Wednesday, May 17, 2017

Nature contents: 18 May 2017

If you are unable to see the message below, click here to view.

  journal cover  
Nature Volume 545 Issue 7654
This Week  
Keep doors open for constructive dialogue between religion and science
A meeting between the Pope, patients and researchers acknowledges how the two sectors can help each other.
The United States must act quickly to control the use of e-cigarettes
The nation needs to end the long-running battle between regulators, lawmakers and industry.
Why US nuclear sites are a ticking time bomb
The Department of Energy needs to prioritize the clean-up of nuclear waste.
A*STAR Research - Highlighting the latest breakthroughs at the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore's premier research organization
Cell biology: Keeping egg cells on ice | Materials: Looking longer for safer corrosion treatments | Waves: The perfect pattern to trap light
Download the A*STAR Research app now! 
World View  
Rescue old data before it’s too late
If we don’t act soon to preserve past records, invaluable knowledge will be lost, warns Elizabeth Griffin.
Seven Days  
Ebola outbreak in the Congo, tuberculosis drug resistance in Russia and GM mustard seeds in India
The week in science: 12–18 May 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.

Ready to see a glimpse of tomorrow?

Visit KAUST Discovery today

KAUST Discovery highlights the cutting-edge research, technologies and innovations emerging from the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. From biotechnology, to solar, to materials and marine science: KAUST is working on it.
News in Focus
How Trump’s science cuts could hurt states that voted for him
Rural and struggling areas have benefited from funding that is now at risk.
Alexandra Witze
  China cracks down on fake data in drug trials
Researchers and manufacturers face possible jail time — or execution — for fraudulent submissions to nation's drug agency.
David Cyranoski
Ancient-genome study finds Bronze Age ‘Beaker culture’ invaded Britain
Famous bell-shaped pots associated with group of immigrants who may have displaced Neolithic farmers.
Ewen Callaway
  Geneticists enlist engineered virus and CRISPR to battle citrus disease
Desperate farmers hope scientists can beat pathogen that is wrecking the US orange harvest.
Heidi Ledford
Century-old tumours offer rare cancer clues
DNA sequences from 100-year-old tumour samples could bolster childhood cancer research.
Heidi Ledford
The wooden skyscrapers that could help to cool the planet
Large timber buildings are getting safer, stronger and taller. They may also offer a way to slow down global warming.
Jeff Tollefson
Nature: 18 May 2017
This week, wonky vehicle emissions tests, error-prone bots help humans, and animals that lack a microbiome.
Biology needs more staff scientists
Independent professionals advance science in ways faculty-run labs cannot, and such positions keep talented people in research, argues Steven Hyman.
Steven Hyman
Books and Arts  
Space Science: First three round the Moon
Roger Launius on a valentine to the astronauts behind Apollo 8 and Earthrise.
Roger Launius
Inequality: Live poor, die young
Abigail A. Sewell examines a physician's study of how deprivation shortens lifespan.
Abigail A. Sewell
Environment: Law for a healthy planet
Hari Osofsky draws lessons from the story of a pioneering environmental lawyer and his firm.
Hari Osofsky
China: Rail network must protect giant pandas
Shucai Li, Shaoshuai Shi, Lin Bu
  Global health: Boost multinational clinical research
Jacques Demotes-Mainard
Seismology: Japan must admit it can't predict quakes
Robert J. Geller
  Multidisciplinarity: Widen discipline span of Nature papers
Gabriel José de Carli, Tiago Campos Pereira
Hans Dehmelt (1922–2017)
Nobel prizewinner who trapped electrons and demonstrated quantum jumps.
Peter Toschek
Outlook: University spin-offs   
University spin-offs
Herb Brody
  Therapeutic developments: Masters of medicine
Katherine Bourzac, Eric Bender, Elie Dolgin et al.
Software: Picture perfect
Brian Owens, Andrew R Scott
  Energy: Powering change
Neil Savage, Katherine Bourzac
Materials and engineering: Rebuilding the world
Katherine Bourzac, Neil Savage, Brian Owens et al.
  Clinical devices and services: Repair shops
Liam Drew, Andrew Scott, Branwen Morgan et al.
The genetic microscope
Single-cell genomic sequencing is poised to revolutionize fields from cancer to immunology.
Paul Smaglik
China's Silicon Valley
Shenzhen has emerged as a haven for biotechnology and cutting-edge hardware.
Flynn Murphy
Careers guide Melbourne
Welcome to Melbourne, where science is fuelled by a better class of coffee.
James Mitchell Crow
Q&A: Victoria Blair
Organometallic chemist Victoria Blair moved from Scotland to work as a postdoc at Monash University in May 2011
Jack Leeming
Q&A: Jim McCluskey
Jim McCluskey worked as a researcher at Monash University between 1987 and 1990. He returned in 1997.
David Payne
Blood: Education for stem cells
Haematopoietic stem cells give rise to all lineages of blood cell, and their production in vitro has been a long-sought goal of stem-cell biology. Two groups now achieve this feat through different means.
Plant biology: An immunity boost combats crop disease
Plants precisely express some immune regulators by controlling the translation of messenger RNA into protein. This insight enabled a disease-resistant rice to be engineered without compromised productivity.
Conversion of adult endothelium to immunocompetent haematopoietic stem cells
The authors reprogram in vitro endothelial cells from adult mice into engraftable haematopoietic stem cells that display single-cell and multilineage properties, are capable of long-term self-renewal and can reconstitute T cell adaptive immune function.
Structure of the full-length glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor
The crystal structure of the full-length human glucagon receptor reveals the essential role of the 12-residue ‘stalk’ segment and an extracellular loop in the regulation of ligand binding and receptor activation.
Chromatin states define tumour-specific T cell dysfunction and reprogramming
Epigenetic programming of T cells in solid tumours from a functional to a dysfunctional state occurs in two phases, and only the first phase is reversible.
Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells
Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell conversion of human pluripotent stem cell-derived haemogenic endothelium.
Impacts and mitigation of excess diesel-related NOx emissions in 11 major vehicle markets
Across markets accounting for 80 per cent of global diesel vehicle sales, more than a third of diesel nitrogen oxide emissions are in excess of certification limits, causing many deaths.
Cancer progression by reprogrammed BCAA metabolism in myeloid leukaemia
BCAT1, a cytosolic aminotransferase for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), is aberrantly activated and functionally required for disease progression in chronic myeloid leukaemia.
Isotopic evidence of multiple controls on atmospheric oxidants over climate transitions
Observations from a Greenland ice core reveal that tropospheric oxidants are sensitive to climate-driven changes in reactive halogen chemistry and stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of ozone, in addition to ozone precursor emissions.
Identification of preoptic sleep neurons using retrograde labelling and gene profiling
Identification of sleep-active and sleep-promoting neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus using neural projection tracing tools to target this population among a group of intermingled neurons, all with various functions.
Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault
Extreme temperatures and fluid pressures are measured, and their causes modelled, in a borehole into the Alpine Fault, where an earthquake rupture is expected within the next few decades.
Evolutionary enhancement of Zika virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
A mutation that increases the secretion of Zika virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in infected hosts enhances the ability of the virus to infect its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti and might have contributed to the recent Zika epidemic.
Architecture of the human interactome defines protein communities and disease networks
Affinity purification–mass spectrometry elucidates protein interaction networks and co-complexes to build, to our knowledge, the largest experimentally derived human protein interaction network so far, termed BioPlex 2.0.
Global translational reprogramming is a fundamental layer of immune regulation in plants
Global translatome analysis shows that plants also modify their translational output—independently of the changes in transcriptional output—to establish pattern-triggered immunity.
uORF-mediated translation allows engineered plant disease resistance without fitness costs
WebIn both laboratory and field studies, engineering translational control of immune mediator production in Arabidopsis and rice confers disease resistance, without compromising plant fitness.
Human GLP-1 receptor transmembrane domain structure in complex with allosteric modulators
Crystal structures of the human GLP-1 receptor in complex with two negative allosteric modulators reveal a common binding pocket, and, together with mutagenesis and modelling studies, further our understanding of the receptor activation mechanism.Author: Please check the wording of the following statement, which will appear online only.
PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumour immunity
Mouse and human tumour-associated macrophages express PD-1, which increases with cancer stage and induces decreased phagocytosis by macrophages; by contrast, PD-L1 removal increases phagocytosis in vivo, decreases tumour burden and increases survival of mice.
News and Views  
Cancer: Tumours build their niche
Meritxell Huch, Emma L. Rawlins
Atomic Physics: Quantum theory verified by experiment
Ian B. Spielman
Ageing: Tools to eliminate senescent cells
Manuel Serrano

Enhanced MALDI-TOF MS Performance and Flexibility

From a linear-only system to a unique QIT-TOF configuration to a high-resolution, high-energy TOF-TOF, Shimadzu's suite of MALDI mass spectrometers easily meets the needs of researchers with varying applications and budgets. Mine your data using our comprehensive software solutions. Learn more.
100 Years Ago
In Retrospect: Half a century of robust climate models
Piers Forster
Behavioural Economics: Occasional errors can benefit coordination
Simon Gächter
Predictive compound accumulation rules yield a broad-spectrum antibiotic
The authors use computational modelling and a set of chemically synthesized compounds to define the physicochemical properties required for small-molecule accumulation in Gram-negative bacteria.
Michelle F. Richter, Bryon S. Drown, Andrew P. Riley et al.
Endothelial TLR4 and the microbiome drive cerebral cavernous malformations
Lipopolysaccharide derived from gut bacteria can accelerate the formation of cerebral cavernous malformations by activating TLR4 on endothelial cells, and polymorphisms that increase expression of the genes encoding TLR4 or its co-receptor CD14 are associated with higher CCM lesion burden in humans.
Alan T. Tang, Jaesung P. Choi, Jonathan J. Kotzin et al.
Discovery of nitrate–CPK–NLP signalling in central nutrient–growth networks
In response to nitrate, Ca2+-sensor protein kinases (CPKs) act as master regulators to coordinate downstream signalling responses that are essential for shoot growth and root establishment in Arabidopsis.
Kun-hsiang Liu, Yajie Niu, Mineko Konishi et al.
Selectivity determinants of GPCR–G-protein binding
The identification of the positions and patterns of amino acids that form the selectivity determinants for the entire human G-protein and G-protein-coupled receptor signalling system.
Tilman Flock, Alexander S. Hauser, Nadia Lund et al.
Experimental characterization of a quantum many-body system via higher-order correlations
Experimental measurements of higher-order correlation functions in many-body systems provide insight into a non-trivial quantum field theory and how it can be implemented in a cold-atom quantum simulation.
Thomas Schweigler, Valentin Kasper, Sebastian Erne et al.
Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures
The cell flow and defects within the alignment pattern of cultured mouse neural progenitor cells are described.
Kyogo Kawaguchi, Ryoichiro Kageyama, Masaki Sano
Continental crust formation on early Earth controlled by intrusive magmatism
Modelling of two modes of continental crust formation suggests that before plate tectonics began operating, the Archean early Earth’s tectonic regime was governed by intrusive magmatism.
A. B. Rozel, G. J. Golabek, C. Jain et al.
Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults
Earthquake rupture experiments and mathematical modelling reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to dynamically unclamp, open and slip large distances.
Vahe Gabuchian, Ares J. Rosakis, Harsha S. Bhat et al.
A rhodopsin in the brain functions in circadian photoentrainment in Drosophila
The Drosophila rhodopsin Rh7 works with cryptochrome to mediate circadian light entrainment by pacemaker neurons.
Jinfei D. Ni, Lisa S. Baik, Todd C. Holmes et al.
Whole-brain serial-section electron microscopy in larval zebrafish
A complete larval zebrafish brain is examined and its myelinated axons reconstructed using serial-section electron microscopy, revealing remarkable symmetry and providing a valuable resource.
David Grant Colburn Hildebrand, Marcelo Cicconet, Russel Miguel Torres et al.
Floor-plate-derived netrin-1 is dispensable for commissural axon guidance
Preventing netrin secretion from floor-plate cells at the midline does not disrupt axonal guidance; commissural axons develop normally and the data suggest that netrin may influence axons locally by promoting growth cone adhesion.
Chloé Dominici, Juan Antonio Moreno-Bravo, Sergi Roig Puiggros et al.
A Wnt-producing niche drives proliferative potential and progression in lung adenocarcinoma
A subset of Kras and p53 mutant cancer cells acts as a Wnt-producing niche for another cancer cell subset, and porcupine inhibition disrupts Wnt secretion in this niche, thereby suppressing proliferative potential and leading to therapeutic benefit.
Tuomas Tammela, Francisco J. Sanchez-Rivera, Naniye Malli Cetinbas et al.
Intratumoural heterogeneity generated by Notch signalling promotes small-cell lung cancer
In a mouse model of small-cell lung cancer and in human tumours, activation of the Notch pathway can lead to a cell fate switch of neuroendocrine cells to less proliferative non-neuroendocrine cells, generating intratumoural heterogeneity.
Jing Shan Lim, Alvaro Ibaseta, Marcus M. Fischer et al.
TRAF2 and OTUD7B govern a ubiquitin-dependent switch that regulates mTORC2 signalling
Ubiquitination of the GβL subunit, a component of both mTORC1 and mTORC2, acts as a regulatory switching mechanism to balance levels of mTORC1 and mTORC2; the failure of this mechanism in some cancers leads to elevated mTORC2 formation and tumorigenesis.
Bin Wang, Zuliang Jie, Donghyun Joo et al.
Locally noisy autonomous agents improve global human coordination in network experiments
A networked colour coordination game, with humans interacting with autonomous software bots, shows that bots acting with small levels of random noise and being placed centrally in the network improves not only human–bot interactions but also human–human interactions at distant nodes.
Hirokazu Shirado, Nicholas A. Christakis

China's manufacturing hub embraces scientific innovation.

Publishing Date: 18 May 2017


Access now!
Careers & Jobs
Work–life balance: Break or burn out
Kendall Powell
A mentor’s acid test
W. Larry Kenney
Life, Hacked
Out for a duck.
Krystal Claxton
  Science jobs of the week


Research Associate


University of Wisconsin - Madison 




The Scripps Research Institute 


Executive Research Director


Heptares Therapeutics  


Junior Group Leader


Georg-August-University Göttingern 


No matter what your career stage, student, postdoc or senior scientist, you will find articles on to help guide you in your science career. Keep up-to-date with the latest sector trends, vote in our reader poll and sign-up to receive the monthly Naturejobs newsletter.

  Natureevents Directory featured events   - The premier science events website

natureevents directory featured events


Living Systems Institute Opening Symposium


05.07.17 Exeter, UK


Natureevents Directory is the premier resource for scientists looking for the latest scientific conferences, courses, meetings and symposia. Featured across Nature Publishing Group journals and centrally at it is an essential reference guide to scientific events worldwide.

Your email address is in the Nature mailing list.

You have been sent this Table of Contents Alert because you have opted in to receive it. You can change or discontinue your e-mail alerts at any time, by modifying your preferences on your account at: (You will need to log in to be recognised as a registrant).
For further technical assistance, please contact our registration department at

For print subscription enquiries, please contact our subscription department at

For other enquiries, please contact

Nature Research | One New York Plaza, Suite 4500 | New York | NY 10004-1562 | USA

Nature Research's offices:

Principal offices: London - New York - Tokyo

Worldwide offices: Basingstoke - Beijing - Boston - Buenos Aires - Delhi - Heidelberg - Hong Kong - Madrid - Melbourne - Munich - Paris - San Francisco - Seoul - Shanghai - Washington DC - Sydney

Macmillan Publishers Limited is a company incorporated in England and Wales under company number 785998 and whose registered office is located at The Campus, 4 Crinan Street, London, N1 9XW.

© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

No comments: