Thursday, August 23, 2018

Nature contents: 23 August 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 560 Issue 7719
This Week  
The global body for biodiversity science and policy must heal rifts
Referees should exercise their rights
World View  
No more excuses for non-reproducible methods
Lenny Teytelman
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Dark-energy telescope, asteroid hunters and gene-therapy rules
News in Focus
Mum’s a Neanderthal, Dad’s a Denisovan: First discovery of an ancient-human hybrid
Matthew Warren
What Pakistan’s new government means for science
Ehsan Masood
Top geneticist loses £3.5-million grant in first test of landmark bullying policy
Holly Else
World’s first wind-mapping satellite set to launch
Alexandra Witze
Hurricane Maria’s wrath leaves clues to coral reefs’ future
Sara Reardon
The battle for the soul of biodiversity
Ehsan Masood
Nature Podcast 23 August 2018
This week, colony size and labour division in ants, and simulating a quantum system on a quantum computer.
Billion-dollar telescopes could end up beyond the reach of US astronomers
Matt Mountain, Adam Cohen
Books and Arts  
Longevity examined: an ancient Greek’s very modern views on ageing
Stanley M. Burstein, Caleb E. Finch
Save Spanish songbirds from illegal trapping
Jorge S. Gutiérrez, José A. Masero
Scientists informing policy should disclose their own beliefs
Silvo Conticello
Japan must tighten up clinical trial of stem cells for heart failure
Akira Akabayashi, Eisuke Nakazawa, Nancy S. Jecker
Why Pakistan needs more reservoirs, and fast
Tariq Ali, Wei Xie
David Pines (1924–2018)
Piers Coleman, Laura Greene
Software training in Antarctica
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Technology Feature  
A toolkit for data transparency takes shape
Jeffrey M. Perkel
How working as a research technician can bolster your scientific career
Charlotte Schubert
Depression tracker
Virginia Gewin
John Gilbey
A multi-cohort study of the immune factors associated with M. tuberculosis infection outcomes
Integrated analyses of multiple cohorts are used to obtain a better understanding of the immune state of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and factors that mediate and/or predict transitions from latent infection to active disease.
Roshni Roy Chowdhury, Francesco Vallania, Qiantian Yang et al.
Fitness benefits and emergent division of labour at the onset of group living
Experimental data from, and mathematical modelling of, colonies of the clonal raider ant Ooceraea biroi demonstrate that increases in group size generate division of labour among similar individuals, increased homeostasis and higher colony fitness.
Y. Ulrich, J. Saragosti, C. K. Tokita et al.
RAP2 mediates mechanoresponses of the Hippo pathway
The Ras-related GTPase RAP2 is a key intracellular signal transducer by which extracellular matrix rigidity controls mechanosensitive cellular activities through YAP and TAZ.
Zhipeng Meng, Yunjiang Qiu, Kimberly C. Lin et al.
SIRT6 deficiency results in developmental retardation in cynomolgus monkeys
A cynomolgus monkey model deficient in SIRT6 protein exhibits severe retardation in prenatal development, in which neuronal differentiation is delayed by activation of the H19 long non-coding RNA.
Weiqi Zhang, Haifeng Wan, Guihai Feng et al.
Observation of the 1S–2P Lyman-α transition in antihydrogen
The observation of the 1S–2P Lyman-α transition in the antihydrogen atom, the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen, is reported.
M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, C. J. Baker et al.
Structure of paused transcription complex Pol II–DSIF–NELF
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a paused transcription elongation complex of RNA polymerase II bound to DRB sensitivity-inducing factor and negative elongation factor is reported at 3.2 Å resolution.
Seychelle M. Vos, Lucas Farnung, Henning Urlaub et al.
Role for the longevity protein SIRT6 in primate development
Monkeys genetically engineered to lack the gene SIRT6 die a few hours after birth, displaying severe growth defects. This finding reveals a previously unknown role for the SIRT6 protein in primate development.
Shoshana Naiman, Haim Y. Cohen
Parkin and PINK1 mitigate STING-induced inflammation
Acute and chronic mitochondrial stress in mice require PINK1 and parkin to restrain STING-mediated innate immunity.
Danielle A. Sliter, Jennifer Martinez, Ling Hao et al.
Crystal structure of the Frizzled 4 receptor in a ligand-free state
The crystal structure of the Frizzled 4 receptor transmembrane domain is reported to a resolution of 2.4 Å in a ligand-free state.
Shifan Yang, Yiran Wu, Ting-Hai Xu et al.
Structure of activated transcription complex Pol II–DSIF–PAF–SPT6
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of an activated transcription elongation complex of RNA polymerase II bound to DRB sensitivity-inducing factor and the elongation factors PAF1 complex and SPT6 is reported at 3.1 Å resolution.
Seychelle M. Vos, Lucas Farnung, Marc Boehning et al.
Stepwise and independent origins of roots among land plants
Meristems of the rooting axes of Asteroxylon mackiei preserved in 407-million-year-old Rhynie chert lack root caps, which demonstrates that the evolution of the root systems of modern vascular plants occurred in a stepwise fashion.
Alexander J. Hetherington, Liam Dolan
Elusive mitochondrial connection to inflammation uncovered
PINK1 and parkin proteins help to degrade damaged mitochondrial organelles, and abnormalities in these proteins are linked to Parkinson’s disease. Mouse studies reveal that the proteins act to prevent inflammation.
Alexandra Stolz, Ivan Dikic
Transcriptional speed bumps revealed in high resolution
The enzyme RNA polymerase II, which transcribes DNA, pauses early in transcription and awaits signals to continue. High-resolution structures reveal how it is stopped and efficiently restarted.
Karen Adelman, Telmo Henriques
Allergic inflammatory memory in human respiratory epithelial progenitor cells
Single-cell RNA sequencing is used to characterize cell types in nasal tissues from human patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, revealing a role for tissue stem cells in allergic inflammatory memory.
Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Daniel F. Dwyer, Sarah K. Nyquist et al.
The genome of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father
Genomic evidence of the offspring of a Neanderthal mother and a Denisovan father suggests that mixing among different hominin groups may have more been frequent than previously appreciated.
Viviane Slon, Fabrizio Mafessoni, Benjamin Vernot et al.
From the archive
What Nature was saying 50 and 100 years ago.
Resonant domain-wall-enhanced tunable microwave ferroelectrics
The domain-wall structure and dynamics are found to enhance, rather than inhibit, the high-frequency performance of an intrinsically tunable material, obtaining ultralow loss and exceptional frequency selectivity.
Zongquan Gu, Shishir Pandya, Atanu Samanta et al.
News & Views  
Technique to measure the expression dynamics of each gene in a single cell
Allon M. Klein
Electric and magnetic domains inverted by a magnetic field
John T. Heron, Julia A. Mundy
Checkpoint for gut microbes after birth
Andrew J. Macpherson, Stephanie C. Ganal-Vonarburg

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Topological phenomena explored in a programmable quantum simulation
Matthias Troyer
Diet boosts the effectiveness of a cancer drug
Michael Pollak
Autism-like phenotype and risk gene mRNA deadenylation by CPEB4 mis-splicing
CPEB4 binds the mRNA of genes known to be associated with autism and shows an isoform imbalance in individuals with autism, and an equivalent imbalance in mice induces an autism-like phenotype.
Alberto Parras, Héctor Anta, María Santos-Galindo et al.
Cryo-EM structure of the insect olfactory receptor Orco
A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the insect Orco subunit, which forms ion channels with diverse olfactory receptors, reveals a tetrameric cation channel and sheds light on insect olfaction.
Joel A. Butterwick, Josefina del Mármol, Kelly H. Kim et al.
Atomic iron and titanium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet KELT-9b
Cross-correlation analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained as the exoplanet KELT-9b transited its host star reveals neutral and singly ionized atomic iron and singly ionized atomic titanium in the exoplanet’s atmosphere.
H. Jens Hoeijmakers, David Ehrenreich, Kevin Heng et al.
Observation of topological phenomena in a programmable lattice of 1,800 qubits
A large-scale programmable quantum simulation is described, using a D-Wave quantum processor to simulate a two-dimensional magnetic lattice in the vicinity of a topological phase transition.
Andrew D. King, Juan Carrasquilla, Jack Raymond et al.
Photonic topological Anderson insulators
A counter-intuitive state—known as a topological Anderson insulator—in which strong disorder leads to the formation of topologically protected rather than trivial states is realized in a photonic system.
Simon Stützer, Yonatan Plotnik, Yaakov Lumer et al.
Magnetoelectric inversion of domain patterns
The magnetization or polarization of domain states in multiferroics can be reversed while retaining the overall domain pattern, owing to the inherent versatility in coupling the large number of multiferroic order parameters.
N. Leo, V. Carolus, J. S. White et al.
Reverse weathering as a long-term stabilizer of marine pH and planetary climate
Elevated rates of reverse weathering within silica-rich oceans led to enhanced carbon retention within the ocean–atmosphere system, promoting a stable, equable ice-free climate throughout Earth’s early to middle ages.
Terry T. Isson, Noah J. Planavsky
A Triassic stem turtle with an edentulous beak
A Triassic stem turtle from China has a mixture of derived characters and plesiomorphic features, including an edentulous beak and a rigid puboischiadic plate.
Chun Li, Nicholas C. Fraser, Olivier Rieppel et al.
Estimating global agricultural effects of geoengineering using volcanic eruptions
Analysis of the El Chichón and Mount Pinatubo volcanic eruptions suggests that solar radiation management strategies using stratospheric sulfate aerosols would do little to counterbalance the effects of climate change on global crop yields.
Jonathan Proctor, Solomon Hsiang, Jennifer Burney et al.
Restoration of vision after de novo genesis of rod photoreceptors in mammalian retinas
Müller glia in mature mouse retina can be stimulated to produce rod cells; this treatment restores visual responses in a model of congenital blindness.
Kai Yao, Suo Qiu, Yanbin V. Wang et al.
Neonatal selection by Toll-like receptor 5 influences long-term gut microbiota composition
Age-dependent epithelial expression of the innate immune receptor TLR5 in the gut of newborn mice selects against the presence of flagellated bacteria and influences microbiota composition throughout life.
Marcus Fulde, Felix Sommer, Benoit Chassaing et al.
RNA velocity of single cells
RNA velocity, estimated in single cells by comparison of spliced and unspliced mRNA, is a good indicator of transcriptome dynamics and will provide a useful tool for analysis of developmental lineage.
Gioele La Manno, Ruslan Soldatov, Amit Zeisel et al.
Suppression of insulin feedback enhances the efficacy of PI3K inhibitors
Glucose–insulin feedback can reactivate PI3K in tumours treated with PI3K inhibitors, reducing therapeutic efficacy, but this effect can be reduced by using drugs or diet to suppress the insulin response.
Benjamin D. Hopkins, Chantal Pauli, Du Xing et al.
Automethylation-induced conformational switch in Clr4 (Suv39h) maintains epigenetic stability
An autoinhibitory conformation of the histone H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe helps to prevent aberrant heterochromatin formation and maintains epigenetic stability.
Nahid Iglesias, Mark A. Currie, Gloria Jih et al.
Inositol phosphates are assembly co-factors for HIV-1
Inositol hexakisphosphate, which is found in all mammalian cells, binds to two separate sites to promote the assembly and maturation of HIV-1 virus particles.
Robert A. Dick, Kaneil K. Zadrozny, Chaoyi Xu et al.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: Hyperexpandable, self-healing macromolecular crystals with integrated polymer networks
Ling Zhang, Jake B. Bailey, Rohit H. Subramanian et al.
Author Correction: Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to multilineage blood progenitors
Eva Szabo, Shravanti Rampalli, Ruth M. Risueño et al.
Author Correction: Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs
Yalin Zhang, Min Soo Kim, Baosen Jia et al.
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