Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Nature contents: 02 March 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 543 Issue 7643
This Week  
Regulatory reform puts US waters in jeopardy
The Clean Water Rule is under threat — but it is grounded in science and should be strengthened, not repeal.
Data on movements of refugees and migrants are flawed
Accurate and timely information on the flow of people is crucial for policymaking and apolitical interpretations.
Sci-fi comic still has thrill power
After 40 years, 2000 ad deserves to be known for more than Judge Dredd.
World View  
Don’t let useful data go to waste
Researchers must seek out others’ deposited biological sequences in community databases, urges Franziska Denk.
Seven Days  
Space tourists, nerve agent and the queen of carbon
The week in science: 24 February–1 March 2017.
Research Highlights  
Genomics: Prehistory's female dynasties | Astrophysics: Supernova clues from neutrinos | Agriculture: Pesticide-free farms can pay | Microbiome: Skin cream kills pathogen | Biomaterials: A super-strong underwater glue | Evolution: How humans adapt to arsenic | Neuroscience: Predicting smell from structure | Anthropology: Skulls show migration history | Ecology: Alien species on the rise
News in Focus
African countries mobilize to battle invasive caterpillar
Authorities and researchers ramp up their efforts to tackle the invasive fall armyworm.
Sarah Wild
  A giant neuron found wrapped around entire mouse brain
3D reconstructions show a 'crown of thorns' shape stemming from a region linked to consciousness.
Sara Reardon
The drug-resistant bacteria that pose the greatest health threats
World Health Organization publishes list that it hopes will focus development of antibiotics.
Cassandra Willyard
  Astronomers grapple with new era of fast radio bursts
Signals have progressed from astronomical peculiarity to mainstream research area.
Elizabeth Gibney
Hepatitis C drugs re-energize global fight over patents
Lawsuits in India and Argentina seek to reduce drug costs by allowing generic versions of antiviral treatments.
Amy Maxmen
  How to kill wild animals humanely for conservation
An international group offers guidance to help reduce pain and suffering in animals destined for culling.
Emma Marris
Human migration
A special issue explores the intersection of science and migration.
What the numbers say about refugees
The biggest concentrations of displaced people lie far from the spotlight.
Declan Butler
Hunted, haunted, stateless and scared: the stories of refugee scientists
Displaced researchers face huge challenges making lives abroad, even if they find work.
Gunjan Sinha
Poster on effects of new antidiabetic drugs on cardiovascular health
This poster summarizes cardiovascular outcome trials of newly developed glucose-lowering agents. Some of these drugs have shown cardiovascular benefit that might have clinical importance in the management of type 2 diabetes.
Supported by an educational grant from Novo Nordisk
Boost visas for foreign entrepreneurs
Strict immigration policies stifle innovation and job creation, cautions Vivek Wadhwa.
Vivek Wadhwa
Migration tracking is a mess
Monitoring technologies only add to the political noise over managing mobility, warns Huub Dijstelbloem.
Huub Dijstelbloem
Protect rights at automated borders
Gemma Galdon Clavell calls for checks and balances to avoid the indiscriminate sharing of personal data.
Gemma Galdon Clavell
Books and Arts  
Energy: Scanning the energy horizon
Michael Grubb finds more breadth than depth in Dieter Helm's study on oil's demise.
Michael Grubb
Plant science: The plant as pugilist
Ian T. Baldwin revels in a volume that reminds us of the arsenals of the undergrowth.
Ian T. Baldwin
Gender bias: track revisions and appeals
Julie Overbaugh
  Gender bias: strategy to balance reviewers
Enzo Palombo
Drug screening: Don't discount all curcumin trial data
Michal Heger
  Preclinical data: Three-point plan for reproducibility
E. Andrew Balas, Lee M. Ellis
Publishing: Reformatting wastes public funds
Julian Budd
How bioinformatics tools are bringing genetic analysis to the masses
Computational biologists are starting to develop user-friendly platforms for analysing and interpreting genetic-sequence data.
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Microbiology: Manipulation of the manipulators
Wolbachia bacteria infect insects and can cause mating incompatibilities, an outcome that is used to fight insect-transmitted disease. The proposed genes responsible illuminate this process and the disease-control mechanisms.
Cell biology: Sort and destroy
Aggregates are aberrant, non-functional forms of protein that often build up in cells in response to stress. Organelles called mitochondria have now been found to be active players in the clearance of these protein aggregates.
Cancer epigenetics: Reading the future of leukaemia
The identification of the regulatory protein ENL as essential to an aggressive form of leukaemia provides insight into transcriptional regulation and highlights potential avenues for therapy.
TIRR regulates 53BP1 by masking its histone methyl-lysine binding function
A new protein, Tudor interacting repair regulator (TIRR), affects DNA repair by masking the chromatin interaction domain of 53BP1, thereby preventing its recruitment to double-strand breaks.
An atlas of human long non-coding RNAs with accurate 5′ ends
A catalogue of human long non-coding RNA genes and their expression profiles across samples from major human primary cell types, tissues and cell lines.
Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells
Loss of autophagy increases the accumulation of mitochondria and the respiration status of haematopoietic stem cells, which perturbs their self-renewal and regeneration activities, and promotes cellular aging.
Mediator structure and rearrangements required for holoenzyme formation
Cryo-electron microscopy maps of the fission yeast Mediator complex and of a Mediator–RNA polymerase II holoenzyme reveal how changes in the Med14 subunit enable large-scale rearrangements of the Mediator structure that are essential for holoenzyme formation.
The molecular architecture of lamins in somatic cells
Cryo-electron tomography reveals a detailed view of the structural organization of the lamin meshwork within the lamina of the mammalian cell nucleus.
Earth’s first stable continents did not form by subduction
Phase equilibria modelling of rocks from Western Australia confirms that the ancient continental crust could have formed by multistage melting of basaltic ‘parents’ along high geothermal gradients—a process incompatible with modern-style subduction.
Prophage WO genes recapitulate and enhance Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility
The discovery of two genes encoded by prophage WO from Wolbachia that functionally recapitulate and enhance cytoplasmic incompatibility in arthropods is the first inroad in solving the genetic basis of reproductive parasitism.
Enzymatic mineralization generates ultrastiff and tough hydrogels with tunable mechanics
Synthetic hydrogels are here created by enzyme-induced mineralization of hydrogel networks, yielding materials that are tough yet impressively stiff, with calcium phosphate particles distributed homogeneously throughout the network.
ENL links histone acetylation to oncogenic gene expression in acute myeloid leukaemia
The chromatin-reader protein ENL regulates oncogenic programs in acute myeloid leukaemia by binding via its YEATS domain to acetylated histones on the promoters of actively transcribed genes and recruiting the transcriptional machinery.
Transcription control by the ENL YEATS domain in acute leukaemia
ENL, identified in a genome-scale loss-of-function screen as a crucial requirement for proliferation of acute leukaemia, is required for leukaemic gene expression, and its YEATS chromatin-reader domain is essential for leukaemic growth.
Cytosolic proteostasis through importing of misfolded proteins into mitochondria
Proteins prone to aggregation in yeast are imported into mitochondria under stress conditions, suggesting that mitochondrial import and proteolysis may help to disaggregate proteins in the cytoplasm.
News and Views  
Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel
Horacio D. Espinosa, Rafael Soler-Crespo
Cardiovascular disease: Commonality with cancer
Alan R. Tall, Ross L. Levine
Cell biology: Stretched divisions
Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
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VitroGel™3D, an animal origin-free hydrogel system.
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Geoscience: Subduction undone
Kip V. Hodges
Quantum physics: A solid more fluid than a fluid
Kaden R. A. Hazzard
Biochemistry: Origin of a key player in methane biosynthesis
Tadhg P. Begley
Immunology: T-cell tweaks to target tumours
Marcela V. Maus
The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry
The recent expansion of observational data has changed our understanding of the ocean iron cycle and its linkages with nutrients such as carbon and nitrogen.
Alessandro Tagliabue, Andrew R. Bowie, Philip W. Boyd et al.
Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates
Perhaps the earliest known signs of life have been found in Quebec, where features such as haematite tubes suggest that filamentous microbes lived around hydrothermal vents at least 3,770 million years ago.
Matthew S. Dodd, Dominic Papineau, Tor Grenne et al.
Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours
The genomes of 102 primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been sequenced, revealing mutations in genes with functions such as chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, mTOR activation and telomere maintenance, and a greater-than-expected contribution from germ line mutations.
Aldo Scarpa, David K. Chang, Katia Nones et al.
Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation
Intragenic DNA methylation, dependent on Dnmt3b, protects the gene body from spurious entry of RNA Polymerase II and aberrant transcription initiation events.
Francesco Neri, Stefania Rapelli, Anna Krepelova et al.
Elucidation of the biosynthesis of the methane catalyst coenzyme F430
The enzymes and pathway involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme F430 are identified, completing our understanding of how members of the cyclic modified tetrapyrrole family are constructed.
Simon J. Moore, Sven T. Sowa, Christopher Schuchardt et al.
Crystallization of silicon dioxide and compositional evolution of the Earth’s core
Melting experiments with liquid Fe–Si–O alloy at the pressure of the Earth’s core reveal that the crystallization of silicon dioxide leads to core convection and a dynamo.
Kei Hirose, Guillaume Morard, Ryosuke Sinmyo et al.
The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole
X-ray detection of an ultrafast outflow of gas is strongly linked with energy emission from the inner accretion disk of a black hole, suggesting that X-rays ionize the outflowing disk wind.
Michael L. Parker, Ciro Pinto, Andrew C. Fabian et al.
Supersolid formation in a quantum gas breaking a continuous translational symmetry
A supersolid with continuous translational symmetry breaking along one direction is realized by symmetrically coupling a Bose–Einstein condensate to the modes of two optical cavities.
Julian Léonard, Andrea Morales, Philip Zupancic et al.
A stripe phase with supersolid properties in spin–orbit-coupled Bose–Einstein condensates
Spin–orbit coupling in Bose–Einstein condensates creates a density modulation, which is a stripe phase with supersolid properties.
Jun-Ru Li, Jeongwon Lee, Wujie Huang et al.
Abiotic tooth enamel
Nanometre-scale columnar structures in tooth enamel inspire novel nanocomposites containing layers of vertically aligned nanowires, produced by layer-by-layer fabrication and combining high values of both storage modulus and energy dissipation.
Bongjun Yeom, Trisha Sain, Naida Lacevic et al.
Prefrontal cortex output circuits guide reward seeking through divergent cue encoding
Neurons that project from the prefrontal cortex to either the nucleus accumbens or paraventricular thalamus receive different inputs, differentially encode reward-predictive cues, and have opposing effects on reward seeking during cue presentation.
James M. Otis, Vijay M. K. Namboodiri, Ana M. Matan et al.
Complement drives glucosylceramide accumulation and tissue inflammation in Gaucher disease
Complement-activating glycosylceramide-specific autoantibodies drive a self-propagating cycle of glycosylceramide accumulation and inflammation in Gaucher disease.
Manoj K. Pandey, Thomas A. Burrow, Reena Rani et al.
Targeting a CAR to the TRAC locus with CRISPR/Cas9 enhances tumour rejection
Introducing chimeric antigen receptors into the endogenous T-cell receptor locus reduces tonic signalling, averts accelerated T-cell differentiation and delays T-cell exhaustion, leading to enhanced function and anti-tumour efficacy compared to random integrations.
Justin Eyquem, Jorge Mansilla-Soto, Theodoros Giavridis et al.
Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1
The stretch-activated channel Piezo1 controls homeostatic epithelial cell numbers by activating cells to divide rapidly when under stretch strain from low density, and by activating cells to extrude and die when cells are under crowding strain.
S. A. Gudipaty, J. Lindblom, P. D. Loftus et al.
Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity
Circular extrachromosomal DNA is found in nearly half of human cancers of a wide variety of histologic types, increasing the copy number of driver oncogenes and intratumoral heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification and contributing to tumor evolution.
Kristen M. Turner, Viraj Deshpande, Doruk Beyter et al.
Untimely expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells causes uniparental disomy
Uniparental disomy in fission yeast is triggered by aberrant expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells, and is associated with the activation of meiotic cohesin Rec8 in cells with defects in the RNA interference machinery.
H. Diego Folco, Venkata R. Chalamcharla, Tomoyasu Sugiyama et al.
Light-induced structural changes and the site of O=O bond formation in PSII caught by XFEL
A new approach, time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography, is used to view the intermediate states of a photosystem complex following illumination, shedding light on proton transfer and O=O bond formation.
Michihiro Suga, Fusamichi Akita, Michihiro Sugahara et al.
Corrigendum: SRA- and SET-domain-containing proteins link RNA polymerase V occupancy to DNA methylation
Lianna M. Johnson, Jiamu Du, Christopher J. Hale et al.
Erratum: Wnt/β-catenin promotes gastric fundus specification in mice and humans
Kyle W. McCracken, Eitaro Aihara, Baptiste Martin et al.
Erratum: Reducing phosphorus accumulation in rice grains with an impaired transporter in the node
Naoki Yamaji, Yuma Takemoto, Takaaki Miyaji et al.
Online-only and open access, npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine is the only fully-indexed scientific journal devoted to the management of respiratory diseases in primary care.
Explore the benefits of submitting your next research article.
Careers & Jobs
Visa policy: Access denied
Chris Woolston
Career Briefs  
Postgraduates: Ireland beckons
Equity: One step forward
I die a little
Parting is such sweet sorrow.
Bo Balder
  Science jobs of the week


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