Monday, July 30, 2018

Science X Newsletter Week 30

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for week 30:

Physicists demonstrate new method to make single photons

Scientists need individual photons for quantum cryptography and quantum computers. Leiden physicists have now experimentally demonstrated a new production method. Publication in Physical Review Letters on July 23rd.

Ocean acidification to hit levels not seen in 14 million years

New research led by Cardiff University has shown that under a 'business-as-usual' scenario of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, ocean acidification is likely to hit unprecedented levels.

Pieces of mantle found rising under north and south ends of Cascadia fault

With four years of data from 268 seismometers on the ocean floor and several hundred on land, researchers have found anomalies in the upper mantle below both ends of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. They may influence the location, frequency and strength of earthquake events along the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

First successful test of Einstein's general relativity near supermassive black hole (Update)

Observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope have for the first time revealed the effects predicted by Einstein's general relativity on the motion of a star passing through the extreme gravitational field near the supermassive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. This long-sought result represents the climax of a 26-year-long observation campaign using ESO's telescopes in Chile.

Mars making closest approach to Earth in 15 years

Now's the time to catch Mars in the night sky.

Yellowstone super-volcano has a different history than previously thought

The long-dormant Yellowstone super-volcano in the American West has a different history than previously thought, according to a new study by a Virginia Tech geoscientist.

Fertilizer destroys plant microbiome's ability to protect against disease

A new study of the role microbial communities play on the leaves of plants suggests that fertilizing crops may make them more susceptible to disease.

Checking phones in lectures can cost students half a grade in exams

Students perform less well in end-of-term exams if they are allowed access to an electronic device, such as a phone or tablet, for non-academic purposes in lectures, a new study in Educational Psychology finds.

New study suggests Shroud of Turin a fake, supporting study retracted

A pair of Italian researchers, one a forensic anthropologist, the other a chemist, has conducted tests to determine the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin and report that their analysis indicates that the shroud is a forgery. In their paper published in the Journal of Forensic Sciences, Matteo Borrini and Luigi Garlaschelli describe the tests they conducted and what they found. A separate paper published last year has been retracted; it was originally published on the open access site PLOS One by another team claiming to have found evidence of trauma to the body of the person seen on the shroud.

Meditation affects brain networks differently in long-term meditators and novices

Mental training such as mindfulness meditation – an accepting awareness of the present moment – has been shown to alter networks in the brain and improve emotional and physical well-being. But researchers are still discovering how such practices change the brain and what differences exist between people who meditate regularly and those who do not.

Diabetic-level glucose spikes seen in healthy people, study finds

A device that keeps extra-close tabs on the ups and downs of blood glucose levels reveals that most people see only a partial picture of the sugar circulating in their blood, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Derivative of turmeric eye drops could treat glaucoma

A derivative of turmeric could be used in eye drops to treat the early stages of glaucoma, finds a new study led by UCL and Imperial College London researchers.

Drugs for rare disorder phenylketonuria hit the market

Brady Connolly is an 18-year-old rugby player who can barely eat any protein. No steak, no beans, no peanut butter shakes—none of the foods you'd imagine a young athlete would crave. That's what it's like to live with phenylketonuria (PKU).

The longest lunar eclipse of the 21st century is coming on Friday: Here's what you need to know

The longest lunar eclipse of the 21st century is coming up, and you don't want to miss it.

Study reveals new geometric shape used by nature to pack cells efficiently

As an embryo develops, tissues bend into complex three-dimensional shapes that lead to organs. Epithelial cells are the building blocks of this process forming, for example, the outer layer of skin. They also line the blood vessels and organs of all animals.

Neural link between depression and bad sleep identified

The neural link between depression and sleep problems has been identified for the first time in a new study by researchers at the University of Warwick (UK) and Fudan University (China).

Holographic image of a black hole proposed in a graphene flake

Physicists have theoretically shown that, by applying a magnetic field to a small, irregularly shaped graphene flake, the flake becomes a quantum hologram of a black hole. This means that the graphene flake recreates the spatial structure and characteristic properties of a black hole, but in a much smaller, lower-dimensional system.

Red planet and 'blood moon' pair up to dazzle skygazers

The longest "blood moon" eclipse this century will coincide with Mars' closest approach in 15 years on Friday to offer skygazers a thrilling astronomical double bill.

New algorithm could help find new physics—inverse method takes wave functions and solves for Hamiltonians

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed an algorithm that could provide meaningful answers to condensed matter physicists in their searches for novel and emergent properties in materials. The algorithm, invented by physics professor Bryan Clark and his graduate student Eli Chertkov, inverts the typical mathematical process condensed matter physicists use to search for interesting physics. Their new method starts with the answer—what kinds of physical properties would be interesting to find—and works backward to the question—what class of materials would host such properties.

New video game teaches teens about electricity

A new video game, designed by researchers at the University of Cambridge, gives teenagers an understanding of electricity by solving a series of puzzles in a bid to encourage more of them to study engineering at university.

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