Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Science X Newsletter Tuesday, Sep 3

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Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for September 3, 2019:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Parasitic Body: A virtual reality system to study the collection of visual feedback from robotic arms

Turning a handheld smartphone into a fluorescence microscope

Extracting clean fuel from sunlight

Rice reactor turns greenhouse gas into pure liquid fuel

Polar EU Cancri investigated with Kepler spacecraft

Genetic study shows deep Norwegian lineage in people of northern Scotland

Study reveals 'radical' wrinkle in forming complex carbon molecules in space

Study shows Old World monkeys combine items in speech—but only two and never more, unlike humans

Study finds increase in women giving TED talks but not ethnic minorities

Fat-absorbing XX chromosomes raise heart disease risk in women

Europe's oldest lake traces 1.36 million years of climate

Natural 'breakdown' of chemicals may guard against lung damage in 9/11 first responders

CVD leading cause of death worldwide, but cancer rising cause in rich countries

Human perception of colors does not rely entirely on language, a case study

Researchers identify biomarker to predict if someone infected with malaria will get sick

Astronomy & Space news

Polar EU Cancri investigated with Kepler spacecraft

Using NASA's prolonged Kepler spacecraft mission, known as K2, astronomers have investigated a peculiar polar designated EU Cancri. The new observations, described in a paper published August 9 on arXiv.org, provide more insights into the nature of this intriguing object.

ESA re-routes satellite to avoid SpaceX collision risk

The European Space Agency said Tuesday it had altered the trajectory of one of its observation satellites to avoid a possible collision with a craft operated by Elon Musk's SpaceX.

Technology news

Parasitic Body: A virtual reality system to study the collection of visual feedback from robotic arms

Recent advancements in robotics have enabled the development of systems to assist humans in a variety of tasks. A type of robotic system that has gained substantial popularity over the past few years is wearable robotic arms remotely operated by a third party.

Rice reactor turns greenhouse gas into pure liquid fuel

A common greenhouse gas could be repurposed in an efficient and environmentally friendly way with an electrolyzer that uses renewable electricity to produce pure liquid fuels.

AI learns the language of chemistry to predict how to make medicines

Researchers have designed a machine learning algorithm that predicts the outcome of chemical reactions with much higher accuracy than trained chemists and suggests ways to make complex molecules, removing a significant hurdle in drug discovery.

Website rates security of internet-connected devices

If you're in the market for an internet-connected garage door opener, doorbell, thermostat, security camera, yard irrigation system, slow cooker—or even a box of connected light bulbs—a new website can help you understand the security issues these shiny new devices might bring into your home.

Study tests performance of electric solid propellant

Electric solid propellants are being explored for use in dual-mode rocket engines because they aren't susceptible to ignite from a spark or flame and can be turned on and off electrically.

Huawei denies US allegations of technology theft

Beleaguered Chinese telecom giant Huawei on Tuesday denied accusations reported in the Wall Street Journal that it stole technology from a Portuguese inventor, accusing him of "taking advantage of the current geopolitical situation."

Technostress: How social media keeps us coming back for more even when it makes us unhappy

If you ever find yourself looking forward to a holiday because you'll be able to switch off your smartphone then perhaps you're suffering from social media "technostress". The constant stream of messages, updates and content that social media apps deliver right to our pockets can sometimes feel like a social overload, invading your personal space and obliging you to reply in order to maintain friendships.

European mobile payment systems team up

Seven European mobile payment systems on Tuesday said they are joining forces to better develop cross-border contactless payments. The move is seen as an attempt to create a regional standard for smartphone payments that does not require Apple, Google, Visa or Mastercard.

In a world of cyber threats, the push for cyber peace is growing

Digital conflict and military action are increasingly intertwined, and civilian targets—private businesses and everyday internet users alike—are vulnerable in the digital crossfire. But there are forces at work trying to promote peace online.

Texas boosts US science with fastest academic supercomputer in the world

The Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC) at The University of Texas at Austin today launched Frontera, the fastest supercomputer at any university and the 5th most powerful system in the world. TACC is also home to Stampede2, the second fastest supercomputer at any American university. The launch of Frontera solidifies UT Austin among the world's academic leaders in this realm.

Baby strollers will get a Bosch push in tech features

Bosch is promoting its e-stroller system as a safe and comfortable way for baby to enjoy the ride. The system components include (1) two smart electric motors mounted on the stroller's rear axle (2) electromechanical brake (3) a battery unit with removable lithium-ion battery and (4) smartphone app.

Researchers develop technique to de-ice surfaces in seconds

Airplane wings, wind turbines and indoor heating systems all struggle under the weight and chill of ice. De-icing techniques are energy-intensive, however, and often require large masses of ice to melt completely in order to work. Researchers from the University of Illinois and Kyushu University in Japan have developed a new technique that requires only a thin layer of ice at the interface of a surface to melt, allowing it to slide off under the force of gravity.

Facebook might start hiding 'Like' counts for posts

Facebook on Tuesday confirmed it is dabbling with no longer making a public display of how many "likes" are racked up by posts.

Europe's future is renewable

Europe has enough solar and wind resources to meet its electricity demand entirely from renewable sources. A new study by researchers at the Institute for Transformative Sustainability Research (IASS) in Potsdam shows that many regions and municipalities could meet their electricity demand using electricity systems based exclusively on renewables. However, their development would exacerbate land use pressure around metropolitan areas and larger conurbations.

Medicine & Health news

Genetic study shows deep Norwegian lineage in people of northern Scotland

A team of researchers from Scotland and the U.K. has found via genetic study that many people in modern Scotland are of Norwegian descent. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study and what they found.

Fat-absorbing XX chromosomes raise heart disease risk in women

New research at the University of Kentucky has confirmed that the presence of XX sex chromosomes increases the amount of fat circulating in the blood, which leads to narrowing of the arteries and ultimately a higher risk of heart attacks and coronary artery disease.

Natural 'breakdown' of chemicals may guard against lung damage in 9/11 first responders

The presence of chemicals made as the body breaks down fats, proteins, and carbohydrates can predict whether Sept. 11, 2001 first responders exposed to toxic dust at the World Trade Center site subsequently develop lung disease, a new study finds.

CVD leading cause of death worldwide, but cancer rising cause in rich countries

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of death among middle-aged adults around the world; however, in high-income countries deaths from cancer have become twice as frequent as those from CVD.

Human perception of colors does not rely entirely on language, a case study

After patient RDS (identified only by his initials for privacy) suffered a stroke, he experienced a rare and unusual side effect: when he saw something red, blue, green, or any other chromatic hue, he could not name the object's color.

Researchers identify biomarker to predict if someone infected with malaria will get sick

Immunological signatures can predict whether malaria-infected children will develop fever or other symptoms, suggests a study publishing September 3 in the journal Immunity. Surprisingly, activation of the well-known tumor-suppressor protein p53 is associated with enhanced protection against malaria fever—and increasing p53 in human immune cells and in mice results in a decrease in malaria-induced inflammation. The authors say the findings could lead to new strategies for dampening the harmful inflammatory responses associated with some infections and identifying individuals who might be at risk for such responses.

Medical imaging rates continue to rise despite push to reduce their use

Despite a broad campaign among physician groups to reduce the amount of imaging in medicine, the rates of use of CT, MRI and other scans have continued to increase in both the U.S. and Ontario, Canada, according to a new study of more than 135 million imaging exams conducted by researchers at UC Davis, UC San Francisco and Kaiser Permanente. This concerns researchers because medical imaging is widely believed to be overused.

Share your goals—but be careful whom you tell

If you want to achieve a goal, make sure you share your objective with the right person.

Scientists link 'hunger hormone' to memory in Alzheimer's study

Scientists at The University of Texas at Dallas have found evidence suggesting that resistance to the "hunger hormone" ghrelin in the brain is linked to the cognitive impairments and memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Babies' own genes influence when they are born

When a woman is pregnant, when she delivers is important to the health of herself and her child. Preterm birth is a major cause of health problems and is the leading cause of death in children under the age of five years worldwide. Conversely, if a pregnancy goes far past the due date, the risk of birth complications and stillbirth increases. But what determines when a woman goes into labor?

Assisted reproduction technology leaves its mark on genes temporarily, study shows

Any effect that assisted reproduction technology has on babies' genes is largely corrected by adulthood, new research led by the Murdoch Children's Research Institute has found.

Scientists identify promising new target to combat Alzheimer's disease

Sometimes the more a person tries to fix a seemingly minor problem, the worse things become. Cells are no different, it turns out, though attempting to compensate for what begins as a minor deficiency or dysfunction can be dire. In the case of Alzheimer's disease, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University (LKSOM) researchers now show that mitochondrial calcium transport remodeling—what appears to be an attempt by cells to compensate for flagging energy production and metabolic dysfunction—while initially beneficial, ultimately becomes maladaptive, fueling declines in mitochondrial function, memory, and learning.

Overweight kids actually eat less right after stressful events

People often react to stress by binging on sweets or fattening comfort foods, cravings fueled by the appetite-stimulating stress hormone cortisol.

It is never too late to start statins for clogged leg arteries

Statins are linked with reduced mortality in patients with peripheral arterial disease, even when started late after diagnosis, reports a study presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology. Patients who stop the drug are at similar risk to those who never start. The research shows the importance of starting and adhering to lifelong medication, preferably at a high dose.

Increased body weight in adolescent boys linked with heart attack before 65

A study in nearly 1.7 million 18-year-old boys has found that higher body mass index (BMI) is linked with greater risk of a heart attack before 65 years of age. The research is presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

New York declares end of worst measles outbreak in three decades

US officials on Tuesday declared New York's worst measles epidemic in nearly 30 years officially over after months of emergency measures that included mandatory vaccinations.

Study finds most risks for heart attacks, strokes, deaths around world could be improved

More than 70 per cent of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and deaths around the world may be attributed to a small number of common but modifiable risk factors.

Genetics may play a role in reaction to CT contrast agents

Researchers in South Korea have found that patients with family and personal history of allergic reactions to contrast media are at risk for future reactions, according to a large study published in the journal Radiology. Allergic reactions to commonly used CT contrast media may be prevented by premedicating patients with antihistamines and using a different type of contrast agent.

Social network interventions can lead to potential health benefits

Social network interventions can have a significant effect on a range of health behaviors and outcomes both in the short and long term, according to a new study published this week in PLOS Medicine by Ruth Hunter of Queen's University Belfast, UK, and colleagues.

PrEParing family planning clinics in Kenya to prevent new HIV infections

In sub-Saharan Africa, many young women and adolescent girls are at high risk of HIV infection. In a new research paper published in the open access journal PLOS Medicine, Kenneth Mugwanya and co-authors report on a study aiming to investigate the feasibility of providing antiretroviral drugs via family planning clinics to prevent HIV infection in young women.

Bigger spend, same end: Post-hospital care study suggests ways to save Medicare money

Picture a woman in her 60s, in the hospital after a heart attack or a hip replacement. As her hospital stay nears its end, her care team prepares her for the next step in her recovery, which might include time in a nursing home or rehabilitation facility, care at home or regular therapy appointments.

Research into Parkinson's disease: Binding-protein prevents fibril proliferation

Protein aggregates have been observed in the nerve tissue of patients with Parkinson's disease which consist of individual components (monomers) of the protein α-synuclein which assemble into what are referred to as amyloid fibrils. Similar deposits are also found in the case of other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Researchers are looking for approaches to prevent fibril formation and potentially cure the diseases.

Self-monitoring solution in mobile app can help uncontrolled asthma

A study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet shows that a treatment-adjustment algorithm based on lung function and symptoms in a mobile phone is useful for managing uncontrolled asthma. For fuss-free measuring of lung function, the phone connects to a wireless spirometer, and the app can register respiratory symptoms and provide visual feedback on treatment. The study is published in the highly respected European Respiratory Journal.

Fetching water increases risk of childhood death

Water fetching is associated with poor health outcomes for women and children, including a higher risk of death—according to new research from the University of East Anglia.

Unhappy mothers talk more to their baby boys, study finds

Mothers who are dissatisfied with their male partners spend more time talking to their infants—but only if the child is a boy, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Cambridge.

Poverty as a disease trap

No drug can cure a paradox. That basic truth is at the heart of a new Stanford-led study highlighting how poverty traps make it impossible to eradicate a potentially deadly disease with current approaches.

Prevention and early drug treatment are the keys to frostbite treatment

Frostbite is an injury which usually affects the extremities, such as fingers and toes, and has the potential of causing irreversible tissue loss. The treatment of freezing cold injuries to the periphery has advanced substantially in the last 10 years. Optimal outcomes are only likely to be achieved if a multi-disciplinary team uses the full range of diagnostic and treatment approaches that are now available, said Chris Imray, CASE Medicine, presenting this week at the Extreme Environmental Physiology conference of The Physiological Society.

Alzheimer's research increasingly focused on links to sleep and other behaviors

Sleep and other behavioral topics are growing within Alzheimer's disease research, according to a new report released today by Elsevier, a global information analytics business specializing in science and health.

Researchers find a new pathological mediator of ALS

A research collaboration based in Japan has found a new pathological mediator of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which could have further implications for understanding the molecular breakdown that gives rise to the neurodegenerative disease that affects nearly half a million people around the world.

Beta-blockers reduce death in patients with heart failure and moderate renal impairment

Beta-blockers remain effective for preventing death in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and sinus rhythm, even in patients with moderate or moderately-severe kidney dysfunction, according to late breaking research presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

Bypass surgery and coronary stenting yield comparable 10-year survival

Ten-year survival rates are similar for bypass surgery and coronary stenting with drug-eluting stents in randomized patients with de novo three-vessel and left main coronary artery disease, according to late breaking results from the SYNTAX Extended Survival study presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology and published in The Lancet.

Death or reinfarction delayed by more than one year with coronary stenting

Death or reinfarction is delayed by more than one year with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) strategy that includes hospital transfer, compared to fibrinolysis, according to late breaking results from the DANAMI-2 trial presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology and published in European Heart Journal.

Gene differences in IVF-conceived babies disappear by adulthood

Around one in 25 Australian children are now conceived through use of assisted reproductive treatments such as IVF.

Fighting neuronal loss

LMU researchers have developed a promising method for targeted generation of neurons from the brain's own non-neuronal cells after loss.

Oxygen is neither beneficial nor harmful in patients with acute coronary syndrome

A liberal oxygen strategy has the same impact on 30-day mortality as a conservative protocol in patients with acute coronary syndrome, according to late breaking results from the NZOTACS trial presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

Remote ischemic conditioning does not improve outcomes in patients with heart attack

Remote ischemic conditioning does not reduce mortality or heart failure at one year in patients with myocardial infarction, according to late breaking results from the CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI study presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

Complete revascularization is superior to culprit-lesion only intervention

An international randomized trial has shown that complete revascularization reduces major cardiovascular events compared to culprit-lesion only percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Late breaking results of the COMPLETE trial are presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Diabetes and heart attack is a particularly risky combination

After a heart attack, patients with diabetes are at greater risk of heart failure and subsequent death than those without diabetes, according to late breaking results from the FAST-MI registry presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

Patients with cardiac devices do not adhere to driving ban

Nearly one-third of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) resume driving despite it being medically contraindicated—a practice that is dangerous for themselves and others, and is illegal in some countries. The Danish research is presented today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology.

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator linked with lower mortality in heart failure

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use is associated with reduced short- and long-term mortality in patients with heart failure, according to late breaking research presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology and published in Circulation.

Chest pain and prior heart attack are dangerous markers in stable coronary artery disease

Angina in patients with a previous heart attack is linked with a poor outcome in patients with stable coronary artery disease, according to late breaking results from the CLARIFY study presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology and published in the European Heart Journal.

Study reveals worrying decline in medication use after heart surgery

Use of preventive medications is high early after heart surgery but decreases significantly over time, according to late breaking results from the SWEDEHEART registry presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology. This is despite the fact that many of these drugs are linked with lower mortality.

How to talk to your children about sexual consent

Parents and caregivers often wait until their children are older to talk about sexual consent. And many parents often leave "the sex talk" altogether—hoping that schools will do it instead. The most recent guidance for teaching consent under the relationship and sex education curriculum simply advises that lessons should be provided before the end of secondary school. This could leave many young people without information about sexual consent before becoming sexually active.

5 ways to cut the fat from your diet

About half of all Americans take steps to limit or avoid saturated fats, the kind found in foods like fatty red meat and cream. But fewer than one-third stick to the limit set by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to keep saturated fat intake under 10% of daily calories.

Heart failure care must address patients' broader health if survival rates are to be improved

Research published in JAMA Cardiology today presents new evidence that might explain why the prognosis of heart failure patients has improved so little over the past decade.

New AI technology for advanced heart attack prediction

Technology developed using artificial intelligence (AI) could identify people at high risk of a fatal heart attack at least 5 years before it strikes, according to new research funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF). The findings are being presented at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress in Paris and published in the European Heart Journal.

Attachment theory: Type of fixation pins matters during stereotactic radiosurgery

In the field of stereotactic radiosurgery of the brain, the fixation pins that keep a head frame perfectly stable during treatment perform differently.

Study to examine health benefits of outdoor preschools

As preschoolers across the nation head into classroom buildings for the start of the school year, more than 300 Seattle area children enrolled in the Tiny Trees Preschool will get to spend their time learning outside—rain or shine. Part of a growing trend toward nature-based early learning, outdoor preschools could very well hold the key to combatting childhood obesity. It's why one Washington State University Health Sciences researcher is partnering with Tiny Trees to study the impact of an outdoor preschool model on children's health outcomes.

Breast cancer gene a potential target for childhood liver cancer treatment

Hepatoblastoma is a rare form of liver cancer affecting just a few individuals per million. However, it is the leading cause of liver cancer in infants and young children, with most patients diagnosed before their third birthday.

The neurobiological mechanisms behind schizophrenia may depend on gender

The neurobiological pathophysiology of schizophrenia differs significantly between males and females, according to a new study. The findings suggest a possible need for more sex-specific treatments for schizophrenia. The study was the first to identify a number of sex-specific genes related to schizophrenia using neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. The results were published in Nature Communications.

World-first cardio trial shows shorter wait times and admissions

A major new study led by Flinders University Professor Derek Chew shows that up to 70% of patients presenting to Australian hospital emergency departments with chest pain could be safely discharged in less time than they currently are under standard Australian protocols.

Identification of new populations of immune cells in the lungs

Due to their function, the lungs are constantly exposed to various compounds carried in the air, sometimes harmful, sometimes harmless. The lung immune system plays a pivotal role in deciding or not deciding to mount an immune response in order to sustain respiratory function. In some cases, there is a dysfunction of the immune system that responds against harmless compounds, as is the case in the development of asthma. In this regard, researchers from the University of Liège, under the direction of Professors Fabrice Bureau and Thomas Marichal, previously discovered that specific cells in the lung, called "interstitial macrophages," could prevent the development of asthma. However, these cells were only rudimentarily characterized.

Heart attack care in Sweden superior to UK

People suffering from heart attacks in Sweden were less likely to die from them in the short and long-term than those in England and Wales, according to a new study.

Unique fingerprint: What makes nerve cells unmistakable?

Protein variations that result from the process of alternative splicing control the identity and function of nerve cells in the brain. This allows organisms to build a highly complex neuronal network with only a limited number of genes. The study describing a detailed map of neuronal splicing conducted by a research team at the Biozentrum, University of Basel, has now been published in Nature Neuroscience.

Parkinson's disease may originate in the intestines

In 2003, a German neuropathologist proposed that Parkinson's disease, which attacks the brain, actually might originate from the gut of the patients. Researchers from Aarhus have now delivered decisive supportive evidence after seeing the disease migrate from the gut to the brain and heart of laboratory rats. The scientific journal Acta Neuropathologica has just published the results, which have grabbed the attention of neuroscientific researchers and doctors internationally.

Mouthwash use could inhibit benefits of exercise, new research shows

Exercise is known to reduce blood pressure—but the activity of bacteria in our mouths may determine whether we experience this benefit, according to new research.

Who benefits from a defibrillator?

Implantable defibrillators can save lives, but also harbor risks. A major European study headed by three researchers from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), LMU München and University Medical Center Göttingen has found that a special ECG method can help to identify the patients most likely to benefit from these devices. The results of the study have now been published in The Lancet.

Diet's effect on gut bacteria could play role in reducing Alzheimer's risk

Could following a certain type of diet affect the gut microbiome—the good and bad bacteria that live in the gastrointestinal tract—in ways that decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease?

Pediatric flu vaccine guidelines updated for 2019-20 season

(HealthDay)—In a policy statement published online Sept. 2 in Pediatrics, updated recommendations are presented regarding influenza vaccines for children, with no preference for any one product or formulation over another.

Evidence says antipsychotics do not prevent delirium in adults

(HealthDay)—Current evidence does not support routine use of haloperidol or second-generation antipsychotics for prevention or treatment of delirium in hospitalized adults, according to two reviews published online Sept. 3 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Microplastics detected in human stool samples

(HealthDay)—Microplastics have been detected in stool samples of healthy volunteers, according to research published online Sept. 3 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Some hospital-acquired pressure injuries are unavoidable

(HealthDay)—About 40 percent of hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs) are unavoidable, according to a study published in the September issue of the American Journal of Critical Care.

Ultrasonography helps differentiate arthritis types

(HealthDay)—Ultrasound is effective for differentiating between the major types of arthritis when combined with a physical exam and patient history, according to a review recently published in The Open Medical Imaging Journal.

She appeared to be a healthy athlete, but nobody had checked her heart

One of the first things Sarah Jane Stallings did when she and her husband, Bo, took over the CrossFit gym in her hometown of Russellville, Arkansas, earlier this year was to start a Fit over Fifty program.

Education seems tied to death risk for heart disease patients

How long people stay in school may play a significant role in predicting how well those with coronary heart disease will fare, according to new research that linked lower levels of school completion with a higher risk of heart attack and death.

Hardship during the Great Recession linked with lasting mental health declines

People who suffered a financial, housing-related, or job-related hardship as a result of the Great Recession were more likely to show increases in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and problematic drug use, research shows. The research findings, published in Clinical Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science, reveal declines in mental health that were still evident several years after the official end of the recession, but were obscured when examining trends in population-level data (e.g., the number of people overall with each mental health outcome).

Aesthetics of skin cancer therapy may vary by treatment type

While there are several effective options for treating non-melanoma skin cancers, some may result in better cosmetic appearance after treatment, according to researchers.

Scientists use advanced imaging to map uncharted area of genome

Using advanced imaging techniques, researchers at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus have mapped a previously uncharted region of the human genome that gives rise to a variety of disease, setting the stage to potentially test for the conditions in the future.

Vitamin D: How much is too much of a good thing?

When bare skin is exposed to sunlight, it makes Vitamin D, which is needed by our bodies to absorb calcium and ensure strong, healthy bones. With bathing suit skin exposure, it only takes about 10-15 minutes of sun exposure during the summer to generate all the vitamin D your body needs for the day. Unfortunately, for Canadians, exposure to sunlight is diminished during the long winter months. This results in many turning to supplements to get the required vitamin D.

Emory cardiologist introduces WHF Roadmap on CVD prevention with diabetes

Emory University cardiologist Laurence Sperling, MD, introduced the World Heart Federation's (WHF) new roadmap aimed at reducing the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people living with diabetes at the joint European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress 2019 and World Congress of Cardiology in Paris on Monday, Sept. 2.

Surgical masks as good as respirators for flu and respiratory virus protection

Researchers may finally have an answer in the long-running controversy over whether the common surgical mask is as effective as more expensive respirator-type masks in protecting health care workers from flu and other respiratory viruses.

Poor diet causes blindness in a young 'fussy eater'

A poor diet caused a young patient's blindness, according to a case report published in Annals of Internal Medicine. According to the authors, nutritional optic neuropathy should be considered in any patient with unexplained vision symptoms and poor diet, regardless of BMI.

Research explores factors behind hazardous drinking among Māori

Research undertaken by Victoria University of Wellington Ph.D. student Taylor Winter suggests that experiences of discrimination may contribute to higher rates of hazardous drinking among Māori.

Reducing secondary mitral regurgitation in heart failure does not improve two-year outcome

Percutaneous reduction of secondary mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure does not lower death and hospitalisation at two years compared to standard medical care, according to late breaking results from the MITRA-FR study presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 2019 together with the World Congress of Cardiology and published in the European Journal of Heart Failure.

New insights: Dementia, risk, risk reduction, and translation into practice

Globally, dementia cases are increasing at a rate of more than 20% a year. Most of these cases are in low- to middle-income countries. In a special supplement to the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, from the International Research Network on Dementia Prevention (IRNDP), an international group of scientists presents new research from around the world examining the potential risk factors for dementia and how to reduce them.

Melatonin is a potential drug for the prevention of bone loss during space flight

Melatonin could be a novel drug for preventing bone loss to astronauts during space flight. Here we used goldfish scales as a bone model of coexisting osteoclasts and osteoblasts and demonstrated that melatonin synthesis decreased under microgravity. Melatonin treatment of scales stimulated expression of Calcitonin, an osteoclast-inhibiting hormone, and decreased expression of an osteoclastogenesis promotor. This is the first study to report the inhibitory effect of melatonin on osteoclast activation, which is cancelled by microgravity.

Human flourishing in an age of gene editing

International uproar followed the recent birth of the first babies created from embryos whose genomes had been edited with a breakthrough technology. Another scientist has announced the intention to create more gene-edited babies. The potential uses of gene-editing technologies such as Crispr-Cas9 are unprecedented in human history: they can make genetic alterations that would be passed down to future generations.

Biology news

Study shows Old World monkeys combine items in speech—but only two and never more, unlike humans

The utterances of Old World monkeys, some of our primate cousins, may be more sophisticated than previously realized—but even so, they display constraints that reinforce the singularity of human language, according to a new study co-authored by an MIT linguist.

Why fruit flies eat practically anything

Say hello to the common fruit fly: a regular guest in most homes, feasting on that banana peel you tossed into the garbage a few days ago.

First pea genome to help improve crops of the future

A global team including scientists from The University of Western Australia has assembled the first genome of the field pea, which provides insight into how the legume evolved and will help aid future improvements of the crop.

Chagas parasite thought to be asexual shown to reproduce sexually

A parasite, largely thought to be asexual, has been shown to reproduce sexually after scientists uncover clues hidden in its genomic code.

Novel CRISPR method identifies key genes for Toxoplasma survival

Using a new approach to genetic screening with CRISPR, researchers at the Crick have identified key genes for the survival of the parasite Toxoplasma gondii in mice.

New whale species discovered along the coast of Hokkaido

In a collaboration between the National Museum of Nature and Science, Hokkaido University, Iwate University, and the United States National Museum of Natural History, a beaked whale species which has long been called Kurotsuchikujira (black Baird's beaked whale) by local Hokkaido whalers has been confirmed as the new cetacean species Berardius minimus (B. minimus).

Breeding has shaped dogs' brains, MRI scans reveal

As hunters, fetchers, and vigilant protectors, dogs have honed a wide array of specialized skills through centuries of breeding.

Undercover evolution: Our individuality is encrypted in our DNA, but it is deeper than expected

Providing a glimpse the hidden workings of evolution, a group of researchers at UC Santa Barbara have discovered that embryos that appear the same can start out with surprisingly different instructions.

Future-proofing cereals for climate change drought conditions

Scientists at Heriot-Watt University have identified a gene responsible for drought resistance in barley which, it is believed, could help future-proof the cereals industry to increasingly dry conditions as climate change gathers pace.

Native birds in southeastern Australia worst affected by habitat loss

New research has found that habitat loss is a major concern for hundreds of Australian bird species, and southeastern Australia has been the worst affected.

Barn owls reflect moonlight in order to stun their prey

Ecosystems that are bathed in light during the day change profoundly at night. As the sun fades from the land, nocturnal life emerges, with the barn owl (Tyto alba) among them. Barn owls are iconic nocturnal birds of prey that are found all over the world, often near towns and villages. Although a familiar species to many, there is still much we don't know about them.

The role of environmental factors and internal regulation in determining the growth of an organism

The body size of a living creature has a direct impact on its fitness—from the simplest animal and plant organisms right up to human beings. The individual size or height is therefore an important criterion for the ability of an organism to succeed in the competition for resources or reproduction. We basically assume that there is similar genetic information within a species, which in theory should lead to relatively uniform body sizes. However, within specific physiological limits, the individuals of most species grow to very different sizes—thus size must also be dependent on other factors. .

Scientists recommend procedures for the protection of the oceans

Together with an international team, Senckenberg scientist Angelika Brandt has published an inventory of the current knowledge and discussions concerning marine areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ). With regard to urgently needed species protection measures, the researchers' recommendations include unrestricted scientific access to any samples collected in these areas. Their opinion was published today in the scientific journal Frontiers in Marine Science.

Conservation plan could help endangered primates in Africa

A project co-led by the University of the West of England (UWE Bristol), Bristol Zoo and West African Primate Conservation Action is set to protect nine species of primate found across Africa. A five-year plan that will be sent to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and which begins in 2020, sets out measures to protect the endangered Mangadrills.

Evolution doesn't proceed in a straight line, so why draw it that way?

Evolution doesn't follow a preordained, straight path. Yet images abound that suggest otherwise. From museum displays to editorial cartoons, evolution is depicted as a linear progression from primitive to advanced.

Functional changes of thermosensory molecules related to environmental adaptation

Animals have adapted to diverse thermal environments from cold to hot. During the course of thermal adaptation processes, preferred thermal ranges for survival shift among species adapted to different thermal niches. Accordingly, evolutionary changes of thermal perception must be required during thermal adaptation. To understand the molecular basis for the shift in thermal perception, the researchers compared the functional properties of thermal sensors among clawed frog species adapted to different thermal niches in Africa.

As monarch butterflies vanish, researchers investigate road salt as culprit and cure

A monarch butterfly had just emerged from its chrysalis when Emilie Snell-Rood reached into its cage, grabbed it carefully to take measurements and photographs, then placed it inside a tall and breezy tent. There it would strengthen its wings for a day or two in relative safety before being released in time to begin a 2,000-mile trek to southern Mexico.

Corals take control of nitrogen recycling

Corals are shown to recycle their own waste ammonium using a surprising source of glucose—a finding that reveals more about the relationship between corals and their symbiotic algae.

Slowed metabolism helps migrating geese soar

Researchers have shed new light on how some geese can fly high for long periods of time, according to a study published today in eLife.

Sexual selection influences the evolution of lamprey pheromones

In "Intra- and Interspecific Variation in Production of Bile Acids that Act As Sex Pheromones in Lampreys," published in Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, Tyler J. Buchinger and others find that sexual selection may play a role in the evolution of lamprey pheromones.

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