Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Nature contents: 27 April 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 544 Issue 7651
This Week  
Liquid-biopsies success highlights power of combining basic and clinical research
Using free-floating DNA to detect lung cancer brings benefits to researchers and patients alike.
More surgeons must start doing basic science
They say they don't have the time or incentives to do research — and that’s dangerous for translational medicine.
Announcement: Nature journals support the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment
Multiple Sclerosis induces the immune system to damage the central nervous system. Research on
causes and treatments offers new hope.
This activity has been supported by a grant from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, which has had no
control over the educational content of this activity.
World View  
Planetariums — not just for kids
Planetariums are not just for education, or even astronomy: they could display all sorts of data, if only scientists thought to use them, says Tom Kwasnitschka.
Seven Days  
March for Science, climate engineering and China's space station
The week in science: 21–27 April 2017
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
California’s $3-billion bet on stem cells faces final test
Major investment in regenerative medicine enters its last stage — and the money might run out before treatments are ready.
Amy Maxmen
  Ripple effects of New Zealand earthquake continue to this day
November tremor sparked slow, deep movements in Earth’s crust that increase the chances of a similar severe quake within a year.
Alexandra Witze
Mining threatens Chinese fossil site that revealed planet's earliest animals
Protests sparked by the destruction of three key fossil-hunting areas result in a temporary halt of phosphate mining.
David Cyranoski
  What happened at March for Science events around the world
Nature reported from marches in cities including Sydney, Washington DC and Paris, as people took to the streets in support of science.
Sara Reardon, Nicky Phillips, Alison Abbott et al.
Surprise El Niño causes devastation but offers lessons for ecologists
How Peruvian coastal deserts respond to rains will aid future disaster response.
Barbara Fraser
The next big hit in molecule Hollywood
Superfast imaging techniques are giving researchers their best views yet of what happens in the atomic world.
Mark Peplow
Nature Podcast: 27 April 2017
This week, the earliest Americans, 2D magnets, and the legacy of the Universe’s first ‘baby picture’.
Reviewers are blinkered by bibliometrics
Science panels still rely on poor proxies to judge quality and impact. That results in risk-averse research, say Paula Stephan, Reinhilde Veugelers and Jian Wang.
Paula Stephan, Reinhilde Veugelers, Jian Wang
Books and Arts  
Artificial Intelligence: Chess match of the century
Demis Hassabis lauds Garry Kasparov's account of battling supercomputer Deep Blue.
Demis Hassabis
Psychology: Science in spite of itself
Barbara A. Spellman hails an analysis of reproducibility in psychology by a champion for change.
Barbara A. Spellman
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Predatory journals: fortify the defences
Vinicius J. Giglio, Osmar J. Luiz
  Predatory journals: Beall's List is missed
Wadim Strielkowski
Neurosurgery: Gentler alternatives to chips in the brain
Robert Ajemian
  Commerce: Help bigger palm oil yields to save land
Alessandro De Pinto, Keith Wiebe, Pablo Pacheco
Environment: An old clue to the secret of longevity
Panagiota Pietri, Theodore Papaioannou, Christodoulos Stefanadis
Outlook: Food security  
Food security
Richard Hodson
  Nutrition: A world of insecurity
Julie Gould
Agrobiodiversity: The living library
Karl Gruber
  Bioengineering: Solar upgrade
Katherine Bourzac
Egypt: Space to grow
Louise Sarant
  Perspective: Look beyond production
John Ingram
Sustainability: A meaty issue
Olive Heffernan
  Technology: The Future of Agriculture
Anthony King
Molecular biology: The long and short of a DNA-damage response
Ultraviolet light can damage DNA, triggering a general shutdown of gene transcription — yet some genes are activated by UV light. An investigation of this counter-intuitive behaviour reveals a surprising gene-regulation mechanism.
Neurodegeneration: Role of repeats in protein clearance
Mutant proteins that contain stretches called polyQ repeats can misfold or form aggregates linked to neurodegeneration. It emerges that some polyQ-containing proteins regulate a process that degrades misfolded proteins.
Stem cells: Subclone wars
Pluripotent stem cells, which give rise to every cell type, can acquire cancer-causing genetic mutations when grown in vitro. This finding has implications for the use of pluripotent cells in basic research and in the clinic.
Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids
Long-term cultures of human brain organoids display a high degree of cellular diversity, mature spontaneous neuronal networks and are sensitive to light.
Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a class B GPCR–G-protein complex
Volta phase-plate cryo-electron microscopy reveals the structure of the full-length calcitonin receptor in complex with its peptide ligand and Gαsβγ.
Assembly of functionally integrated human forebrain spheroids
Human pluripotent stem cells were used to develop dorsal and ventral forebrain 3D spheroids, which can be assembled to study interneuron migration and to derive a functionally integrated forebrain system with cortical interneurons and glutamatergic neurons.
Phylogenetic ctDNA analysis depicts early stage lung cancer evolution
Discovery of intrinsic ferromagnetism in two-dimensional van der Waals crystals
Intrinsic long-range ferromagnetic order is observed in few-layer Cr2Ge2Te6 crystals, with a transition temperature that can be controlled using small magnetic fields.
The effect of illumination on the formation of metal halide perovskite films
Films of metal halide perovskite are used as the absorber material in solar cells, and light irradiation during their formation is shown to affect their crystallization, morphology and photovoltaic performance.
Polyglutamine tracts regulate beclin 1-dependent autophagy
The polyglutamine domain in ataxin 3, which is expanded in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, allows normal ataxin 3 to interact with and deubiquitinate beclin 1 and thereby to promote autophagy.
Burgess Shale fossils illustrate the origin of the mandibulate body plan
Tokummia katalepsis from the Burgess Shale had a pair of mandibles and maxilliped claws, showing that large bivalved arthropods from the Cambrian period are forerunners of myriapods and pancrustaceans, thereby providing a basis for the origin of the hyperdiverse mandibulate body plan.
The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is essential for Ca2+ homeostasis and viability
Conditional deletion of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCLX in adult mouse hearts causes sudden death due to mitochondrial calcium overload, whereas its overexpression limits cell death elicited by ischaemia reperfusion injury and heart failure.
Structural insight into allosteric modulation of protease-activated receptor 2
Crystal structures of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in complex with two different antagonist ligands and with a blocking antibody reveal binding sites that are distinct from those found on PAR1, offering new leads for structure-based drug design.
Tumour ischaemia by interferon-γ resembles physiological blood vessel regression
Interferon-γ acts on tumour endothelial cells to drive vascular regression, inducing ischaemia that leads to tumour collapse.
Human pluripotent stem cells recurrently acquire and expand dominant negative P53 mutations
The authors surveyed whole-exome and RNA-sequencing data from 252 unique pluripotent stem cell lines, some of which are in the pipeline for clinical use, and found that approximately 5% of cell lines had acquired mutations in the TP53 gene that allow mutant cells to rapidly outcompete non-mutant cells, but do not prevent differentiation.
Floor-plate-derived netrin-1 is dispensable for commissural axon guidance
Preventing netrin secretion from floor-plate cells at the midline does not disrupt axonal guidance; commissural axons develop normally and the data suggest that netrin may influence axons locally by promoting growth cone adhesion.
News and Views  
Animal behaviour: How to build a better dad
Steven M. Phelps
Particle physics: Strangeness in the proton
Ross D. Young
Archaeology: Unexpectedly early signs of Americans
Erella Hovers

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Atmospheric science: Severe weather in a warming climate
Chuntao Liu
Microscopy: A larger palette for biological imaging
Charles H. Camp Jr, Marcus T. Cicerone
Plant science: Genomic compartments in barley
Beat Keller, Simon G. Krattinger
A chromosome conformation capture ordered sequence of the barley genome OPEN
The International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium reports sequencing and assembly of a reference genome for barley, Hordeum vulgare.
Martin Mascher, Heidrun Gundlach, Axel Himmelbach et al.
The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice
Parental care in mice evolves through multiple genetic changes; one candidate is vasopressin, the reduced expression of which promotes parental nest-building behaviour in monogamous mice.
Andres Bendesky, Young-Mi Kwon, Jean-Marc Lassance et al.
Mechanism of chromatin remodelling revealed by the Snf2-nucleosome structure
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf2 chromatin remodeller bound to a nucleosome and a proposed mechanism for DNA translocation by Snf2 are presented.
Xiaoyu Liu, Meijing Li, Xian Xia et al.
Structure and allosteric inhibition of excitatory amino acid transporter 1
High-resolution structures of the thermostabilized human excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT1, alone or in association with its substrate or small molecule inhibitors, reveal architectural features of human SLC1 transporters and an allosteric mechanism of inhibition.
Juan C. Canul-Tec, Reda Assal, Erica Cirri et al.
A universal model for solar eruptions
Simulations of a solar coronal jet driven by filament ejection demonstrate that magnetic reconnection underlies the energy release, implying that a universal ‘breakout’ model explains both tiny jets and huge mass ejections from the Sun.
Peter F. Wyper, Spiro K. Antiochos, C. Richard DeVore
Predicting crystal growth via a unified kinetic three-dimensional partition model
A general simulation approach that can replicate, and in theory predict, the growth of a wide range of crystal types, including porous, molecular and ionic crystals, is demonstrated.
Michael W. Anderson, James T. Gebbie-Rayet, Adam R. Hill et al.
Ultrastrong steel via minimal lattice misfit and high-density nanoprecipitation
A method of producing superstrong yet ductile steels using cheaper and lighter alloying elements is described, based on minimization of the lattice misfit to achieve a maximal dispersion of nanoprecipitates, leading to ultimate precipitation strengthening.
Suihe Jiang, Hui Wang, Yuan Wu et al.
Super-multiplex vibrational imaging
Stimulated Raman scattering under electronic pre-resonance conditions, combined with a new palette of probes, enables super-multiplex imaging of molecular targets in living cells with very high vibrational selectivity and sensitivity.
Lu Wei, Zhixing Chen, Lixue Shi et al.
Abrasion-set limits on Himalayan gravel flux
The amount of coarse gravel transported out of the Himalayan mountains by rivers is insensitive to catchment size, because the majority of gravel sourced more than 100 kilometres upstream of the mountain front is abraded into sand before it reaches the Ganga Plain.
Elizabeth H. Dingle, Mikaël Attal, Hugh D. Sinclair
Frequency of extreme Sahelian storms tripled since 1982 in satellite observations
Since 1982, extreme daily rainfall in the western Sahel has increased persistently, owing to a warmer Sahara which has led to increased wind shear and an increase in intense storms.
Christopher M. Taylor, Danijel Belušić, Françoise Guichard et al.
A 130,000-year-old archaeological site in southern California, USA
Evidence of mastodon bone modifications for marrow extraction and/or tool production, found in the presence of hammerstones and anvils that showed use-wear and impact marks, suggest the presence of Homo in North America around 130 thousand years ago.
Steven R. Holen, Thomas A. Deméré, Daniel C. Fisher et al.
The earliest bird-line archosaurs and the assembly of the dinosaur body plan
The archosaur species Teleocrater rhadinus, part of the new clade Aphanosauria, is an example of the earliest divergence of the avian stem lineage (Avemetatarsalia), the lineage that contains dinosaurs (including birds).
Sterling J. Nesbitt, Richard J. Butler, Martín D. Ezcurra et al.
Human umbilical cord plasma proteins revitalize hippocampal function in aged mice
Treatment with plasma of an early developmental stage, human umbilical cord, revitalizes the hippocampus and improves cognitive function in aged mice.
Joseph M. Castellano, Kira I. Mosher, Rachelle J. Abbey et al.
SLAMF7 is critical for phagocytosis of haematopoietic tumour cells via Mac-1 integrin
The identification of homotypic SLAMF7 interactions responsible for haematopoietic tumour cell phagocytosis by macrophages when the inhibitory receptor/ligand interaction of SIRPα/CD47 is blocked therapeutically.
Jun Chen, Ming-Chao Zhong, Huaijian Guo et al.
High-avidity IgA protects the intestine by enchaining growing bacteria
Oral-vaccine-induced IgA cross-links growing bacteria into clonal aggregates, inhibiting pathogenesis, adaption and the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes.
Kathrin Moor, Médéric Diard, Mikael E. Sellin et al.
Cohesin is positioned in mammalian genomes by transcription, CTCF and Wapl
The distribution of cohesin in the mouse genome depends on CTCF, transcription and the cohesin release factor Wapl.
Georg A. Busslinger, Roman R. Stocsits, Petra van der Lelij et al.
Corrigendum: MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool
Helge Gad, Tobias Koolmeister, Ann-Sofie Jemth et al.



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Careers & Jobs
Politics: Turbulence ahead
Julia Rosen
Career Briefs  
Harassment: University transparency
Physics: Degrees of progress
Query, Queue, Repeat
Digital dilemma.
Steven Fischer
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