Friday, July 27, 2018

Science X Newsletter Friday, Jul 27

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for July 27, 2018:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

How did genetic parasites overcome natural selection for billions of years?

Checking phones in lectures can cost students half a grade in exams

The longest lunar eclipse of the 21st century is coming on Friday: Here's what you need to know

A new machine learning model to isolate the effects of age in predicting dementia

A neural network that operates at the speed of light

Researchers generate optical skyrmions

Mass spectrometry technique helps identify forged Robert Burns manuscripts

X-ray technology reveals never-before-seen matter around black hole

New algorithm could help find new physics—inverse method takes wave functions and solves for Hamiltonians

Extinct vegetarian cave bear diet mystery unravelled

Engineering 3-D bio-printed scaffolds to regenerate damaged peripheral nervous systems

Researchers discover system that could reduce neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease

New two-dimensional material could revolutionize solar fuel generation

Growing brain cancer in a dish

Researchers develop new capability to evaluate human-driven change in Eastern U.S. streams

Astronomy & Space news

The longest lunar eclipse of the 21st century is coming on Friday: Here's what you need to know

The longest lunar eclipse of the 21st century is coming up, and you don't want to miss it.

X-ray technology reveals never-before-seen matter around black hole

In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. Their findings, which were published in Nature Astronomy this month, may help scientists further understand the physics of strong gravity and the evolution of black holes and galaxies.

The structure of the Milky Way

For thousands of years, people have been puzzling over the milky strip that extends across the entire firmament. In the modern era, Galileo Galilei discovered that this Milky Way consists of countless stars. However, it was not until the 20th century that astronomers succeeded in deciphering its form and its true nature.

Complete lunar eclipse begins, the longest of this century

Skywatchers around much of the world have begun watching a complete lunar eclipse that is the longest of this century.

Parker Solar Probe and the curious case of the hot corona

Something mysterious is going on at the Sun. In defiance of all logic, its atmosphere gets much, much hotter the farther it stretches from the Sun's blazing surface.

At 60, NASA shoots for revival of moon glory days

Sixty years ago, spurred by competition with the Soviet Union, the United States created NASA, launching a journey that would take Americans to the moon within a decade.

Life on Mars: Japanese astronaut dreams after lake discovery

Japanese astronaut Norishige Kanai came back to earth last month but is still dreaming of space, especially after the discovery of an underground lake brought mankind one step closer to unravelling the mystery of life on Mars.

NASA's TESS spacecraft starts science operations

NASA's Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite has started its search for planets around nearby stars, officially beginning science operations on July 25, 2018. TESS is expected to transmit its first series of science data back to Earth in August, and thereafter periodically every 13.5 days, once per orbit, as the spacecraft makes it closest approach to Earth. The TESS Science Team will begin searching the data for new planets immediately after the first series arrives.

'Blood moon' eclipse delights young Kenyans

"Mars, Pluto, Saturn, Jupiter, Venus—Mercury, that's the one I really wanted to see," said Chu Owen as he used an app on his mobile phone to locate planets above.

Technology news

A neural network that operates at the speed of light

A team of researchers at the University of California has developed a novel kind of neural network—one that uses light instead of electricity to arrive at results. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their ideas, their working device, its performance, and the types of applications they believe could be well served by such a network.

Pictures of success in 3-D printing

Across the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory, teams are tackling different scientific problems associated with additive manufacturing, often referred to as 3-D printing, so as to advance our understanding of the process that could revolutionize manufacturing.

Drops and poundings don't bother tough Samsung Display panel

Samsung Display would not be bothered if you pound away at this panel, and go ahead, drop it till the cows come home, because they are rather confident about their new claim. They have come up with an unbreakable panel for a phone, a tablet, or for that matter a console for—you name it—cars, military mobile devices, portable game consoles.

New Spectre cyberthreat evades patches

"Spectre" was a prescient name for the processor vulnerability that takes advantage of speculative execution. Since its initial discovery in January, 2018, at least three variants of the attack have been found.

SEC again rejects Winkelvoss twins Bitcoin fund

US market regulators on Thursday again rejected a proposal to allow trading in the first Bitcoin-based exchange-traded fund created by noted tech entrepreneurs Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss.

Apartments rarely come with access to charging stations. But electric vehicles need them

Americans have now purchased more than 800,000 electric vehicles, counting both plug-in hybrids and all-electric models. That may sound like a lot of EVs, and it is a big jump from the less than 5,000 that were on the road in 2010. But this is still less than 1 percent of all U.S. registered vehicles, despite the recent availability of longer-range, more affordable EV models like the Chevrolet Bolt.

Bad week in social media gets worse; Twitter hammered

Cracking down on hate, abuse and online trolls is also hurting Twitter's standing with investors.

Twitter shares plunge in black week for social media

Twitter shares took a pounding on Friday after it reported a decline in its user base, extending a stock market bloodbath for what had been a sizzling social media sector.

Germany thwarts China by taking stake in 50Hertz power firm

The German government said Friday it took a minority stake in electricity transmission firm 50Hertz for "national security" reasons, thwarting Chinese investors from buying into the strategic company.

Amazon powers up profits as footprint grows

Amazon delivered better-than-expected profits Thursday, helping the online colossus shake off the stock market gloom produced by tech rival Facebook.

Facebook shares sink on perfect storm of bad news

It has turned into a brutal reality check for Facebook.

China dodges blame for Qualcomm-NXP merger demise

China on Friday sought to deflect blame after US chipmaker Qualcomm dropped a merger with Dutch rival NXP over its failure to receive Chinese regulatory blessing, with Beijing saying it was still open to discussions.

France, Spain, Portugal up energy links

France, Spain and Portugal agreed Friday to build an undersea power line in the Bay of Biscay as they up electricity links aimed at helping the Iberian peninsula out of its energy isolation.

Medicine & Health news

A new machine learning model to isolate the effects of age in predicting dementia

Researchers at Toronto-based company WinterLight Labs have recently devised a machine learning method of predicting dementia that prioritizes particular variables when analyzing data, which could help to isolate the effects of potentially confounding factors.

Researchers discover system that could reduce neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease

Neuroscientist Dr. David Vilchez and his team at CECAD, the University of Cologne's Cluster of Excellence for Aging Research, have made an important step toward understanding the mechanisms that cause the neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease. Specifically, they identified a system blocking the accumulation of toxin protein aggregates, which are responsible for neurodegeneration. The results have now been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Growing brain cancer in a dish

For the first-time, researchers at IMBA- Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences – develop organoids, that mimic the onset of brain cancer. This method not only sheds light on the complex biology of human brain tumors but could also pave the way for new medical applications.

New ceria nanoparticles attack Parkinson's disease from three fronts

Researchers at the Center for Nanoparticle Research, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea), have developed a set of nanoparticles for Parkinson's disease treatment. Tested in mice and published in Angewandte Chemie as a "hot paper," this study represents the first biomedical application of nanoparticles in the clearance of reactive oxygen by-products in Parkinson's, and gives new hints of therapeutic targets. In the future, the system is expected to be used in the identification and treatment of other pathologies caused by reactive oxygen species, including: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and sepsis.

Scientists discover neurodegenerative disease in monkeys

OHSU scientists have discovered a naturally occurring disease in monkeys that mimics a deadly childhood neurodegenerative disorder in people—a finding that holds promise for developing new gene therapies to treat Batten disease.

Study finds evidence that leopard geckos can make new brain cells

University of Guelph researchers have discovered the type of stem cell allowing geckos to create new brain cells, providing evidence that the lizards may also be able to regenerate parts of the brain after injury.

Genetic basis of heart rhythms explored in large population study

New knowledge about biological processes related to the heart's electrical activity has been gained through a major genome science study. The research had the largest sample size ever of a project of this type.

Magnetic surgical cement heals spinal fractures, provides targeted drug delivery

Patients with spinal fractures caused by tumors or osteoporosis usually undergo a procedure called kyphoplasty, where the fracture is filled with surgical cement. While kyphoplasty can stabilize the bone, cancer patients are still often left with spinal column tumors that are very hard to reach with conventional chemotherapy, which has to cross the blood-brain barrier when delivered intravenously.

New research suggests how stimulant treatments for ADHD work

Stimulant medications are an effective treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). In the classroom, parents and teachers say that medications like methylphenidate (MPH) can reduce symptoms and improve behavior.

Cannabis does not improve breathlessness during exercise in patients with advanced COPD

Inhaled vaporized cannabis does not appear to improve or worsen exercise performance and activity-related breathlessness in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), according to a randomized controlled trial published online in the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

Modelling persistent orofacial pain management's costs and benefits

At the 96th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the IADR Pan European Regional (PER) Congress, Justin Durham, Newcastle University, England, gave a poster presentation titled "DEEP Study: Modelling Persistent Orofacial Pain Management's Costs and Benefits." The IADR/PER General Session & Exhibition is in London, England at the ExCeL London Convention Center from July 25-28, 2018.

Exploring the microbial dark matter of the human mouth

At the 96th General Session of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the IADR Pan European Regional (PER) Congress, Alexandra Clark, Queen Mary University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, England gave a poster presentation titled "Exploring the Microbial Dark Matter of the Human Mouth." The IADR/PER General Session & Exhibition is in London, England at the ExCeL London Convention Center from July 25-28, 2018.

The eleven best medications for reducing pressure on emergency care services

The most effective medicines for preventing emergency hospital admissions have been identified by a team of researchers in Oxford University's Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences. Reporting in BMC Medicine, the authors suggest these treatments could be considered for inclusion in quality monitoring and improvement strategies.

Researchers design a nano-carrier to release drugs into damaged cells

Senescent cells are damaged cells that no longer perform their normal roles, but are not dead—hence, they are commonly known as "zombie cells." These cells interfere with the functioning of the tissue in which they accumulate. Senescence is a cellular program that is triggered by many types of damage, and senescent cells are present in many diseases. They accumulate in diverse types of tissues during aging, thus contributing to the progressive deterioration associated with becoming elderly. Eliminating these zombie cells is one of the challenges facing science today.

Scientists discover a tap that controls the flow of pro-inflammatory molecules

One of the major therapeutic targets for inflammatory diseases is the inflammation-inducing molecule TNF. However, excess levels of TNF cause side effects and can lead to diseases. In a study now published in eLIFE, the research team led by Colin Adrain of the Gulbenkian Institute of Science (IGC, Portugal) discovered a new protein, called iTAP, that controls the levels of TNF in circulation by regulating its release from immune cells. These findings open avenues for the design of improved therapeutics for inflammatory diseases.

Finding one's way home

The otic placode gives rise to the inner ear in vertebrates. A new study shows that even when it is transplanted to ectopic positions, the nerve cells that grow out of the transplanted ear can form functional connections in the brain.

Researchers using 3-D printing to build custom cardiac surgical devices

Second-year medical student Kevin Cyr is part of a team of Stanford researchers investigating new ways to survey electricity in the heart. The research has led to the development of cardiac surgical devices that could one day help patients who suffer from a common heart ailment.

First patient receives novel gene therapy for GSD

Dr. David Weinstein and his team at UConn Health have administered to a patient the world's first investigational gene therapy for potentially deadly glycogen storage disease (GSD).

Most women 'unlikely to benefit' from aneurysm screening programme

A national screening programme to detect abdominal aortic aneurysms in older men would be unlikely to benefit most women, new research has found.

Youth who age out of foster care show higher educational attainment

Children in foster care often suffer detrimental effects that can carry over into adulthood and infect future relationships. However, new Penn State research indicates youth who age out of foster care attain higher educational achievement than those who exit foster care and are reunited with their families.

Modeling use of communication tools may help children, adults be more successful

Children and adults who use tools to help them communicate due to autism, Down syndrome, cerebral palsy or other developmental disabilities may have more success when family members, teachers and others around them model how to use the tools, according to a Penn State meta-analysis.

Surgeons discuss options when the risks of surgery may be too high

In an essay published July 26 in the New England Journal of Medicine, Ira Leeds, M.D., research fellow, and David Efron, M.D., professor of surgery, both of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, along with their collaborator, Lisa Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., M.Sc., from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, call for shared decision making when a patient's risks for surgical complications may outweigh the potential benefits of an operation.

Sex can make men sad, too, according to research

A world-first study by QUT researchers concludes men can and do suffer from Postcoital Dysphoria (PCD) which results in feelings of sadness, tearfulness or irritability following sex.

Susceptible genes identified for childhood chronic kidney disease

Childhood nephrotic syndrome is the most frequently occurring chronic kidney disease among children. A Japanese research team has identified a group of genes that are strongly related to the development of childhood nephrotic syndrome. The results of this study could shed light on the underlying mechanism for this disease. These findings were published on July 16 in the online edition of Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.

How craft is good for health

At a time when many of us feel overwhelmed by the 24/7 demands of the digital world, craft practices, alongside other activities such as colouring books for grown-ups and the up-surge of interest in cooking from scratch and productive home gardens, are being looked to as something of an antidote to the stresses and pressures of modern living.

Artificial intelligence can predict your personality by tracking your eyes

It's often been said that the eyes are the window to the soul, revealing what we think and how we feel. Now, new research reveals that your eyes may also be an indicator of your personality type, simply by the way they move.

Waking up to new facts on childhood sleepwalking

Children, like adults, need quality sleep in order to function well. But, when a child sleepwalks, parents often worry about how this might impact their child's development and behaviour.

Important aging mechanism in fish model Nothobranchius furzeri revealed

Nothobranchius furzeri, the African killifish, is the perfect model organism for research into aging processes because of its short lifespan, apparent signs of aging and a sequenced genome. Thus, researchers from the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna were able to show that histone deacetylases, which are important for cell cycle regulation are produced less in aging fish. In parallel, the team confirmed this aging mechanism in mice. The identification of epigenetic and thus, reversible changes could be a loophole to develop active compounds antagonising the aging process.

Research reveals new benefits of school holiday clubs

With the Government's announcement today (27 July) of a £2 million fund to provide holiday activities for children, newly-published research from Northumbria University, Newcastle has revealed that holiday clubs provide many more benefits for both children and parents than previously believed.

When it comes to protein, quality is more important than quantity

High-protein diets are everywhere, but not all protein is created equal. For heart health, experts say the key is moderation and choosing wisely.

Abortion exclusion to US aid threatens HIV battle: Conference hears

Scientists and activists warned Friday that anti-abortion conditions attached to US aid under the Donald Trump administration threatened programmes to halt the spread of HIV.

Companies that promise to lighten baby skin colour reinforce prejudice

Skin lightening is a longstanding practice that occurs in many parts of the world. It's been done through the use of creams, lotions, soaps, folk remedies, and staying out of the sun. The desire for light skin has been extended to children too. Advice to "marry light" is not uncommon in Asian and black families, for example, in order to produce a light-skinned child.

Does pro-cycling have a concussion problem?

The Tour de France is unquestionably one of the most famous events in the professional sporting calendar. Some of the finest athletes on the planet, along with their expert, multimillion dollar support teams, display exceptional physical, mechanical, tactical and psychological attributes.

Canada updates guidelines for hepatitis C virus infection

(HealthDay)—A guideline published in the June 4 issue of CMAJ, the journal of the Canadian Medical Association, provides updated evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

WHO targets for chronic hepatitis B will be cost-effective

(HealthDay)—Meeting World Health Organization (WHO) targets for chronic hepatitis B by 2030 will be cost-effective, according to a report published in the July issue of Health Affairs.

ACOG, others come out against proposed rule on Title-X

(HealthDay)—Health care organizations have come out against the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' proposed rule that amends regulations governing the Title X of the Public Health Service Act, which provides low-income patients with access to family planning and preventive health services and information.

Insurers may be underpaying doctors

(HealthDay)—Insurance companies sometimes underpay doctors the contracted amount for a service or procedure, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

Guidance provided for reporting foodborne illness

(HealthDay)—The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers guidance for health care professionals on reporting foodborne illnesses.

Reducing computers in rounds may cut communication barriers

(HealthDay)—Reducing the number of computers on wheels in a surgical intensive care unit can reduce barriers to communication during patient presentations, according to a research letter published online July 18 in JAMA Surgery.

Tap into the health powers of garlic

(HealthDay)—As scientists look into the effects of diet on health, they're finding that more and more everyday foods offer benefits that go well beyond making dishes tastier.

It's hot outside: How to stay safe when thermometers rise

(HealthDay)—As much of the United States continues to swelter through 90-plus temperatures and high humidity, one emergency physician is offering advice on keeping safe.

Genetic variation may increase risk of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B

A new study has shown that genetic variation may increase the risk of severe liver damage in Caucasians with chronic hepatitis B infection.

Portfolio diet lowers many risk factors for heart disease

University of Toronto researchers have found that the portfolio diet, a plant-based way of eating previously shown to lower cholesterol levels, reduces other risk factors for cardiovascular disease including blood pressure, triglycerides and inflammation.

Dense breast notification and insurance legislation analysis

Increased awareness of breast tissue density masking cancer and thus decreasing the diagnostic sensitivity of mammography has brought about relevant state-level policies. This new study by Harvey L. Neiman Health Policy Institute examines which characteristics of breast density state-level policies were associated with increased use of downstream breast ultrasound for enhancing earlier detection of breast cancer. The study is published in Medical Care.

Hospitals gear up for new diagnosis: Human trafficking

The woman arrived at the emergency department at Huntington Hospital on New York's Long Island after she was hit by her boyfriend during an argument. Her situation raised concerns among the medical staff, which had recently been trained to be on the lookout for signs of sex trafficking.

Researchers: Implant device tested against resistant high blood pressure

A Long Island patient has become the first in the Northeast to have a small, experimental device implanted in the upper thigh to control aggressively high blood pressure, doctors at the Northwell Health system said.

Diabetes drugs act as powerful curb for immune cells in controlling inflammation

When tissue is damaged, one of the body's first inflammatory immune-system responders are macrophages, cells which are commonly thought of as "construction workers" that clear away damaged tissue debris and initiate repair. However, prolonged inflammation promotes the progression of many diseases, including obesity. Now, a common class of drugs used to treat diabetes has been found to exert a powerful check on macrophages by controlling the metabolic fuel they use to generate energy. Keeping macrophages from going overboard on the job may inhibit the onset of obesity and diabetes following tissue inflammation. These findings are detailed in a study published online this month in Genes and Development led by Mitchell Lazar, MD, Ph.D., director of the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

'Nudging' doctors to prescribe cholesterol-lowering statins triples prescription rates

Pairing an online patient dashboard with "nudges" to doctors tripled statin prescribing rates in a clinical trial led by Penn Medicine researchers. Cholesterol-lowering statins such as atorvastatin and simvastatin are known to prevent heart attacks, strokes, and associated deaths, and are relatively inexpensive with minor side effects. Yet estimates suggest that tens of millions more should be taking them. The study which used two nudges, active choice framing to prompt physicians to make a decision on prescriptions, and peer comparison feedback which provided physicians with information on their performance relative to other physicians, is published online today in JAMA Network Open.

Judge: Opioid distribution data not for public consumption

A federal judge has ruled that state and local governments cannot publicize federal government data about where prescription opioids were distributed—a blow to news organizations seeking to report more deeply on the nation's overdose and addiction crisis.

Don't 'Brexit' on AIDS, pleads Bill Clinton

Bill Clinton pleaded with the world Friday not to abandon the campaign to rein in the HIV virus which still kills nearly a million people every year and infects twice as many.

FDA: whey powder behind recent Salmonella-linked recalls

(HealthDay)—Ritz and Goldfish crackers, Swiss Rolls—they've all been tied to possible Salmonella contamination through a common ingredient, dry whey powder, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

July 28 is World Hepatitis Day

(HealthDay)—July 28 is World Hepatitis Day, according to an announcement published in the July 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Drop in osteoporosis treatment initiation after hip fracture

(HealthDay)—In recent years there have been low rates of osteoporosis treatment initiation after a hip fracture, according to research published in the July 20 issue of JAMA Network Open.

New model IDs factors tied to muslim youth radicalization

(HealthDay)—A psychological and social model provides insight into factors and triggers for radicalization among European youth recruited into Islam, according to a review published in the August issue of European Psychiatry.

Risk of heart failure up in ALVSD patients with diabetes

(HealthDay)—For patients with asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (ALVSD), those with diabetes have increased risk of heart failure development and hospitalization, according to a study published in the June issue of Diabetes Care.

Readmission rate 19.2 percent after acute exacerbation of COPD

(HealthDay)—The rate of 30-day index readmissions after acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is 19.2 percent, according to a study published in the July issue of the Annals of the American Thoracic Society.

Fearing hard Brexit, UK drugmakers stockpile to protect lives

Britain's drugs industry said Friday it is stockpiling medicines to guard against a chaotic Brexit, but urged the EU to do more to protect patient lives on both sides of the Channel.

CDC: Salmonella-tainted melon outbreak appears to be over

(HealthDay)—A Salmonella outbreak linked to melons and fruit salad mixes appears to be over, say officials at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Lebanon's cannabis heartland, Bekaa, hopes for legalization

In the fields of this quiet village surrounded by mountains, men and women work clearing dirt and dry leaves from around cannabis plants, a major source of livelihoods in this impoverished corner of Lebanon,

AP-NORC Poll: Latinos' health care communication woes

Nearly 6 in 10 Hispanic adults have had a difficult time communicating with a health care provider because of a language or cultural barrier, and when they do they often turn to outside sources for help, according to a new study conducted by The Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research.

Oklahoma health department revised medical marijuana rules

Oklahoma health officials have released new proposed medical marijuana rules that remove some of the most controversial provisions, including a ban on the sale of smokable pot and a requirement that female patients get a pregnancy test.

Maryland hits record-high drug deaths, fueled by fentanyl (Update)

Maryland, a state that already had one of the country's most punishing overdose mortality rates, notched a record-high number of drug deaths last year. The grim milestone was fueled by an alarming increase of fentanyl-related fatalities.

Biology news

Extinct vegetarian cave bear diet mystery unravelled

During the Late Pleistocene period (between 125,000 to 12,000 years ago) two bear species roamed Europe: omnivorous brown bears (Ursus arctos) and the extinct mostly vegetarian cave bear (Ursus spelaeus).

Engineering 3-D bio-printed scaffolds to regenerate damaged peripheral nervous systems

In the last decade or so, 3-D printing has experienced a surge in popularity as the technology has become more precise and accessible. Now, researchers from the University of Saskatchewan are looking at how we can use 3-D printing to help damaged nervous systems to regrow.

Study reveals new geometric shape used by nature to pack cells efficiently

As an embryo develops, tissues bend into complex three-dimensional shapes that lead to organs. Epithelial cells are the building blocks of this process forming, for example, the outer layer of skin. They also line the blood vessels and organs of all animals.

A novel antibiotic from weeds

Researchers working on an SNSF project have discovered novel, antibiotically active chemical substances in a previously rarely explored site: the leaf of a common field weed. The just published findings show that this microcosm contains many still unknown natural products that could lead to new drugs.

Researchers are first to sequence rare bacteria that causes rampant tooth decay

The most prevalent chronic disease in both children and adults, tooth decay occurs when the good and bad bacteria in our mouth become imbalanced. The bad bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, forms a biofilm (aka tartar), then takes the sugars we eat and ferments them into acid, which decalcifies our teeth and causes cavities.

New possibilities for using ozonized erythrocyte mass explored

Any bleeding results in a decrease of the amount of circulating blood, and the disruption of the adequate supply of tissues with oxygen can lead to death. An important measure aimed at correcting the pathological effects of acute blood loss is to restore the globular volume of blood. However, transfusion with erythrocyte mass is not always effective, since after prolonged storage, it can cause additional sludging and thrombosis of the microcirculatory bed, and as a result, deterioration of the blood gas transport function.

Scientists use computer vision and machine learning to predict plant growth

A group of scientists from the Space Center (SC) and the Center for Data-Intensive Science and Engineering (CDISE) at Skoltech have developed a method for predicting an increase in plant biomass using 2-D and 3-D images. Their findings will help improve the efficiency of precision farming, both on Earth and in space. The results of their research were presented at the IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference and accepted for publication in a special issue of IEEE Pervasive Computing.

App helps ecologists map vulnerable ecosystems within minutes

UNSW scientists have created a mapmaking app that can fast-track large-scale ecosystem analysis from months to minutes, giving conservationists a way to monitor decades of human impact, hotspots of biodiversity and vulnerable ecosystems.

Following disturbance, most waterways improve but don't fully recover within the study period, researchers found

Conservation biologists are challenged to predict the pace and extent of river recovery following disturbances such as oil spills, wastewater contamination, and fires. A new global meta-analysis by researchers at the University of California, Santa Cruz, reveals patterns of responsiveness in these highly valued ecosystems.

These Gummy Bear-looking things will inherit the earth

Tardigrades, also known as water bears, are microscopic animals that live basically everywhere on earth, from the hot springs atop the Himalayas to the icy tundra of Antarctica to —almost certainly —your backyard.

Gene edited crops are GMOs—initial thoughts on the recent court ruling

Yesterday (25 July), the Court of Justice of the European Union made a ruling that surprised many: organisms obtained by targeted mutagenesis techniques are considered in all aspects GM organisms and are subject to the rigid EU rules. The EU ruling comes in stark contrast with this year's announcement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, stating that the Department does not plan to regulate "new plant varieties that are indistinguishable from those developed through traditional breeding methods".

Are you walking your dog enough?

Australia has nearly five million dogs, with nearly 40% of Australian households owning one.

Researchers aim to catalogue global microbiomes—while there's still time

In any rapidly changing environment, there are winners and there are losers. The human microbiome—the vast community of microbes that live in and on the human body—is no exception. As scientists gain a deeper understanding of the microbiome's complex ecology, particularly in the gut, it is increasingly clear that our microbiome's diversity, globally speaking, is under threat. Spreading industrialization and urbanization, diets dominated by processed foods, industries that promote antibiotic use—all are slashing gut microbe diversity.

What is bioluminescence and how is it used by humans and in nature?

The sea was luminous in specks and in the wake of the vessel, of a uniform slightly milky colour. When the water was put into a bottle, it gave out sparks…

A cooler ocean predator than sharks? Consider the mantis shrimps

When you think about fearsome predators in the ocean, the first thing that pops into your mind is probably a shark. Sure, sharks are OK, with their sleek, menacing shape and their gaping jaws with rows of jagged teeth. But if you were a fish living on a coral reef or cruising along the shore over the sands of a tropical island, you would fear a far more terrifying predator.

It's a girl,girl,boy,girl...! Baby boom at two-zoo partnership

About a year after moving into spacious new digs in New Orleans, African animals are doing just what officials from two zoos had hoped when they created the forested paddocks: being fruitful and multiplying. Seven antelope have given birth, at least one more female is pregnant and others may be.

A calmer horse is just a sniff away

How many ways can you think of to stress out a horse? Trailering, bathing, clipping, vet visits, hoof trims, bridling, saddling—the possibilities are endless. Unfortunately, calming options are not. Thanks to research conducted at the University of Arizona, horsemen and horsewomen have a new tool to help manage equine stress, and it's as simple as a sniff. A sniff of lavender, that is.

Hollow trees host massive moth slumber parties

Unlike social insects such as bees and ants, moths are generally loners. So, when Florida Museum of Natural History lepidopterist Andrei Sourakov spotted a dozen glossy black Idia moths inside a hollow tree, he made a mental note.

$11,500 reward for killer of pregnant dolphin in Mississippi

A reward of up to $11,500 is being offered for information leading to the capture of the person who shot and killed a pregnant dolphin on the US Gulf Coast, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) said.

This email is a free service of Science X Network
You received this email because you subscribed to our list.
If you do not wish to receive such emails in the future, please unsubscribe here.
You are subscribed as You may manage your subscription options from your Science X profile


No comments: