Monday, June 11, 2018

Science X Newsletter Monday, Jun 11

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for June 11, 2018:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Exploring the dusty prehistory of the solar system

Robust MOF material exhibits selective, fully reversible and repeatable capture of toxic atmospheric gas

Nanodiamonds responsible for mysterious source of microwaves across the Milky Way

Tiny defects in semiconductors created 'speed bumps' for electrons—researchers cleared the path

Best of Last Week – Confirming Einstein's elevator, exciting news from Mars and medicines being improperly prescribed

Warmer climate will dramatically increase the volatility of global corn crops

'Shocking' die-off of Africa's oldest baobabs: study

New bolometer is faster, simpler, and covers more wavelengths

Volcanic activity, declining ocean oxygen triggered mass extinction of ancient organisms

American toddlers consume too much added sugar

30% of the UK's natural gas could be replaced by hydrogen, cutting carbon emissions

Physicists create new class of 2-D artificial materials

Choice matters: The environmental costs of producing meat, seafood

Drug may quell deadly immune response when trauma spills the contents of our cells' powerhouses

Slow motion playback makes football referees harsher

Astronomy & Space news

Exploring the dusty prehistory of the solar system

The solar system as we know it formed about 4.6 billion years ago as fields of interstellar dust orbiting the sun aggregated into planets and smaller objects. Presolar dust particles no longer exist in the inner solar system, as they were long ago destroyed, reformed, and reaggregated in multiple phases. From the vantage of such a long period of time, astronomers can only make inferences about its composition and the processes that led to the solar system's present configuration, bringing to bear advanced instruments on Earth, in orbit, and in deep space to collect evidence.

Nanodiamonds responsible for mysterious source of microwaves across the Milky Way

For decades, astronomers have puzzled over the exact source of a peculiar type of faint microwave light emanating from a number of regions across the Milky Way. Known as anomalous microwave emission (AME), this light comes from energy released by rapidly spinning nanoparticles—bits of matter so small that they defy detection by ordinary microscopes. (The period on an average printed page is approximately 500,000 nanometers across.)

Opportunity hunkers down during dust storm (Update)

NASA engineers received a transmission from Opportunity on Sunday morning—a positive sign despite the worsening dust storm. Data from the transmission let engineers know the rover still has enough battery charge to communicate with ground controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Science operations remain suspended.

Image: Star-circling bubble of gas

This turbulent celestial palette of purple and yellow shows a bubble of gas named NGC 3199, blown by a star known as WR18 (Wolf-Rayet 18).

The hunt for life on Mars—new findings on rock 'chimneys' could hold key to success

The search for life on Mars has taken a step forward with the NASA Curiosity rover's discovery of organic matter on the bottom of what was once a lake. It may once have been part of an alien life form or it might have a non-biological origin – either way this carbon would have provided a food source for any organic living thing in the vicinity.

Fermi satellite celebrates 10 years of discoveries

On June 11, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope celebrates a decade of using gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light in the cosmos, to study black holes, neutron stars, and other extreme cosmic objects and events.

SwRI to manage payload, payload systems engineering for IMAP mission

Southwest Research Institute will manage the payload and payload systems engineering for a new NASA mission that will sample, analyze and map particles streaming to Earth from the edge of interstellar space. SwRI also will provide a scientific instrument and other technology for the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) spacecraft, scheduled to launch in 2024.

Technology news

30% of the UK's natural gas could be replaced by hydrogen, cutting carbon emissions

Almost a third of the natural gas fuelling UK homes and businesses could be replaced by hydrogen, a carbon free fuel, without requiring any changes to the nation's boilers and ovens, a pioneering study by Swansea University researchers has shown.

The science behind the search for clandestine nuclear sites

Will the recent U.S. withdrawal from a 2015 accord that put restrictions on Iran's nuclear program make it easier for Iran to pursue the bomb in secret? Not likely, according to Scott Kemp, an associate professor of nuclear science and engineering at MIT.

Robotic work cell conducts high-throughput testing instantly

Today, with 3-D printing, you can make almost anything in a matter of hours. However, making sure that part works reliably takes weeks or even months.

Study suggests smaller cities likely to see more job loss due to automation

A small team of researchers from MIT and Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management has found evidence that suggests automation will cause more job loss in smaller cities than large cities. In their paper published in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, the team describes their analysis of prior research to discern which sorts of jobs are most likely to be taken over by machines, and how it might apply to cities.

New Tesla software to offer 'full' autonomy, Musk says

An update to Tesla's Autopilot software coming in August will enable "full self-driving features" for the automaker's electric cars, chief executive Elon Musk says.

Britannica Insights will help searchers cut through noise for good answers

The next time your niece asks you where 18 things come from, you may not need to worry over the quality of your answer that was snatched from a quick keyboard tap. Not if you download an extension. A regarded information source can have your back, and it is the oldest English-language general encyclopaedia.

New aircraft-scheduling models may ease air travel frustrations

Flight schedules that allow for a little carefully designed wiggle room could prevent the frustration of cascading airport delays and cancellations. By focusing on the early phases of flight schedule planning and delays at various scales, researchers have developed models to help create schedules that are less susceptible to delays and easier to fix once disrupted.

Orange peels may hold secret to airborne medicine, safer bridges

Bartenders and cooks have long recognized the value of an orange twist, but thanks to researchers at the University of Central Florida, squeezing oranges may give us a new way to deliver medicine or to detect bridge failures before they happen.

Squashing cyberbullying: New approach is fast, accurate

Researchers at the University of Colorado Boulder have designed a new technique for spotting nasty personal attacks on social media networks like Instagram.

Cryptocurrencies tumble after S. Korea hack

Cryptocurrencies plunged in Asia on Monday after a hack on a South Korean exchange sparked fresh concerns about the safety of the digital units.

China's Xiaomi announces pioneering listing plan

Smartphone maker Xiaomi on Monday became the first Chinese company to announce plans to issue securities on mainland China markets under a trial programme aimed at encouraging the country's tech giants to list at home.

German prosecutors raid Audi boss over diesel cheating

German prosecutors said Monday they had raided the home of Rupert Stadler, chief executive of Volkswagen subsidiary Audi, over suspicion of fraud related to diesel emissions cheating by the firm.

Microsoft looks past next-gen Xbox to cloud games

The head of Xbox on Sunday said Microsoft is hard at work on a next-generation console along with a cloud service that would let players stream games to any device.

Clone wars—finding buggy code copies

Code is ubiquitous and most industries around the world rely on code-based software to keep day-to-day operations running, said Chanchal Roy, associate professor in the Department of Computer Science.

How traffic signals favour cars and discourage walking

Traffic signals give priority to motor vehicles over pedestrians. This inequality undermines many of the stated goals of transport, health and environment policy.

Startup uses artificial intelligence to analyze vehicle driver behavior

Brazilian startup Cobli has specialized in technological solutions for vehicle fleet monitoring and management. It is currently focusing on safety and refining a tool to identify driver behavioral patterns by analyzing data collected by a solar-powered tracker.

Digital assistant teaches runners healthier running style

Studies show that heel runners have an overall injury rate that is approximately twice as high compared to forefoot runners, according to Antonio Krüger, professor of computer science at Saarland University in Saarbrücken. There, Krüger is the leader of the Innovative Retail Laboratory at DFKI, and with Professor Julia Knopf, manages the newly founded Research Center for Digital Education. Hence, he was also interested in the question of whether runners could learn a new movement through information technology alone. "An effective analysis of running technique can only be provided by professionals or expert coaches using slow-motion videos. Amateur athletes have no access to this. However, as more and more people run long distances, exposing themselves to the risk of knee injuries and stress fractures, answering this question is more necessary than ever before," says Krüger.

A system purely for developing high-performance, big data codes

Computer scientists from Rice University's DARPA-funded Pliny Project believe they have the answer for every stressed-out systems programmer who has struggled to implement complex objects and workflows on 'big data' platforms like Spark and thought: "Isn't there a better way?"

Booming world of play revs E3 video game extravaganza

Pulse-pounding new video games and more ways to enjoy them are at the center of the Electronic Entertainment Expo extravaganza officially kicking off here on Tuesday.

Crash test dummies based on older bodies could reduce road fatalities

Europe's population is ageing rapidly, yet the majority of car safety equipment is tested using dummies modelled on people under the age of 65. Now researchers are developing vehicles and equipment designed specifically for the physical attributes and abilities of older bodies.

Computer science researcher meets updated phishing attacks head on

In this age of cyberattacks and data breaches, most email users are on the lookout for, and understand the potential risks of, messages and attachments coming from unfamiliar sources.

Your internet use could change as 'net neutrality' ends

Your ability to watch and use your favorite apps and services could start to change—though not right away—following the official demise Monday of Obama-era internet protections.

Germany hits Mercedes with mass diesel recall (Update)

Germany ordered Monday the recall of some 774,000 vehicles from Mercedes-Benz maker Daimler across Europe, citing illegal "defeat devices" designed to conceal high levels of harmful emissions from regulators' tests.

Don't trust the tech giants? You likely rely on them anyway

If technology giants like Facebook, Google and Amazon face a common threat to their dominance, it probably lies in a single word: trust.

US tariffs on car imports are a double-edged sword

US President Donald Trump's threat to tax imported cars in the name of national security risks weakening domestic manufacturers, but could accelerate the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

UK firms to reveal boss-staff pay gaps under draft law

Companies listed in Britain will be required to reveal the gap between the salaries of their chief executives and employees under draft legislation introduced in parliament on Monday.

Amazon supplier under fire for poor China working conditions

Electronics giant Foxconn announced Monday it had started an investigation after a labour group alleged illegal working conditions at one of its Chinese factories producing Kindles, tablets and smart speakers for Amazon.

Researchers develop virtual composer assistant

Experts from the Institute of Cyber Intelligence Systems at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) are currently developing a virtual composer assistant that will be able to analyze the emotional state of music composers and follow their logic. Despite the high level of development of music theory, the process of creating music is still hard to formally algorithmize, since it is inseparably linked with the emotional experiences of the composer. This aspect of the creative process is of particular interest to experts in machine intelligence.

A new system optimises electric transmission from offshore wind farms

Scientists from Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) have designed a new control system for wind turbines in offshore wind farms that allows power transmission to the coast in a more flexible and cheaper way than current solutions.

A webcam is enough to produce a real-time 3-D model of a moving hand

Capturing hand and finger movements within milliseconds is becoming increasingly important for many applications, from virtual reality to human-machine interaction and Industry 4.0. So far, its enormous technical demands have limited possible applications. Computer scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Informatics have now developed a software system involving the interaction of various neural networks that requires only the built-in camera of a laptop.

Ryanair recognises cabin crew union in UK (Update)

Low-cost airline Ryanair said Monday it has formally recognised representation by a union of its cabin crew in Britain.

Medicine & Health news

American toddlers consume too much added sugar

A new study suggests children in the US begin consuming added sugar at a very young age and that many toddlers' sugar intake exceeds the maximum amount recommended for adults.

Drug may quell deadly immune response when trauma spills the contents of our cells' powerhouses

When trauma spills the contents of our cell powerhouses, it can evoke a potentially deadly immune response much like a severe bacterial infection.

Hunger can lead to anger, but it's more complicated than a drop in blood sugar, study says

What makes someone go from simply being hungry to full-on "hangry"? More than just a simple drop in blood sugar, this combination of hunger and anger may be a complicated emotional response involving an interplay of biology, personality and environmental cues, according to research published by the American Psychological Association.

Key cancer-fighting gene's secret weapons revealed

The findings revealed that a special group of genes that function within the body's normal DNA repair process were vital to the effectiveness of p53. This new information could help doctors to better identify patients with an increased risk of developing certain cancers. It could also help to develop safer, more effective treatments for patients.

Device attaches directly to damaged heart, enabling delivery of multiple therapy doses

After a patient has a heart attack, a cascade of events leading to heart failure begins. Damage to the area in the heart where a blood vessel was blocked leads to scar tissue. In response to scarring, the heart will remodel to compensate. This process often ends in ventricular or valve failure.

Scientists help identify genetic markers for prostate cancer in global DNA download

An international team of researchers including USC scientists has found scores of new genetic markers in DNA code that increase prostate cancer risk—powerful knowledge likely to prove useful to detect and prevent the disease.

New target for treating heart failure identified

Changes in cellular struts called microtubules (MT) can affect the stiffness of diseased human heart muscle cells, and reversing these modifications can lessen the stiffness and improve the beating strength of these cells isolated from transplant patients with heart failure, found researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. This Nature Medicine new study is a continuation of research conducted two years ago on how MTs are involved in regulating the heartbeat. "These findings provide compelling evidence from human samples for a new therapeutic target for heart disease," said senior author Ben Prosser, Ph.D., an assistant professor of Physiology. The Penn investigators aim to develop therapies that seek out the damaged MTs to reverse their harmful influence.

A hydrogel restores breathing after spinal cord injury in animal models

One of the most severe outcomes of spinal cord injury from car accidents, sports impacts, or other neck trauma, is losing the ability to control breathing, with patients often requiring artificial ventilation for the rest of their lives. Researchers at Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) recently tested a hydrogel that releases a nerve-protecting agent at the site of injury, restoring independent breathing in rat models.

Ingesting honey after swallowing button battery reduces injury and improves outcomes

A team of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists has demonstrated that eating honey after swallowing a button battery has the potential to reduce serious injuries in small children. Based on findings in laboratory animals, the research suggests that this common household product may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality from highly caustic batteries.

Mutation links bipolar disorder to mitochondrial disease

Mutations in the gene ANT1 may confer a risk for bipolar disorder through a complex interplay between serotonin and mitochondrial signaling in the brain. These two pathways have been separately implicated in bipolar disorder, but the link between levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin and mitochondrial dysfunction had not been established. Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan now report that mitochondrial dysfunction affects the activity of serotonergic neurons in mice with mutations of ANT1.

A new therapy proves effective against brain metastasis

A study published in Nature Medicine by a team led by Manuel Valiente, head of the Brain Metastasis Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), shows that the administration of silibinin in patients with brain metastasis reduces lesions without causing any adverse effects. This preliminary trial provides proof of concept that this compound could be a new effective and safe alternative to treat brain metastasis.

Genome-editing tool could increase cancer risk

Therapeutic use of gene editing with the CRISPR-Cas9 technique may inadvertently increase the risk of cancer, according to a new study from Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, and the University of Helsinki, Finland, published in Nature Medicine. Researchers say that more studies are required in order to guarantee the safety of these 'molecular scissors' for gene-editing therapies.

New light shed on mechanisms of paediatric epilepsy

Research by Cardiff University has uncovered the brain activity that underlies absence epilepsy, offering new hope for the development of innovative therapies for this disabling disease.

Regenerative bandage accelerates healing in diabetic wounds

A simple scrape or sore might not cause alarm for most people. But for diabetic patients, an untreated scratch can turn into an open wound that could potentially lead to a limb amputation or even death.

Criticism from parents affects how children's brains respond to emotional information

Children of highly critical parents show less attention to emotional facial expressions, according to new research from Binghamton University, State University at New York.

Making mistakes while studying actually helps you learn better

When learning something new, there are instances where trial and error helps rather than hinders, according to recent findings by Baycrest researchers.

Bacteriophages offer promising alternative to antibiotics

Results from a new clinical study have confirmed the safety and tolerability of using bacteria-specific viruses known as bacteriophages to eliminate disease-causing bacteria in the gut. The new treatment could be used in place of antibiotics to rid the gut of harmful bacteria and promote the growth of beneficial bacteria that are known to enhance gastrointestinal health, immune function and anti-inflammatory processes.

Children with neuroblastoma have an elevated risk of long-term psychological difficulties

A new study reveals that pediatric neuroblastoma patients are at elevated risk for long-term psychological impairment. In addition, those who experience such impairment as they get older tend to require special education services and to not go on to college. The findings are published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society.

Reporting and evaluating wait times for urgent hip fracture surgery in Ontario, Canada

About two-thirds of patients admitted to hospital in Ontario for hip fracture did not receive surgery during the recommended time window of 24 hours, according to a new study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal ).

Erectile dysfunction means increased risk for heart disease, regardless of other risk factors

Erectile dysfunction (ED) indicates greater cardiovascular risk, regardless of other risk factors, such as cholesterol, smoking and high blood pressure, according new research published in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation.

Safety protocol breaches—ways to prevent infection transmission in health care setting

The medical community is losing its biggest gun in fighting infection, antibiotics. Researchers are turning to safety protocols to reduce the transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms, like Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and influenza. The health care environment, however, may be setting health care workers up for failure.

Reviving the protector—new tactic against medulloblastoma

Scientists have a new tactic with potential for fighting medulloblastoma, the most common and most aggressive form of brain tumor in children.

Crucial test of Ebola vaccine raises hopes, doubts in Congo

Irene Mboyo Mola spent 11 days caring for her husband as he died of Ebola in a hospital where she said nurses were too scared to get close. She helped him to the bathroom, picked up his feverish body when he lost his balance, and reinserted an IV that fell out of his bleeding arm.

Moderate and extreme temperatures could increase the risk of occupational injuries

Moderate and extreme ambient temperatures increase the risk of occupational accidents. This is the main conclusion of a new study by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health. The study analysed data on nearly 16 million occupational injuries that occurred in Spain over a 20-year period.

Study identifies a link between antidepressant treatment resistance and inflammation

Researchers at Emory University have found that depressed patients who have not responded to multiple antidepressants exhibit evidence of increased inflammation. Findings were recently published online in the journal, Psychoneuroendocrinology.

Why predicting suicide is a difficult and complex challenge

Who is going to die by suicide? This terrible mystery of human behavior takes on particular poignance in the wake of suicides by high-profile and much-beloved celebrities Kate Spade and Anthony Bourdain. It is only natural that people want to know why such tragedies occur. Those closest to those who take their lives are often tormented, wondering if there is something they could have – or should have – known to prevent their loved one's suicide.

Expert discusses social support for depression

The recent news of Anthony Bourdain and Kate Spade's deaths by suicide have served as solemn reminders of the significant toll that depression can take on people who struggle with the disease.

A 'public' target for HIV

Individuals produce unique sets of antibodies in response to HIV infection. That diversity—and the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus to rapidly change its protein coat to avoid detection—has stymied efforts to develop an anti-HIV vaccine.

Life in a herd – and why in health watching symptoms is easy, but finding causes is hard

Everyone knows we should exercise more, drink less, and stop scoffing junk food. Even committed smokers know that smoking is bad for them – but change isn't easy.

Researchers identify new type of depression

Depression is a mental disorder that affects over 300 million people around the world. While treatments exist, many of them are based on one hypothesis of how depression arises. Patients that do not fit this mold may not be getting benefits. A study led by Hiroshima University (HU), which was published online this May in Neuroscience, sheds light on how one protein called RGS8 plays a role in depression behaviors.

Take part in the biggest anatomy quiz in the world

A medical researcher is appealing for 20,000 members of the public to take part in an online citizen science project about human anatomy.

Adolescent childbirth associated with early menopause and hysterectomy

A new study has shown that women who gave birth as adolescents tend to have a greater chance of an early menopause or a hysterectomy. The study, which looked at reproductive histories of women from several countries and income groups, is presented at the World Congress of Menopause in Vancouver.

People who 'see the glass as half full' are more likely to fall prey to mass marketing scams

Consumers who perceive the benefits of large sums of money promised in mass marketing scams (MMS) are more likely to discount the risks and fall prey to perpetrators, according to new research co-authored by the University of Plymouth.

Looking online for info on your child's health? Here are some tips

Many parents can be anxious when their child is sick. So looking online for health information can help them understand their child's medical condition and take an active role in treatment. Seeking health information can also be a coping strategy for parents coming to terms with their child's illness.

Immune system does not recover despite cured hepatitis C infection

Changes to the immune system remain many years after a hepatitis C infection heals, a new study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet, Sweden, and Hannover Medical School, Germany, shows. The findings, presented in Nature Communications, increases understanding about chronic infection and the way it regulates and impacts composition of the immune system.

UV light treatment can save millions while helping patients

Treating severe skin conditions with UV light rather than creams, pills and injections could save the NHS millions of pounds while improving patient outcomes, according to a new University of Dundee study.

An understudied impact of climate change—increased deaths and illnesses from inhaling airborne dust

The Dust Bowl in the 1930s was one of the worst environmental disasters of the 20th century. Intense dust storms relentlessly pounded the southern Great Plains of the United States, wreaking severe ecological damage, forcing 2.5 million people to leave the region and claiming unnumbered lives, mainly from "dust pneumonia."

Deep-freezing of orange juice can increase the absorption of compounds that are beneficial for health

Researchers from the Laboratory of Food Colour and Quality at the University of Seville have published a study in which it is shown how certain types of cold treatment that are used by the citrus fruits industry in the preparation of juices have a great impact on the colour of orange juice and on the concentration and bioaccessibility of the carotenoids present in the juice.

Possible new treatment for spinal cord injuries identified in animal studies

An experimental drug has shown promise as a potential therapy for spinal cord injuries in animal studies.

Visual worlds in mirror and glass

The clear, colorful rays of light characteristic of precious metals and jewels give us a rich sense of their quality. This is due to our ability to perceive materials, which provides an estimate of the surface condition and material of objects. Humans tend to attribute value to the phenomenon of light reflecting from or passing through the surface of an object in a complex manner. In fact, humans as a species have sought good material properties since the dawn of time. Based on this knowledge, researchers in various fields of study including neuroscience, psychology and engineering have strived to uncover the processes related to material perception that occur in our brain.

Virtual brain gives insights into memory deficits in depression

During a depressive episode, the ability of the brain to form new brain cells is reduced. Scientists of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum examined how this affects the memory with a computational model. It was previously known that people in an acute depressive episode were less likely to remember current events. The computational model however suggests that older memories were affected as well. How long the memory deficits reach back depends on how long the depressive episode lasts. The team around the computational neuroscientist Prof Dr. Sen Cheng published their findings in the journal PLOS ONE on 7th June 2018.

Mangoes helped improve cardiovascular and gut health in women

A new study conducted at the University of California, Davis found that two cups of mangos a day had beneficial effects on systolic blood pressure among healthy postmenopausal women. Mango consumption helped relax blood vessels in as little as two hours after intake. Additionally, some of the participants showed favorable changes in the production of breath methane, an indication of the potential influence on gut fermentation.

Team identifies, advances a drug that targets metabolic vulnerability and impairs cancer cell growth and survival

A drug discovered and advanced by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center's Institute for Applied Cancer Science (IACS) and the Center for Co-Clinical Trials (CCCT) inhibits a vital metabolic process required for cancer cells' growth and survival.

1.35 million children's lives saved by HiB and pneumococcal vaccines since 2000

Childhood deaths from two leading bacterial causes of pneumonia and meningitis, pneumococcus and Hib, declined sharply during the period 2000 to 2015, especially as vaccines against these pathogens were introduced in high-burden countries, according to new estimates from a team led by scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Study points to possible treatment target for aggressive liver cancer in kids

A protein in the cell nucleus already targeted therapeutically for several types of cancer has now been linked to an aggressive form of pediatric liver cancer called hepatoblastoma (HBL), according to a study published in the Nature journal Communications Biology.

Why are sight and sound out of sync?

The way we process sight and sound are curiously out of sync by different amounts for different people and tasks, according to a new study from City, University of London.

Research shows if your eyes wrinkle when you smile or frown, you appear more sincere

Researchers at Western University have shown that our brains are pre-wired to perceive wrinkles around the eyes as conveying more intense and more sincere emotions. This eye-wrinkle feature, called the Duchenne marker, occurs across multiple facial expressions, including smiles, expressions associated with pain, and —as found by these researchers—expressions of sadness.

Double-checking diabetes medications may reduce re-hospitalizations

Clinicians may take upwards of 15 minutes to double-check a patient's medication list in an electronic health record system, but according to a new study, this reconciliation process may be well worth the time for diabetes patients. In a paper to be published in the Diabetes Care journal, Brigham and Women's Hospital physician Alexander Turchin, MD, MS, and his colleagues assessed medication reconciliation programs at BWH and Massachusetts General Hospital, and found that they seem to be working.

Negative emotions are murkier, less distinct in adolescence

Adolescents don't distinguish between negative emotions as clearly as younger children and adults in their 20s do, according to findings published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The study sheds light on how experiences of emotion vary at different ages and why adolescence may be a particularly vulnerable period in emotional development.

Fathers' early parenting quality affected by mothers

How a new mother reacts to her partner's early interactions with their baby may affect his parenting quality later on, a new study suggests.

Girls, young women fall short on exercise: study

(HealthDay)—Many teens and young adults in the United States—particularly women and girls—are physically inactive, a new study reveals.

Coffee may do your liver good

(HealthDay)—More good news for coffee lovers: Having three or more cups of "joe" each day may help ward off serious liver ailments, new research suggests.

Stabilize those stability ball workouts

(HealthDay)—For fun and fitness, it's hard to beat the value of a stability ball. You can do exercises to strengthen muscles, improve balance and increase flexibility.

Walkable neighborhoods might lower kids' asthma risk

(HealthDay)—Children may be more likely to develop asthma if they live in neighborhoods where it's difficult to get around on foot, a new study suggests.

High costs for diagnosis, care of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

(HealthDay)—The health care costs associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are considerable, especially at first diagnosis, according to a study published online May 18 in Hepatology.

Public support only moderate for opioid harm reduction strategies

(HealthDay)—Stigmatizing attitudes toward those who use opioids are associated with lower support for two evidence-based opioid harm reduction strategies, according to a study published in the June issue of Preventive Medicine.

Childhood obesity / overweight steadily rose from 1999 to 2014

(HealthDay)—If current trends continue, one-third of children and one-half of adolescents will be obese or overweight by 2030, according to a study presented during Nutrition 2018, the annual meeting of the American Society for Nutrition, held from June 9 to 12 in Boston.

Erectile dysfunction independently tied to CV events

(HealthDay)—Erectile dysfunction (ED) is independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), according to a research letter published online June 11 in Circulation.

FDA warns websites marketing unapproved opioids

(HealthDay)—Nine online networks, operating 53 websites, have been warned that they must stop illegally marketing potentially dangerous, unapproved, and misbranded versions of opioid medications, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Cancer development linked to increased diabetes risk

(HealthDay)—Cancer development is associated with increased risk of subsequent type 2 diabetes mellitus, according to a study published online June 7 in JAMA Oncology.

Research team diagnoses asthma with nasal brush test

Mount Sinai researchers have identified a genetic biomarker of asthma that can be tested for using a simple nasal brush and basic follow-up data analysis. This inexpensive diagnostic test can accurately identify mild to moderate asthma and differentiate it from other respiratory conditions such as allergic rhinitis, smoking, upper respiratory infection, and cystic fibrosis. The research team, led by a collaboration of clinical and computational scientists in the Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, the Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, and the Department of Pediatrics at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, published their results in June 2018 in Scientific Reports.

Patients' self-diagnosis of personality disorders not as far off as previously believed

Purdue University researchers think the gap between a psychologists' diagnosis and a patient's self-evaluation might not be as extreme as previously perceived when both are using the same evaluation tools.

Team develops framework to identify genetic missense mutations linked to autism spectrum disorder

Missense mutations occur when there is a change in one gene's DNA base pair, and the change results in the substitution of one amino acid for another in the gene's protein. Mutations that disrupt the function of proteins are widely recognized as a risk source for development disorders such as intellectual disability, congenital heart defects and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Many at risk for HIV despite lifesaving pill

Multiple barriers may stop high-risk individuals from accessing an HIV drug that can reduce the subsequent risk of infection, according to a new University of Michigan study.

Investigators suggest that brain circuits could unlock new psychiatric treatments

A McLean Hospital scientific team's comprehensive analysis of recent research into how the brain shapes responses to cognitive and emotional challenges has revealed the potential for new brain treatments for psychiatric conditions that target specific brain circuits. The detailed review is available online in the journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.

PARP inhibitor improves overall response rates in small cell lung cancer patients

In a randomized, Phase II trial led by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, adding the PARP inhibitor veliparib to a standard chemotherapy agent improved overall response rates (ORR) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Researchers also identified a select group of patients—those whose tumors expressed SLFN11— who also saw a progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) benefit, suggesting a promising biomarker for the PARP-inhibitor sensitivity in SCLC.

Better outcomes for patients using single-pill combination for blood pressure

People who are prescribed a combination pill to manage their high blood pressure are more likely to take their medicine as instructed and have better health outcomes than those who take the same medications prescribed as separate pills, according to a new study published today.

Safety doubts unwarranted, important anti-malarial drug is safe to use, study finds

One of the world's most widely used anti-malarial drugs is safe to use, say researchers, after a thorough review and analysis of nearly 200,000 malaria patients who'd taken the drug dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ).

AIDS and aging focus of research study

When the general public thinks of HIV, they do not think of a neurological disease, yet people living with HIV infection know they need to worry about their brain health.

What can be done to stem the rise of military suicides?

As suicide rates among active-duty service members and veterans continue to outpace rates among the general population, researchers from the USC Viterbi School of Engineering and the USC Suzanne Dworak-Peck School of Social Work have joined forces to use technology to identify, as early as possible, those at risk.

Sensory substitution illuminates cognitive processes while offering therapeutic applications

What are the implications of being able to "listen to a choreography" or "feel a ballet?" Despite the importance of observing the bodily movements of others to understand and predict actions, little is known about the underlying plasticity of the neural mechanism.

The Fontan circulation—Contemporary review of ongoing challenges and management strategies

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications , researchers Ahmed Kheiwa, Anushree Agarwal and Anitha John from the Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA and the Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's National Health System, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA provide a summary of the Fontan surgeries and resultant physiology, discuss long-term complications, and provide a contemporary review of the management strategies.

Left ventricular systolic function after pulmonary valve replacement

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications , Ali N. Zaidi and W. Aaron Kay from Columbus Ohio Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program, The Heart Center, Nationwide Children's Hospital and Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA and the Division of Pediatric Cardiology, The Heart Center, Nationwide Children's Hospital, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA consider how following reparative surgery for tetralogy of Fallot or critical pulmonary stenosis (PS), patients frequently present with severe right ventricular (RV) volume overload due to pulmonary regurgitation, resulting in decreased RV function.

D-transposition of the great arteries—a new era in cardiology

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications , Angeline D. Opina and Wayne J. Franklin from the Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA consider the D-transposition of the great arteries.

Atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation in congenital heart disease

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications , Jerold S. Shinbane and Philip M. Chang from the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA and the Congenital Heart Center, Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA consider atrial arrhythmias in congenital heart disease.

Heart transplantation for adult CHD: Overview and special considerations

In the current issue of Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications , Dipankar Gupta, Jana Reid, Diego Moguillansky, Renata Shih, Mark S. Bleiweis, Frederick J. Fricker and Biagio A. Pietra from the Congenital Heart Center, Department of Pediatrics, UF Health Shands Children's Hospital, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA consider how with improvements in surgical and medical management, the number of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) reaching adulthood has increased over the last decade.

Federal food aid to Puerto Rico high in salt, sugar

After Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico in September of 2017, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) began distributing emergency food. An analysis of 10 consecutive days of federal food aid delivered during the aftermath of Hurricane Maria reveals that much of this food exceeded the dietary limits for sodium, added sugars and saturated fats outlined in federal dietary guidelines.

Adapting lifestyle habits can quickly lower blood pressure

Researchers have demonstrated that a program aimed at helping people modify lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise is as effective as medication at reducing blood pressure. Participants in the study saw their blood pressure drop 19 points, on average, after taking part in the Weimer Institute Newstart Lifestyle program for just 14 days. Other studies have shown that a blood pressure reduction of this magnitude can cut a person's risk of heart disease or stroke in half.

Large study finds workplace foods contribute to unhealthy eating

A study of 5,222 employees across the US found that the foods people get at work tend to contain high amounts of sodium and refined grains and very little whole grains and fruit. The results suggest that workplaces can play more of a role to help ensure access to and promote healthier food options.

Slips of the ear: When knowledge deceives perception

Misperception of speech results from a weak representation of the difference between what we expect to hear and what is actually said, according to a human neuroimaging study published in JNeurosci. The research provides new evidence for how the brain creates perceptual illusions when speech is degraded at cocktail parties, in song lyrics or for older listeners.

What makes aggressive mice so violent

Aggressive behavior and the motivation to act aggressively have distinct molecular bases, according to a study of male mice published in JNeurosci. This finding suggests the possibility of reducing aggression by targeting a protein associated with addiction in a reward region of the brain.

Long periods of viral suppression shown to prevent cancer in aging HIV population

Early, sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), which results in long-term viral suppression, helps to prevent AIDS-defining cancers and also non-AIDS-defining cancers, to a lesser degree. However, patients with long-term viral suppression still had excess cancer risk compared to uninfected patients. The study, published in Annals of Internal Medicine, is the first to examine the effects of prolonged periods of viral suppression and potential cancer prevention benefits for the aging population of persons living with HIV.

KKR is buying Envision Healthcare in a nearly $10B deal

KKR is buying physician services provider and surgery center operator Envision Healthcare Corp. in an approximately $9.9 billion deal.

American sign language and English language learners: New linguistic research supports the need for policy changes

A new study of the educational needs of students who are native users of American Sign Language (ASL) shows glaring disparities in their treatment by the U.S Department of Education. The article, "If you use ASL, should you study ESL? Limitations of a modality-b(i)ased policy", by Elena Koulidobrova (Central Connecticut State University), Marlon Kunze (Gallaudet University) and Hannah Dostal (University of Connecticut), will be published in the June, 2018 issue of the scholarly journal Language.

Algorithm predicts dangerous low blood pressure during surgery

Scientists have developed an algorithm that predicts potentially dangerous low blood pressure, or hypotension, that can occur during surgery. The algorithm identifies hypotension 15 minutes before it occurs in 84 percent of cases, the researchers report in a new study published in the Online First edition of Anesthesiology, the peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA).

Biology news

'Shocking' die-off of Africa's oldest baobabs: study

Some of Africa's oldest and biggest baobab trees—a few dating all the way back to the ancient Greeks—have abruptly died, wholly or in part, in the past decade, researchers said Monday.

Scientists watch bacteria 'harpoon' DNA to speed their evolution

Indiana University scientists have made the first direct observation of a key step in the process that bacteria use to rapidly evolve new traits, including antibiotic resistance.

Key difference between humans and other mammals is skin deep, says study

While humans and other species share some of the same genetic information, new research found that humans are unique among mammals when it comes to the types and diversity of microorganisms on our skin. This difference could have implications for our health and immune systems.

DIY brings high throughput to continuous cell culturing

Rice University's Caleb Bashor never planned to be an inventor or do-it-yourselfer, but there was no other way to do the microbiology experiments he envisioned.

RNA changes aided sunflower's rapid evolutionary transformation, domestication

A new University of Colorado Boulder-led study sheds light on the genetic mechanisms that allowed sunflowers to undergo a relatively rapid evolutionary transition from wild to domesticated in just over 5,000 years.

Making the oxygen we breathe, a photosynthesis mechanism exposed

Arguably, the greatest fueler of life on our planet is photosynthesis, but understanding its labyrinthine chemistry, powered by sunlight, is challenging. Researchers recently illuminated some new steps inside the molecular factory that makes the oxygen we breathe.

Researchers discover new type of stem cell state

It's not the amount of fat, but the ability to store fat in the right locations, that equates to good metabolic health in humans. In part, for this to occur, new fat cells must be made "on demand" when the body has an energy surplus.

Nectar research sheds light on ecological theory

A sticky drop of nectar clinging to the tip of a hummingbird's beak drips into the next flower the bird visits. With that subtle change, the microbes within that drop are now in a new environment, teeming with other microbes. This small example of species forced to coexist in the real world has helped the Fukami Lab at Stanford University unravel the relative importance of two theories scientists have had about how species can live together.

Does the smell of blood make us hungry?

As the public filed through the Science Gallery Melbourne's exhibition Blood – Attract and Repel last year, 64 intrepid types agreed to be part of a scientific experiment. Unknown to the participants, the research students accosting people at the door were attempting to find out how blood thirsty we really are.

Scandinavian bumblebees survive by incubating their eggs

It is a sure sign that spring is in the air: The sight of a bumblebee queen buzzing around spring flowers on a sunny day. But sometimes, when she is flying around, she is actually not looking for flowers, but on the hunt for a good place to build a nest.

Turtle tagged in Brazil reaches UK territory

A turtle tagged by University of Exeter scientists in Brazil has swum thousands of miles – and is now in the waters of a UK overseas territory.

Transporting micronutrients more efficiently

ETH researchers have genetically modified a key variety of rice, making it very efficient at enriching its grains with iron and zinc.

Doing right by the whales

These are not good times for the North Atlantic right whale. Ship strikes and gear entanglement play major roles in the mortality of these highly endangered mammals, which now number fewer than 500. Making matters worse, climate-mediated shifts are pushing their prey out of the whales' usual feeding grounds, rendering traditional habitat-focused protection policies less than optimal.

An organic solution to heal plants and help them grow

A new biopesticide based on a patented extremophile bacterium is on its way. Funding under the SME Instrument has enabled the company that created this solution to spread the word and consider future plans.

Antioxidants slow down senescence in plants

Aging is a complex process involving lots of different mechanisms. One of the main processes on which aging is based is the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROSs are molecules formed as a result of a sequential one-electron reduction of oxygen. They are extremely chemically active and oxidize many compounds inside the cells. This leads to malfunctions in cellular molecular mechanisms and eventually to cell death.


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3 comments:

Adi Singh said...

Delhi University will release DU Cut Off from 19th June – 12th July 2018. The University will first release the DU First Cut off and then the rest cutoffs. The UG programme admission will be based on the basis of entrance exam & merit list.

Anurag Srivastava said...

Thanks you are sharing more information....The FCI Recruitment 2020 notification and Application Form has been released for General/ Depot/ Movement/ Accounts/ Technical/ Civil Engineering/ Electrical Mechanical Engineering posts...

Pooja said...

To Know FreeJobAlert and to know more about upcoming jobs .