Eruption trials p241 doi:10.1038/ngeo2415 The eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815 has been linked to climate change and social unrest. Such historical eruptions could serve as test cases for models used to assess future climate changes.
Eruption politics pp244 - 245 Clive Oppenheimer doi:10.1038/ngeo2408 The impact of a volcanic eruption depends on more than just its size. We need more interdisciplinary research to understand the global societal consequences of past and future volcanic eruptions.
The year without a summer pp246 - 248 J. Luterbacher & C. Pfister doi:10.1038/ngeo2404 The 1815 eruption of Tambora caused an unusually cold summer in much of Europe in 1816. The extreme weather led to poor harvests and malnutrition, but also demonstrated the capability of humans to adapt and help others in worse conditions.
Tying down eruption risk pp248 - 250 Stephen Self & Ralf Gertisser doi:10.1038/ngeo2403 200 years after the eruption of Mount Tambora, the eruption volume remains poorly known, as is true for other volcanic eruptions over past millennia. We need better records of size and occurrence if we are to predict future large eruptions more accurately.
Volcanoes past and present p251 Amy Whitchurch & Alicia Newton review Volcanism and Global Environmental Change edited by Anja Schmidt, Kirsten E. Fristad and Linda T. Elkins-Tanton doi:10.1038/ngeo2409
Cryosphere: Entry beneath ice pp253 - 254 Peter Fretwell doi:10.1038/ngeo2396 Ice shelves in West Antarctica have been shown to melt where warm circumpolar deep water enters a sub-shelf cavity. A bathymetric reconstruction of Totten Glacier in East Antarctica suggests that the same process may be at work there. See also:Letter by Greenbaum et al.
Clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity pp261 - 268 Sandrine Bony, Bjorn Stevens, Dargan M. W. Frierson, Christian Jakob, Masa Kageyama et al. doi:10.1038/ngeo2398 Our understanding of the interactions between clouds, circulation and climate is limited. Four central research questions — now tractable through advances in models, concepts and observations — are proposed to accelerate future progress.
Continental crust generated in oceanic arcs pp321 - 327 Esteban Gazel, Jorden L. Hayes, Kaj Hoernle, Peter Kelemen, Erik Everson et al. doi:10.1038/ngeo2392 The origin of continental crust is unclear. Geochemical and geophysical analyses of the Central American land bridge show that continental crust began to form there when enriched oceanic crust created above the Galapagos plume was subducted.
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