidance molecules downstream of transcription factors Stab2 and Ctip2 play a role in the establishment of cortical connections during mouse brain development.
Zhen-An Qiao, Song-Hai Chai, Kimberly Nelson, Zhonghe Bi, Jihua Chen, Shannon M. Mahurin, Xiang Zhu and Sheng Dai
Porous materials are ideal candidates for molecular sieving applications, but it is often difficult to process them into membranes with high permeability and selectivity. Qiao et al. develop an approach of controlling porosity of organic polymers by in situ cross-linking in non-porous polymer membranes.
The absence of a bandgap and competing phonon-induced electron-hole recombination makes extraction of charge carriers difficult in graphene. Here, the authors show theoretically that a tunable bandgap can be introduced in graphene via Landau quantization, allowing for significant carrier multiplication.
Zhongfang Liu, Kei Yoshimura, Gabriel J. Bowen, Nikolaus H. Buenning, Camille Risi, Jeffrey M. Welker and Fasong Yuan
The Pacific North American teleconnection strongly influences modern climate in North America, yet long-term variability remains unknown. Liu et al. reconstruct precipitation histories from palaeoisotope proxy records and identify modern atmospheric patterns during the Holocene.
Joerg A. Fritz, Joseph Brancale, Masayoshi Tokita, Kevin J. Burns, M. Brent Hawkins, Arhat Abzhanov and Michael P. Brenner
The extent and mechanisms by which developmental process may constraint natural variation are poorly understood. Here, Fritz et al. show that beak shape in songbirds is strongly constrained by developmental mechanics shared by several bird species.
Matthias Heinrich, Mohammad-Ali Miri, Simon Stützer, Ramy El-Ganainy, Stefan Nolte, Alexander Szameit and Demetrios N. Christodoulides
In its optical manifestation, supersymmetry can potentially establish close relationships between seemingly different dielectric structures. Here, the authors use the perfect global phase matching afforded by supersymmetry for mode conversion and mode division multiplexing in highly multimoded systems.
Maria Mooshammer, Wolfgang Wanek, Ieda Hämmerle, Lucia Fuchslueger, Florian Hofhansl, Anna Knoltsch, Jörg Schnecker, Mounir Takriti, Margarete Watzka, Birgit Wild, Katharina M. Keiblinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern and Andreas Richter
Nitrogen availability in soils is predominantly controlled by microorganisms, yet our understanding of their organic nitrogen use is limited. Mooshammer et al. show that microbial nitrogen use efficiency is dependent on resource stoichiometry and substrate type.
Xiangfan Xu, Luiz F. C. Pereira, Yu Wang, Jing Wu, Kaiwen Zhang, Xiangming Zhao, Sukang Bae, Cong Tinh Bui, Rongguo Xie, John T. L. Thong, Byung Hee Hong, Kian Ping Loh, Davide Donadio, Baowen Li and Barbaros Özyilmaz
Graphene is known to display unique functional properties due to its two-dimensional structure. Here, the authors measure the thermal conductivity of suspended graphene as a function of sample length, finding that thermal conductivity is higher in longer samples as a result of two-dimensional phonons.
Benjamin Stadtmüller, Daniel Lüftner, Martin Willenbockel, Eva M. Reinisch, Tomoki Sueyoshi, Georg Koller, Serguei Soubatch, Michael G. Ramsey, Peter Puschnig, F. Stefan Tautz and Christian Kumpf
Typically for surface adsorption there is a direct relationship between interaction strength and geometric distance—a stronger interaction leads to a shorter distance between interacting objects. Here the authors show a case where a stronger interaction leads to a larger distance, and explain this apparent paradox.
Shaohua Lu, Yanchao Wang, Hanyu Liu, Mao-sheng Miao and Yanming Ma
Theoretical determination of surface structures can be problematic when the configuration space is complex. Here Lu et al. develop an automated surface structure-searching method, and when applied on studying surface reconstruction of a diamond surface, self-assembled carbon nanotubes are found.
Thomas Frederiksen, Giuseppe Foti, Fabrice Scheurer, Virginie Speisser and Guillaume Schull
Understanding metal-molecule contacts is crucial for molecular electronic devices. Here, the authors use a C60-terminated scanning tunnelling tip to probe how the chemical nature of the contacting atom on the substrate electrode determines the transport properties.
Pierre De Wit, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Raphael M. Kudela and Stephen R. Palumbi
Mass mortality events of fish and invertebrates are increasingly frequent in coastal zones, yet it is often difficult to identify their causes. Here, the authors provide evidence that a combined field and genomics approach could help identifying the specific cause of mass mortality events.
Ulises Rosas, Yu Mei, Qiguang Xie, Joshua A. Banta, Royce W. Zhou, Gabriela Seufferheld, Silvia Gerard, Lucy Chou, Naeha Bhambhra, Jennifer Deane Parks, Jonathan M. Flowers, C. Robertson McClung, Yoshie Hanzawa and Michael D. Purugganan
The transcription factor CONSTANS regulates the timing of flowering in Arabidopsis. Rosas et al. report that genetic variation in the cis-regulatory regions of this gene contributes to natural phenotypic variation in flowering time.
T. Mazza, M. Ilchen, A. J. Rafipoor, C. Callegari, P. Finetti, O. Plekan, K. C. Prince, R. Richter, M. B. Danailov, A. Demidovich, G. De Ninno, C. Grazioli, R. Ivanov, N. Mahne, L. Raimondi, C. Svetina, L. Avaldi, P. Bolognesi, M. Coreno, P. O'Keeffe et al.
Intense extreme UV and X-ray coherent sources are set to revolutionize numerous research areas, yet characterization of their polarization remains elusive. Here, Mazza et al. measure the polarization state of circularly polarized extreme UV light from a free-electron laser using circular dichroism.
Gleb M. Akselrod, Parag B. Deotare, Nicholas J. Thompson, Jiye Lee, William A. Tisdale, Marc A. Baldo, Vinod M. Menon and Vladimir Bulović
Excitons are bound electron-hole pairs that mediate light absorption and emission in organic devices. Here, the authors use spatial, spectral and time-resolved imaging to visualize exciton transport in tetracene crystals and thin films, showing the role of disorder on the diffusion of excitons.
Carolina Cebrián, Fabio A. Zucca, Pierluigi Mauri, Julius A. Steinbeck, Lorenz Studer, Clemens R. Scherzer, Ellen Kanter, Sadna Budhu, Jonathan Mandelbaum, Jean P. Vonsattel, Luigi Zecca, John D. Loike and David Sulzer
MHC-I is expressed in neurons where it is implicated in synaptic plasticity and neuron regeneration. Here, Cebrián et al. report an increase in MHC-I expression in brain neurons from Parkinson's disease patients, which is triggered by microglial activation and circulating dopamine.
Ferran Macià, Fujian Wang, Nicholas J. Harmon, Andrew D. Kent, Markus Wohlgenannt and Michael E. Flatté
The small spin-orbit interaction makes transduction between the magnetic and optical information challenging in organic materials. Here, the authors show that the room temperature electroluminescence of an organic material can be controlled by the fringe fields of a nearby magnet.
Gaurav Giri, Ruipeng Li, Detlef-M. Smilgies, Er Qiang Li, Ying Diao, Kristina M. Lenn, Melanie Chiu, Debora W. Lin, Ranulfo Allen, Julia Reinspach, Stefan C. B. Mannsfeld, Sigurdur T. Thoroddsen, Paulette Clancy, Zhenan Bao and Aram Amassian
Solution-shearing process has been recently developed as a large-area coating method of producing crystallographic organic thin films, but how this process works is still unknown. Giri et al. monitor it in real time and find the degree of polymorphism can be tailored by varying solution conditions.
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