Monday, January 16, 2017

Nature Reviews Microbiology contents February 2017 Volume 15 Number 2 pp 65-128

Nature Reviews Microbiology

February 2017 Volume 15 Number 2 Advertisement
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Research Highlights
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Collateral damage: insights into bacterial mechanisms that predispose host cells to cancer
Aurélie Gagnaire, Bertrand Nadel, Didier Raoult, Jacques Neefjes & Jean-Pierre Gorvel

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Environmental Microbial Biofilms and Human Microbiomes: Drivers of Future Sustainability 

February 12-15, 2017 | Nanyang Executive Centre, Singapore

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Archaeal evolution: Evolutionary insights from the Vikings
p65 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.198
This study provides insights into the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes and the primal stages of eukaryogenesis.


Symbiosis: New horizons for Wolbachia
p66 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.194
Two new studies provide insights into the close association between Wolbachia spp. and their hosts; one shows plant-mediated transmission and the other the bacterial origin of a new host sex chromosome.


Microbiome: Expanding through the microbiota
p66 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.199
This paper shows that the intestinal microbiota is required for normal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell population in zebrafish during early larval development.


Microbiome: Rhythm and bacteria
p67 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.192
This study shows that circadian changes in the gut microbiota influence host physiology in the intestine and the liver.



Bacterial physiology: Building a bacterial ribosome | Viral infection: Fine tuning HCV replication | Parasite biology: Busting out from the inside

You are where you live
Samuel E. Kidman & Josephine M. Bryant
p68 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.203
This month's Genome Watch discusses how whole-genome sequencing of bacteria from several body sites has provided insights into the spatial diversity of bacteria within patients.

Nuclear landscape of HIV-1 infection and integration
Marina Lusic & Robert F. Siliciano
p69 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.162
Entry into the nucleus and integration into the host cell are key steps during HIV-1 infection. In this Review, Lusic and Siliciano discuss viral and host factors that influence HIV-1 integration and how it can be targeted therapeutically.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
Cellulosomes: bacterial nanomachines for dismantling plant polysaccharides
Lior Artzi, Edward A. Bayer & Sarah Moraïs
p83 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.164
Cellulosomes are sophisticated multicomponent complexes that are used by bacteria to degrade cellulose from plant cell walls. In this review, Artzi, Bayer and Morais explore the structural and functional diversity of cellulosomes and their applications; for example, in microbial biofuel production.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
Candida albicans cell-type switching and functional plasticity in the mammalian host
Suzanne M. Noble, Brittany A. Gianetti & Jessica N. Witchley
p96 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.157
In this Review, Noble and colleagues discuss the characteristics of the classic cell types of Candida albicans — yeast, hyphae, pseudohyphae and chlamydospores — as well as newly identified yeast-like morphotypes, including grey and gastrointestinally induced transition (GUT) cell types, and highlight emerging knowledge about their associations with different host niches and propensities towards virulence versus commensalism.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
Collateral damage: insights into bacterial mechanisms that predispose host cells to cancer
Aurélie Gagnaire, Bertrand Nadel, Didier Raoult, Jacques Neefjes & Jean-Pierre Gorvel
p109 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.171
In addition to viruses, bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi have been linked to cancer development. Progress has been made in our understanding of how bacterial effectors contribute to cancer directly by influencing host cell signalling pathways and indirectly by causing tissue damage and inflammatory responses.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
Corrigendum: A new view into prokaryotic cell biology from electron cryotomography
Catherine M. Oikonomou & Grant J. Jensen
p128 | doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.195
Full Text | PDF
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Science X Newsletter Week 02

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for week 02:

Study finds association between eating hot peppers and decreased mortality

Like spicy food? If so, you might live longer, say researchers at the Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont, who found that consumption of hot red chili peppers is associated with a 13 percent reduction in total mortality - primarily in deaths due to heart disease or stroke—in a large prospective study.

Astronomers predict explosion that will change the night sky in 2022

Calvin College professor Larry Molnar and his students along with colleagues from Apache Point Observatory (Karen Kinemuchi) and the University of Wyoming (Henry Kobulnicky) are predicting a change to the night sky that will be visible to the naked eye.

Pentagon successfully tests micro-drone swarm

The Pentagon may soon be unleashing a 21st-century version of locusts on its adversaries after officials on Monday said it had successfully tested a swarm of 103 micro-drones.

Scientists discover master regulator of cellular aging

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have discovered a protein that fine-tunes the cellular clock involved in aging.

Scientists switch on predatory kill instinct in mice

Researchers at Yale University have isolated the brain circuitry that coordinates predatory hunting, according to a study in the January 12 issue of Cell. One set of neurons in the amygdala, the brain's center of emotion and motivation, cues the animal to pursue prey. Another set signals the animal to use its jaw and neck muscles to bite and kill.

Physicists 'squeeze' light to cool microscopic drum below quantum limit

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have cooled a mechanical object to a temperature lower than previously thought possible, below the so-called "quantum limit."

The Milky Way's black hole is spewing out planet-size 'spitballs'

Every few thousand years, an unlucky star wanders too close to the black hole at the center of the Milky Way. The black hole's powerful gravity rips the star apart, sending a long streamer of gas whipping outward. That would seem to be the end of the story, but it's not. New research shows that not only can the gas gather itself into planet-size objects, but those objects then are flung throughout the galaxy in a game of cosmic "spitball."

Dutch trains now all powered by wind energy

All Dutch trains are now 100 percent powered by electricity generated by wind energy, the national railway company NS said Tuesday, calling it a world first.

Natural tooth repair method, using Alzheimer's drug, could revolutionize dental treatments

A new method of stimulating the renewal of living stem cells in tooth pulp using an Alzheimer's drug has been discovered by a team of researchers at King's College London.

What did Big Data find when it analyzed 150 years of British history?

What could be learnt about the world if you could read the news from over 100 local newspapers for a period of 150 years? This is what a team of Artificial Intelligence (AI) researchers from the University of Bristol have done, together with a social scientist and a historian, who had access to 150 years of British regional newspapers.

Liquid metal 3-D printing could revolutionize how things are made

A father and son team in the START-UP NY program have invented a liquid metal printing machine that could represent a significant transformation in manufacturing. A breakthrough idea five years ago by former University at Buffalo student Zack Vader, then 19, has created a machine that prints three-dimensional objects using liquid metal.

Bilingualism may save brain resources as you age

New research findings show that bilingual people are great at saving brain power, that is. To do a task, the brain recruits different networks, or the highways on which different types of information flow, depending on the task to be done. The team of Ana Inés Ansaldo, PhD, a researcher at the Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal and a professor at Université de Montréal, compared what are known as functional brain connections between seniors who are monolingual and seniors who are bilingual. Her team established that years of bilingualism change how the brain carries out tasks that require concentrating on one piece of information without becoming distracted by other information. This makes the brain more efficient and economical with its resources.

Simulations suggest Planet Nine may have been a rogue

(—Space researchers James Vesper and Paul Mason with New Mexico State University have given a presentation at this year's American Astronomical Science meeting outlining the results of simulations they have been running to learn more about Planet Nine—a planet that many in the space science community believe exists far beyond Pluto. They presented evidence suggesting that if Planet Nine is out there, it is likely a rogue.

Chinese humanoid robot turns on the charm in Shanghai

"Jia Jia" can hold a simple conversation and make specific facial expressions when asked, and her creator believes the eerily life-like robot heralds a future of cyborg labour in China.

Seeing the quantum future... literally

Scientists at the University of Sydney have demonstrated the ability to "see" the future of quantum systems, and used that knowledge to preempt their demise, in a major achievement that could help bring the strange and powerful world of quantum technology closer to reality.

Study uses an electric field to create magnetic properties in nonmagnetic material

In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays.

Study crashes main Moon-formation theory

The Moon, our planet's constant companion for some 4.5 billion years, may have been forged by a rash of smaller bodies smashing into an embryonic Earth, researchers said Monday.

Japan researchers warn of fingerprint theft from 'peace' sign

Could flashing the "peace" sign in photos lead to fingerprint data being stolen?

New research explains hydrophobicity

(—The hydrophobic effect is a fundamental aspect of biochemical processes. Hydrophilic, or water-loving, solutes tend to be miscible in water, while hydrophobic, or water-fearing, solutes tend to aggregate in such a way as to minimize the number of water-solute interactions.

Arabica coffee genome sequenced

The first public genome sequence for Coffea arabica, the species responsible for more than 70 percent of global coffee production, was released today by researchers at the University of California, Davis.

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