Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Science X Newsletter Wednesday, Sep 17

Explore mechanical applications in your area of expertise through this newly developed web resource from COMSOL Multiphysics, the Mechanical Showcase: http://goo.gl/0WGSTB

Learn from industry leaders in this collection of video tutorials, user stories, simulation examples, and more. Check out the website now: http://goo.gl/0WGSTB

***************************************************

Here is your customized Phys.org Newsletter for September 17, 2014:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

- Researchers create materials that reproduce cephalopods' ability to quickly change colors and textures
- New branch added to European family tree
- Scientists refine formula for nanotube types
- Researchers use liquid inks to create better solar cells
- A promising light source for optoelectronic chips can be tuned to different frequencies
- NASA's Maven spacecraft reaches Mars this weekend
- Artificial 'beaks' that collect water from fog: A drought solution?
- Abnormal properties of cancer protein revealed in fly eyes
- Plate tectonics: What set the Earth's plates in motion?
- Researchers use iPS cells to show statin effects on diseased bone
- Artificial sweeteners linked to abnormal glucose metabolism
- Philips introduces BlueTouch, PulseRelief control for pain relief
- Natural born killers: Chimpanzee violence is an evolutionary strategy
- Smallest known galaxy with a supermassive black hole found
- In mice, vaccine stops urinary tract infections linked to catheters

Astronomy & Space news

Violent origins of disc galaxies probed by ALMA

For decades scientists have believed that galaxy mergers usually result in the formation of elliptical galaxies. Now, for the the first time, researchers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array and a host of other radio telescopes have found direct evidence that merging galaxies can instead form disc galaxies, and that this outcome is in fact quite common. This surprising result could explain why there are so many spiral galaxies like the Milky Way in the Universe.

Smallest known galaxy with a supermassive black hole found

A University of Utah astronomer and his colleagues discovered that an ultracompact dwarf galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole – the smallest galaxy known to contain such a massive light-sucking object. The finding suggests huge black holes may be more common than previously believed.

Pulse of a dead star powers intense gamma rays

(Phys.org) —Our Milky Way galaxy is littered with the still-sizzling remains of exploded stars.

Dawn operating normally after safe mode triggered

(Phys.org) —The Dawn spacecraft has resumed normal ion thrusting after the thrusting unexpectedly stopped and the spacecraft entered safe mode on September 11. That anomaly occurred shortly before a planned communication with NASA's Deep Space Network that morning. The spacecraft was not performing any special activities at the time.

Mystery of rare five-hour space explosion explained

Next week in St. Petersburg, Russia, scientists on an international team that includes Penn State University astronomers will present a paper that provides a simple explanation for mysterious ultra-long gamma-ray bursts—a very rare form of the most powerful explosions in the universe.

NASA's Maven spacecraft reaches Mars this weekend

Mars, get ready for another visitor or two. This weekend, NASA's Maven spacecraft will reach the red planet following a 10-month journey spanning 442 million miles (711 million kilometers).

Atlas V rocket launches, taking satellite aloft

A communications satellite has been launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, carried aloft aboard an Atlas 5 rocket.

Experts: Mystery fireball was Russian satellite

People from New Mexico to Montana saw the bright object break apart as it moved slowly northward across the night sky. Witnesses described it as three "rocks" with glowing red and orange streaks.

Video: MAVEN set to slide into orbit around Mars

A NASA mission to Mars led by the University of Colorado Boulder is set to slide into orbit around the red planet this week after a 10-month, 442-million mile chase through the inner solar system. 

Repaired Opportunity rover readies for 'Marathon Valley'

With a newly cleared memory, it's time for Opportunity to resume the next stage of its long, long Martian drive. The next major goal for the long-lived rover is to go to Marathon Valley, a spot that (in images from orbit) appears to have clay minerals on site. Clay tends to form in the presence of water, so examining the region could provide more information about Mars' wet, ancient past.

Elon Musk gets fresh challenge with space contract

With a $2.6 billion contract for his firm SpaceX to build a spacecraft for carrying astronauts to the International Space Station, Elon Musk's star is on the rise again.

NASA releases IRIS footage of X-class flare (w/ Video)

On Sept. 10, 2014, NASA's newest solar observatory, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, or IRIS, mission joined other telescopes to witness an X-class flare – an example of one of the strongest solar flares—on the sun. Combing observations from more than one telescope helps create a much more complete picture of such events on our closest star. Watch the movie to see how the flare appears different through the eyes of IRIS than it does through NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory.

Space: The final frontier... open to the public

Historically, spaceflight has been reserved for the very healthy. Astronauts are selected for their ability to meet the highest physical and psychological standards to prepare them for any unknown challenges. However, with the advent of commercial spaceflight, average people can now fly for enjoyment. The aerospace medicine community has had very little information about what medical conditions or diseases should be considered particularly risky in the spaceflight environment, as most medical conditions have never been studied for risk in space—until now.

Amazon founder's firm to build new rocket engines

Amazon.com founder Jeff Bezos plans to build a rocket engine that would eventually replace the Russian mainstay used in many American unmanned launches.

Image: Rainbow aurora captured from space station

Auroras occur when particle radiation from the Sun hits Earth's upper atmosphere, making it glow in a greenish blue light. ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst has one of our planet's best views of this phenomenon, circling 400 km up on the Station.

Glowing galaxies in telescopic timelapse

We often speak of the discoveries and data flowing from astronomical observatories, which makes it easy to forget the cool factor. Think of it—huge telescopes are probing the universe under crystal-clear skies, because astronomers need the dark skies to get their work done.

Technology news

'Smart material' chin strap harvests energy from chewing

A chin strap that can harvest energy from jaw movements has been created by a group of researchers in Canada.

Number of websites explodes past a billion (and counting)

The number of websites has burst above one billion and is growing apace, according to figures updated in real time by online tracker Internet Live Stats.

LG Chem's super-efficient OLED lighting has life of 40,000 hours

OLED light panels from LG Chemical will begin mass production from November this year, said Korea Bizwire on September 11. LG Chemical is talking about a life of 40,000 hours, up from 20,000 hours, and closer to that of LED lights of 50,000 hours.

Software catches vulnerabilities on websites before they're exploited

Hacking is often done with malicious intent. But the two MIT alumni who co-founded fast-growing startup Tinfoil Security have shown that hacking can be put to good use: improving security.

Researchers find parking space solution in PocketParker

Looking for a parking spot? Circling round and round in a lot, feeling the heat of no luck no matter where you look? Could smartphone-tracking movements be of any help? Caleb Garling in MIT Technology Review on Monday pointed to researchers who have come up with pocketsourcing as a process that could turn smartphones into passive sensors to track the location and movements of others who have installed the app.

3-D printing leads to another advance in make-it-yourself lab equipment

Furnishing a research lab can be pretty expensive. Now a team led by an engineer at Michigan Technological University has published an open-source library of designs that will let scientists slash the cost of one commonly used piece of equipment: the syringe pump.

Artificial 'beaks' that collect water from fog: A drought solution?

From the most parched areas of Saudi Arabia to water-scarce areas of the western U.S., the idea of harvesting fog for water is catching on. Now, a novel approach to this process could help meet affected communities' needs for the life-essential resource. Scientists describe their new, highly efficient fog collector, inspired by a shorebird's beak, in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces.

Philips introduces BlueTouch, PulseRelief control for pain relief

Pain sufferers have a new way to manage their personal treatment to relieve pain, said Philips. Its introduction this month of BlueTouch and PulseRelief devices involve app-enabled tools managed by iPhones or iPads.

New Apple mobile software arrives Wednesday

New-generation Apple software for powering its coveted mobile devices is set for release on Wednesday, two days ahead of the arrival of its latest iPhones.

Alibaba post-IPO structure gives insiders control

Control over Alibaba Group will stay in the hands of founder Jack Ma and other company veterans after the Chinese e-commerce giant goes public on the New York Stock Exchange in a record busting share sale.

Congress: Safety agency mishandled GM recall

Both houses of Congress scolded the U.S. highway safety agency Tuesday over its tardy handling of a deadly problem with General Motors cars, questioning whether it is competent to guarantee the safety of increasingly complex vehicles.

Early reviews heap praise on big-screen iPhones

Early reviews of Apple iPhone 6 models to be released on Friday sang praises of the large-screen handsets, proclaiming that bigger truly is better.

Sony forecasts $2B loss as smartphones lag (Update)

Sony expects its annual loss to swell to $2 billion and has canceled dividends for the first time in more than half a century after writing down the value of its troubled smartphone business.

Is it too late to protect privacy? Pessimism reigns over big data and the law

Society may have already reached a point where protecting privacy has become impossible, and many legal experts are "united in pessimism" about the collection and use of big data, according to a communications surveillance-themed edition of the UNSW Law Journal.

Car hacking: The security threat facing our vehicles

The car of the future will be safer, smarter and offer greater high-tech gadgets, but be warned without improved security the risk of car hacking is real, according to a QUT road safety expert.

Flying robots will go where humans can't

There are many situations where it's impossible, complicated or too time-consuming for humans to enter and carry out operations. Think of contaminated areas following a nuclear accident, or the need to erect structures such as antennae on mountain tops. These are examples of where flying robots could be used.

Fly ash builds green cement mixture

An eco-friendly cement, known as Alkali Pozzolan Cement (APC), containing a mixture of fly ash, dry lime powder and sodium sulphate under specific scaffolding conditions has been developed by Curtin University research.

Nanoscience makes your wine better

One sip of a perfectly poured glass of wine leads to an explosion of flavours in your mouth. Researchers at Aarhus University, Denmark, have now developed a nanosensor that can mimic what happens in your mouth when you drink wine. The sensor measures how you experience the sensation of dryness in the wine.

Researchers convert carbon dioxide into a valuable resource

Researchers at Aalto University have opened a pilot plant that converts CO2 and slag, the by-product of steel manufacturing, into a valuable mineral product. The product, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), is used in e.g. plastics, papers, rubbers and paints. The innovative plant represents the next stage prior commercialization of a new process that consumes CO2 in order to convert a low-value by-product into a highly valuable resource for industry.

Senate: China hacked military contractor networks (Update)

China's military hacked into computer networks of civilian transportation companies hired by the Pentagon at least nine times, breaking into computers aboard a commercial ship, targeting logistics companies and uploading malicious software onto an airline's computers, Senate investigators said Wednesday.

Yelp to pay US fine for child privacy violation

Online ratings operator Yelp agreed to pay $450,000 to settle US charges that it illegally collected data on children, in violation of privacy laws, officials said Wednesday.

Self-storage site SpaceWays expands to France

A website aiming to shake up the self-storage market says it is expanding to Paris to take advantage of the French capital's notoriously small apartments.

Scots' inventions are fuel for independence debate

What has Scotland ever done for us? Plenty, it turns out. The land that gave the world haggis and tartan has produced so much more, from golf and television to Dolly the Sheep and "Grand Theft Auto."

The mobility model is closely linked to the city's characteristics

The massive use of motor vehicles leads to a whole host of problems, such as pollution, noise, accidents, occupation of space and others, which need to be tackled in two ways, according to the authors of this research: by improving the offer of public transport and properly managing the mobility demand.

Medicine & Health news

Connection found between birth size and brain disorders

(Medical Xpress)—A trio of researchers has found what appears to be a clear connection between birth size and weight, and the two brain disorders, autism and schizophrenia. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Sean Byars and Jacobus Boomsma of the University of Copenhagen and Stephen Stearns with Yale University, describe how they found patterns in data from health records of almost 1.8 million people living in Denmark (born between 1978 and 2009) that connected the two types of brain disorders with birth weight and size.

Artificial sweeteners linked to abnormal glucose metabolism

Artificial sweeteners, promoted as aids to weight loss and diabetes prevention, could actually hasten the development of glucose intolerance and metabolic disease; and they do it in a surprising way: by changing the composition and function of the gut microbiota – the substantial population of bacteria residing in our intestines. These findings, the results of experiments in mice and humans, were published today in Nature. Among other things, says Dr. Eran Elinav of the Weizmann Institute's Immunology Department, who led this research together with Prof. Eran Segal of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics Department, the widespread use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and food may be contributing to the obesity and diabetes epidemic that is sweeping much of the world.

Study links physical activity in older adults to brain white-matter integrity

Like everything else in the body, the white-matter fibers that allow communication between brain regions also decline with age. In a new study, researchers found a strong association between the structural integrity of these white-matter tracts and an older person's level of daily activity – not just the degree to which the person engaged in moderate or vigorous exercise, but also whether he or she was sedentary the rest of the time.

Blood test could identify when cancer treatment has become detrimental

Some treatments for prostate cancer, while initially effective at controlling the disease, not only stop working over time but actually start driving tumour growth, a major new study shows.

Researchers use iPS cells to show statin effects on diseased bone

Skeletal dysplasia is a group of rare diseases that afflict skeletal growth through abnormalities in bone and cartilage. Its onset hits at the fetal stage and is caused by genetic mutations. A mutation in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) has been associated with two types of skeletal dysplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), a skeletal dysplasia that cause serious respiratory problems at birth and is often lethal, and achondroplasia (ACH), which causes stunted growth and other complications throughout life. Several experimental treatments have been considered, but none are commercially available.

Babies learn words differently as they age, researcher finds

Research has shown that most 18-month-olds learn an average of two to five new words a day; however, little is known about how children process information to learn new words as they move through the preschool years. In a new study, a University of Missouri researcher has found that toddlers learn words differently as they age, and a limit exists as to how many words they can learn each day. These findings could help parents enhance their children's vocabularies and assist speech-language professionals in developing and refining interventions to help children with language delays.

In mice, vaccine stops urinary tract infections linked to catheters

The most common type of hospital-associated infection may be preventable with a vaccine, new research in mice suggests.

World Alzheimer Report 2014 reveals persuasive evidence for dementia risk reduction

The World Alzheimer Report 2014 'Dementia and Risk Reduction: An analysis of protective and modifiable factors', released today, calls for dementia to be integrated into both global and national public health programmes alongside other major non communicable diseases (NCDs).

Sharks' skin has teeth in the fight against hospital superbugs

Transmission of bacterial infections, including MRSA and MSSA could be curbed by coating hospital surfaces with microscopic bumps that mimic the scaly surface of shark skin, according to research published in the open access journal Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control.

Phthalates heighten risk for childhood asthma

Researchers at the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health at the Mailman School of Public Health are the first to demonstrate an association between childhood asthma and prenatal exposure to two phthalates used in a diverse array of household products. Results appear online in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

New study examines the impact of socioeconomic position and maternal morbidity in Australia

The risk of severe maternal morbidity amongst women in Australia is increased by lower socioeconomic position, suggests a new study published today (17 September) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

First domestic case of chikungunya in Brazil

Brazil's authorities on Tuesday reported the first domestically contracted cases of the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, prompting the government to announce it was stepping up attempts to control the disease.

Study: Americans endure unwanted care near death

Americans suffer needless discomfort and undergo unwanted and costly care as they die, in part because of a medical system ruled by "perverse incentives" for aggressive care and not enough conversation about what people want, according to a report released Wednesday.

Targeted drugs among successes against cancer, says new report

(HealthDay)—About 14.5 million U.S. cancer survivors are alive today, compared to just 3 million in 1971, the American Association for Cancer Research reported Tuesday.

Deaths from narcotic painkillers quadrupled in past decade, CDC reports

(HealthDay)—The number of Americans dying from accidental overdoses of narcotic painkillers jumped significantly from 1999 to 2011, federal health officials reported Tuesday.

Identification of mutations causing lung cancer resistance leads to new treatment strategies

Two mutations that cause lung cancer resistance to the investigational ALK inhibitor alectinib were identified, and this information may help design new treatment regimens for patients with ALK-positive lung cancer, according to a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Study offers clues to how breast implants may cause lymphoma

(Medical Xpress)—There have been 71 known cases worldwide of a type of blood cancer called anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) that the researchers suggest were associated with the patient's breast implants. This means it is an extremely rare occurrence – for every three million breast implant procedures, the study estimates between one and six cases of ALCL. The ALCL was found to develop in patients, on average, 10 years after breast augmentation or reconstruction surgery. Studies have found no clear evidence of an increase in risk of any other type of cancer in women with breast implants.

Celebrity baby bumps found to affect pre-natal attachment

Obsessing over celebrity baby bumps can have a negative impact on women's attachment to their babies during pregnancy and after birth, Victoria University of Wellington research has found.

World first prison-based hepatitis C treatment – just one tablet a day

UNSW will lead a world-first study to evaluate the effectiveness of a one tablet per day hepatitis C treatment as a means of preventing the spread of the virus in prisons. 

Emotions in the brain

This year has been a busy one for biologist David Anderson, Caltech's Seymour Benzer Professor of Biology. In 2014 alone, Anderson's lab has reported finding neurons in the male fly brain that promote fighting and, in the mouse brain, identified a "seesaw" circuit that controls the transition between social and asocial behaviors, neurons that control aggressive behavior, a neural circuit that controls anxiety, and a network of cells that switches appetite on and off.

Improved risk identification will aid fertility preservation in young male cancer patients

(Medical Xpress)—A study led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators has found the chemotherapy dose threshold below which male childhood cancer survivors are likely to have normal sperm production. The study appears in September 17 edition of the journal Lancet Oncology.

Study finds that neighbors improve well-being in middle and later life

(Medical Xpress)—The old proverb says, "Good fences make good neighbors." But a new Rutgers study has found that having continuously low levels of contact with neighbors, or losing contact with them altogether, is associated with declining levels of psychological well-being in middle and later life.

What's in your porcini packet? You may find a new species ... or three

Mycologists – scientists who study fungi – estimate there are up to five million species of fungi on Earth. Of these, only about 2%, or 100,000 species, have been formally described. So where are the other 98% of fungi hiding?

Here's to wine, chocolate and a long, healthy life

Jeanne Calment, who died in 1997 at the age of 122, remains the oldest person on record. One might assume that she led a faultless, healthy lifestyle. Not at all. Every year on her birthday, as her celebrity grew, journalists flocked to her house in the south of France to ask her for the secret to a long life. One year she reportedly replied that it was because she stopped smoking when she turned 100.

Mateship key to boosting resilient youth

Having a supportive friend who is connected to their family and greater community can be the critical factor that protects and promotes resilience in vulnerable Aboriginal youth, according to research from the Telethon Kids Institute.

Online social networking linked to use of web for health info

The use of social networking sites may have implications for accessing online health information, finds a new longitudinal study from the Journal of Health Communication.

Survey finds benefits, risks of yoga for bipolar disorder

Right now no one can say whether yoga provides clinical benefits to people with bipolar disorder, but in a new article in the Journal of Psychiatric Practice, researchers report survey responses they gathered from scores of people with the condition who practice yoga. What the collective testimony suggests is that yoga can be a substantial help, but it sometimes carries risks, too.

Vitiligo treatment holds promise for restoring skin pigmentation

A treatment regimen is safe and effective for restoring skin pigmentation in vitiligo patients, according to a Henry Ford Hospital study.

Brain imaging pinpoints neurobiological basis for key symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder

In a novel brain-imaging study among trauma victims, researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center have linked an opioid receptor in the brain—associated with emotions—to a narrow cluster of trauma symptoms, including sadness, emotional detachment and listlessness. The study, published online today in the journal JAMA Psychiatry, holds important implications for targeted, personalized treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, a psychiatric condition affecting more than 8 million Americans that can cause a wide range of debilitating psychiatric symptoms.

PTSD symptoms associated with increased food addiction

Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with increased food addiction, especially when individuals had more symptoms or the symptoms occurred earlier in life.

Migraine in middle age linked to increased risk of Parkinson's, movement disorders later

A new study suggests that people who experience migraine in middle age may be more likely to develop Parkinson's disease, or other movement disorders later in life. Those who have migraine with aura may be at double the risk of developing Parkinson's, according to the study published in the September 17, 2014, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.

CT scan is no more accurate than ultrasound to detect kidney stones

To diagnose painful kidney stones in hospital emergency rooms, CT scans are no better than less-often-used ultrasound exams, according to a clinical study conducted at 15 medical centers and published in the September 18, 2014 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Experts: Chopin's heart shows signs of TB

The preserved heart of composer Frederic Chopin contains signs of tuberculosis and possibly some other lung disease, medical experts said Wednesday.

Mechanism behind age-dependent diabetes discovered

Ageing of insulin-secreting cells is coupled to a progressive decline in signal transduction and insulin release, according to a recent study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. The finding, which is published in the journal Diabetes, provides a new molecular mechanism underlying age-related impairment of insulin-producing cells and diabetes.

Five genes to predict colorectal cancer relapses

Researchers at the Catalan Institute of Oncology-Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (ICO-IDIBELL), led by David Garcia-Molleví have identified 5 genes differentially expressed in normal accompanying cells in colorectal tumors. Analysis of these genes could be used to classify colorectal tumors, predict the evolution of the patient and thus take appropriate clinical decisions to prevent relapses.

Protein variant may boost cardiovascular risk by hindering blood vessel repair

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have found that the most common variant of the circulating protein apolipoprotein E, called apoE3, helps repair the lining of blood vessels. Individuals with another variant, called apoE4, do not get the benefit of this repair, putting them at higher risk for cardiovascular disease.

Researchers examine role of hormone in response to ovarian cancer treatment

The work comes out of the molecular therapeutic laboratory directed by Richard G. Moore, MD, of Women & Infants' Program in Women's Oncology. Entitled "HE4 expression is associated with hormonal elements and mediated by importin-dependent nuclear translocation," the research was recently published in the international science journal Scientific Reports.

Many throat cancer patients can skip neck surgery

A new study shows that patients with human papillomavirus (HPV) – the same virus associated with both cervical and head and neck cancer – positive oropharyngeal cancer see significantly higher rates of complete response on a post-radiation neck dissection than those with HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer. Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers presented the findings at the American Society for Radiation Oncology's 56th Annual Meeting on Wednesday, September 17.

Healthy Briton to be injected in Ebola vaccine trial (Update)

A healthy British volunteer became the first person to receive a new vaccine for the Ebola virus in a trial at the University of Oxford on Wednesday.

Math model designed to replace invasive kidney biopsy for lupus patients

Mathematics might be able to reduce the need for invasive biopsies in patients suffering kidney damage related to the autoimmune disease lupus.

Lack of facial expression leads to perceptions of unhappiness, study shows

People with facial paralysis are perceived as being less happy simply because they can't communicate in the universal language of facial expression, a new study from an Oregon State University psychology professor shows.

In Joslin trial, Asian Americans lower insulin resistance on traditional diet

Why are Asian Americans at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than Caucasian Americans, and prone to develop the disease at lower body weights? One part of this puzzle may lie in the transition from traditional high-fiber, low-fat Asian diets to current westernized diets, which may pose extra risks for those of Asian heritage, says George King, M.D., Senior Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer at Joslin Diabetes Center and the senior author of the study.

Fighting parents hurt children's ability to recognize and regulate emotions

Exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may hurt a child's ability to identify and control emotions, according to a longitudinal study led by NYU's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development.

US scientist: Ebola unlikely to become airborne

It is unlikely that Ebola would mutate to spread through the air, and the best way to make sure it doesn't is to stop the epidemic, a top U.S. government scientist told concerned lawmakers Wednesday.

Failed Medicare payments law remains relevant

In a new commentary in the journal JAMA Surgery, Dr. Eli Adashi recounts what he and other advocates saw as merits of the originally bipartisan Sustainable Growth Rate Repeal and Medicare Provider Payment Modernization Act of 2014. The perennial trouble with how Medicare pays doctors will return in the 114th Congress, and broader trends in health care practice that the bill attempted to address will remain just as strong.

Chromosome buffers hold key to better melanoma understanding

Buffers that guard against damage to the ends of chromosomes could hold the key to a better understanding of malignant melanoma – the deadliest form of skin cancer – according to new research from the University of Leeds.

For some lung cancer patients, surgery may yield better long-term results

Patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who are otherwise healthy fare better over time if they undergo conventional surgery versus less-invasive radiosurgery to remove their cancer, according to a Yale study. The findings are scheduled to be presented at the 56th annual conference of the American Society for Radiation Oncology in San Francisco.

New non-invasive technique could revolutionize the imaging of metastatic cancer

Bioluminescence, nanoparticles, gene manipulation – these sound like the ideas of a science fiction writer, but, in fact, they are components of an exciting new approach to imaging local and metastatic tumors. In preclinical animal models of metastatic prostate cancer, scientists at Virginia Commonwealth University Massey Cancer Center, VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine and Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions have provided proof-of-principle of a new molecular imaging approach that could revolutionize doctors' ability to see tumors that have metastasized to other sites in the body, including the bones.

US experts skeptical of testosterone drug benefits

U.S. health experts say there is little evidence that testosterone-boosting drugs are effective for treating common signs of aging and large studies are needed to support their continued use in millions of American men.

A greater focus on socially disadvantaged women is needed to improve maternity care in England

Women from lower socioeconomic groups in the UK report a poorer experience of care during pregnancy and there needs to be a greater focus on their care, suggests a new study published today (17 September) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (BJOG).

NAMS issues first comprehensive recommendations on care of women at menopause and beyond

The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) has published its key, evidence-based recommendations for the comprehensive care of midlife women—on everything from hot flashes to heart disease. The special feature, "The North American Menopause Society Recommendations for Clinical Care of Midlife Women," was published online today in the Society's journal Menopause. This is the first, comprehensive set of evidence-based recommendations for the care of midlife women freely available to all clinicians who care for women at this stage of life.

Australia promises $6.4 million to fight Ebola

Australia announced on Wednesday it will immediately provide an additional 7 million Australian dollars ($6.4 million) to help the international response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa.

Obama's Ebola response: Is it enough and in time?

President Barack Obama declared Tuesday that the Ebola epidemic in West Africa could threaten security around the world, and he ordered 3,000 U.S. military personnel to the region in emergency aid muscle for a crisis spiraling out of control.

Experts discuss communications gap on vaccines

The number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children is on the rise, and with it the incidence of preventable diseases such as measles. The health community could reverse the trend by doing a better job of initiating conversation about vaccinations, said participants in a forum at the School of Public Health (HSPH) on Monday.

Wearable artificial kidney safety testing receives go-ahead

Medical researchers have received approval to begin safety and performance testing of the Wearable Artificial Kidney. The federal Food and Drug Administration and the University of Washington Institutional Review Board accepted the protocol for the clinical trial. Expected to start this autumn in Seattle, it will be the first human study in the United States to be conducted on the device.

Nanopatch to help WHO battle polio

The World Health Organisation's (WHO) battle against polio has a new weapon after joining forces with Vaxxas, the biotechnology company responsible for developing revolutionary vaccine delivery method the Nanopatch.

Journal Maturitas publishes position statement on breast cancer screening

Elsevier, a world-leading provider of scientific, technical and medical information products and services, today announced the publication of a position statement by the European Menopause and Andropause Society (EMAS) in the journal Maturitas on the topic of breast cancer screening.

The argument in favor of doping

Ahead of Friday's court ruling on whether ASADA's investigation into the Essendon Football Club was lawful, world leader in practical and medical ethics Professor Julian Savulescu, looks at whether there is a role for performance-enhancing drugs in elites sports.

Study highlights concern for homeless seniors

A new study for the Greater Victoria Coalition to End Homelessness, co-authored by researchers at the University of Victoria and Simon Fraser University, has found that a disproportionate number of people chronically staying in Victoria's emergency shelters are seniors.

Eight signs of back to school anxiety in children

With the start of the school year only a few days away, one of FIU's child anxiety experts, Jeremy Pettit, shares red flags parents can spot as signs of school anxiety.

Seven tips for parents to manage back to school anxiety

Child anxiety expert Jeremy Pettit shares some tips for parents whose children may be exhibiting signs of back to school anxiety.

Nine in ten parents move children from booster seat to seat belt too soon

As part of National Child Passenger Safety Week (Sept. 14-20), Safe Kids Worldwide today released a study that finds nine out of 10 parents take children out of car booster seats before they are tall enough.

An autoimmune response may contribute to hypertension

High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart attack, stroke, chronic heart failure, and kidney disease. Inflammation is thought to promote the development of high blood pressure, though it is not clear what triggers inflammatory pathways in hypertension.

Research shows that magnetic resonance helps to detect and quantify fat in liver

Obesity and overweight affect more than half of the population in our Community. Excess weight causes important alterations in the organism, one of which affects liver function. Fat accumulates in the liver producing hepatic steatosis which, in certain circumstances, causes inflammation, fibrosis and finally, cirrhosis. To date, the most reliable method for determining hepatic fat has been hepatic biopsy. Imaging techniques such as abdominal ecography detect it but are less precise for determining the quantity of fat.

New MRI technique helps clinicians better predict outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), a specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that detects microstructural changes in brain tissue, can help physicians better predict the likelihood for poor clinical outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury compared to conventional imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), according to a new study published in Journal of Neurotrauma.

Moffitt researchers help lead efforts to find new genetic links to prostate cancer

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center, including Center Director Thomas A. Sellers, Ph.D., M.P.H., Jong Park, Ph.D. and Hui-Yi Lin, Ph.D., have discovered 23 new regions of the genome that influence the risk for developing prostate cancer, according to a study published Sept. 14 in Nature Genetics.

Ebola 'fear factor' risks economic disaster: World Bank

The World Bank warned Wednesday that fear of the deadly Ebola virus is choking off economic activity in West Africa with potentially "catastrophic" results.

US health system not properly designed to meet needs of patients nearing end of life, says IOM

The U.S. health care system is not properly designed to meet the needs of patients nearing the end of life and those of their families, and major changes to the system are necessary, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine. The 21-member committee that wrote the report envisioned an approach to end-of-life care that integrates traditional medical care and social services and that is high-quality, affordable, and sustainable. The committee called for more "advance care planning" for end-of-life by individuals, for improved training and credentialing for clinicians, and for federal and state governments and private sectors to provide incentives to patients and clinicians to discuss issues, values, preferences, and appropriate services and care.

Targeted radiation, drug therapy combo less toxic for recurrent head, neck cancers

Patients with a recurrence of head and neck cancer who have previously received radiation treatment can be treated more quickly, safely and with fewer side effects with high doses of targeted radiation known as Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) in combination with a drug that also carefully targets cancerous tumors. These findings from a UPMC CancerCenter study were presented today at the American Society of Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) annual meeting in San Francisco.

France to receive first Ebola patient

France on Wednesday prepared to receive its first Ebola patient, as the World Bank warned the spiralling epidemic is threatening economic catastrophe in west Africa.

First-ever research study examines impacts of diet and lifestyle on healthy aging

A new, first-of-its-kind research study was announced today that will analyze how changes in diet and lifestyle can impact long-term wellness and contribute to healthy aging.

Biology news

Bioengineers develop a toolkit for designing more successful synthetic molecules

(Phys.org) —Ever since Robert Hooke first described cells in 1665, scientists have been trying to figure out what is going on inside. One of the most exciting modern techniques involves injecting cells with synthetic genetic molecules that can passively report on the cell's behavior, or even alter its function.

Sharks found to exhibit altered swimming behavior when exposed to more acidic water

(Phys.org) —A pair of researchers with the University of Gothenburg, in Sweden, has found that at least one kind of shark exhibits odd swimming behavior when in water that is more acidic than normal. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, Leon Green and Fredrik Jutfelt describe how they exposed captive sharks to water with increased acidity to simulate natural levels expected over the next century as global warming causes the world's oceans to become more acidic, and what they found by doing so.

Natural born killers: Chimpanzee violence is an evolutionary strategy

Man's nearest relatives kill each other in order to eliminate rivals and gain better access to territory, mates, food or other resources—not because human activities have made them more aggressive.

Expedition finds Nemo can travel great distances to connect populations

Clownfish spend their entire lives nestling in the protective tentacles of host anemones, but new research shows that as babies they sometimes travel hundreds of kilometres across the open ocean. Although the process of long-distance dispersal by reef fish has been predicted, this is the first time that the high level exchange of offspring between distant populations has been observed.

Global importance of pollinators underestimated

(Phys.org) —Declines in populations of pollinators, such as bees and wasps, may be a key threat to nutrition in some of the most poorly fed parts of the globe, according to new research.

Slimy fish and the origins of brain development

Lamprey—slimy, eel-like parasitic fish with tooth-riddled, jawless sucking mouths—are rather disgusting to look at, but thanks to their important position on the vertebrate family tree, they can offer important insights about the evolutionary history of our own brain development, a recent study suggests.

Counting fish teeth reveals regulatory DNA changes behind rapid evolution, adaptation

Sticklebacks, the roaches of the fish world, are the ideal animal in which to study the genes that control body shape. They've moved from the ocean into tens of thousands of freshwater streams and lakes around the world, each time changing their skeleton to adapt to the new environment.

Peacock's train is not such a drag

The magnificent plumage of the peacock may not be quite the sacrifice to love that it appears to be, University of Leeds researchers have discovered.

Power lines offer environmental benefits

Power lines, long considered eyesores or worse, a potential threat to human health, actually serve a vital role in maintaining the health of a significant population, according to new research out of the University of Connecticut.

Native vegetation makes a comeback on Santa Cruz Island

On islands, imported plants and animals can spell ecological disaster. The Aleutians, the Galápagos, the Falklands, Hawaii, and countless other archipelagoes have seen species such as rats, goats, brown tree snakes, and exotic grasses delivered by human visitors. Many of the newcomers have flourished to the point of driving unique island species extinct.

New study elucidates the social world of parrots

Science has learned a great deal about complex social behavior by studying nonhuman mammals and primates, but parrots might have something to teach too.

Adjusting wind power production during migration season saves bats

Adjusting wind turbine operations during the migration season at the University of Delaware's Hugh R. Sharp Campus in Lewes has resulted in a significant decrease in deaths among bats, according to researchers.

New concepts based on advances in animal systematics

The way in which most multicellular organisms have been classified has been the same for more than a century. Only recently have scientists developed the tools and knowledge to question the way we classify organisms. The data accumulated from these newly developed techniques has the potential to change how future generations of scientists classify organisms and understand the connections between them. Professor Noriyuki Satoh from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, as well as Professors Daniel Rokhsar of University California, Berkeley and Teruaki Nishikawa of Toho University, Funabashi, have conducted the research resulting in their new article in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, which proposes a substantial change to how animals, chordates in particular, are classified.

Spy on penguin families for science

Penguin Watch, which launches on 17 September 2014, is a project led by Oxford University scientists that gives citizen scientists access to around 200,000 images of penguins taken by remote cameras monitoring over 30 colonies from around the Southern Ocean. The project brings together scientists from the Australian Antarctic Division and the UK, who normally work on opposite sides of Antarctica.

Parts of genome without a known function may play a key role in the birth of new proteins

Researchers in Biomedical Informatics at IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute) and at the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) have recently published a study in eLife showing that RNA called non-coding (IncRNA) plays an important role in the evolution of new proteins, some of which could have important cell functions yet to be discovered.

Iberian pig genome remains unchanged after five centuries

A team of Spanish researchers have obtained the first partial genome sequence of an ancient pig. Extracted from a sixteenth century pig found at the site of the Montsoriu Castle in Girona, the data obtained indicates that this ancient pig is closely related to today's Iberian pig. Researchers also discard the hypothesis that Asian pigs were crossed with modern Iberian pigs.

Poachers turn gamekeeper to guard Rwandan gorillas

For four decades Leonidas Barora was a renowned hunter, tracking animals in the lush forests of Rwanda. Now he only fires arrows to impress tourists, and to help protect the wildlife.

Japan to file new research whaling plan 'this year' (Update)

Japan said Wednesday it would file a plan by the end of the year for the resumption of its controversial Antarctic whaling programme, ruled invalid by the UN's highest court in March.

Sea Shepherd to switch campaign from whales to toothfish

Conservation group Sea Shepherd Australia said on Wednesday it will switch its Southern Ocean campaign from whales to toothfish if Japan cancels this year's hunt in Antarctica.

New dawn for pasta wheat in Australia

The University of Adelaide's durum breeding program today at the Hart Field Day will release a new durum wheat variety called DBA-Aurora which promises a step-change in potential durum production in southern Australia.

Reducing pesticides and boosting harvests

Scientists in Italy are experimenting with sound vibrations to replace pesticides. Adapting different eco-friendly methods they are able to boost harvests and open up a new chapter in sustainable farming.

Free ecosystem services for better crops

European scientists are developing a web-based tool for farmers so they can see what is available in terms of ecosystem services.

Veterinary pharmacologist warns that eggs from backyard chickens pose potential consumption problems

Whether raising chickens in your backyard as pets or as a source of fresh eggs, a Kansas State University pharmacologist says what you don't know about your chickens could hurt you or others.

Entomologist says expect more spiders inside as weather turns cooler

This is the time of year when the Kansas State University entomology department receives a lot of calls. The question most asked: Why am I getting so many spiders in my house?


This email is a free service of Phys.org
You received this email because you subscribed to our list.
If you no longer want to receive this email use the link below to unsubscribe.
https://sciencex.com/profile/nwletter/
You are subscribed as jmabs1@gmail.com