Thursday, June 28, 2018

Nature contents: 28 June 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 558 Issue 7711
This Week  
Worrying changes in Hungary
Five centres of Asian research show the benefit of local science
Nature editor bids farewell
Philip Campbell
World View  
Algorithms can foster a more democratic society
Wendy K. Tam Cho
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Asteroid defence, marijuana drug and Koko the gorilla
News in Focus
Mysteries of Indian monsoon probed in Bay of Bengal
Alexandra Witze
US–Chinese trade war puts scientists in the cross hairs
Andrew Silver
Daring Japanese mission reaches unexplored asteroid Ryugu
Davide Castelvecchi
Methane leaks from US gas fields dwarf government estimates
Giorgia Guglielmi
Genetically modified bacteria enlisted in fight against disease
Sara Reardon
Five hubs of Asian science
Science in East Asia — by the numbers
Richard Van Noorden
Science stars of East Asia
David Cyranoski, Yao-Hua Law, Sandy Ong et al.
Nature Podcast 28 June 2018
This week, air pollution and infant death, stressed brains, and diagnosing sick plants from afar.
South Korean science needs restructuring
Han Woong Yeom
How Malaysian science can improve lives as well as the economy
Asma Ismail
Books and Arts  
Israel’s treasure chest of wild riches and ruins opens
Josie Glausiusz
Eve Marder’s life in lobster neurons, the history of hormones, and logic laid bare: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
The artist who walked on the Moon: Alan Bean
Richard Taylor
One wolf shot in Denmark is too many
Christian Sonne, Aage K. O. Alstrup
AI could threaten pharmaceutical patents
Lutz Heuer
Young scientists aim to prioritize patients
Remi Stevelink, Gautam Kok
Citations must default to the online publication date
Michael Keller, Stanley Prusiner
A call for IPBES to fix policies that harm scavengers
Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea
How to build a lab in East Asia’s science hot spots
Virginia Gewin

Jeremy Szal
Resistance to prostate-cancer treatment is driven by immune cells
Prostate-cancer treatment usually fails after time as resistance to therapy develops. It emerges from studies of mice and human cells that a population of immune cells can cause this type of treatment resistance.
Matthew D. Galsky
Structure of a human synaptic GABAA receptor
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the type A GABA receptor bound to GABA and the benzodiazepine site antagonist flumazenil reveals structural mechanisms that underlie intersubunit interactions and ligand selectivity of the receptor.
Shaotong Zhu, Colleen M. Noviello, Jinfeng Teng et al.
Hippocampal neurogenesis confers stress resilience by inhibiting the ventral dentate gyrus
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus confers resilience to chronic stress in mice by inhibiting the activity of mature granule cells in the ventral dentate gyrus.
Christoph Anacker, Victor M. Luna, Gregory S. Stevens et al.
The helicase Ded1p controls use of near-cognate translation initiation codons in 5′ UTRs
The helicase Ded1p associates with the pre-initiation complex and influences translation from near-cognate initiation codons by controlling the levels of mRNA secondary structure in 5′ untranslated regions.
Ulf-Peter Guenther, David E. Weinberg, Meghan M. Zubradt et al.
Induction of innate immune memory via microRNA targeting of chromatin remodelling factors
The microRNAs miR-221 and miR-222 regulate the reprogramming of macrophages during the development of lipopolysaccharide tolerance, and increased expression of these microRNAs is associated with immunosuppression and poor prognosis in patients with sepsis.
John J. Seeley, Rebecca G. Baker, Ghait Mohamed et al.
Cryo-EM structure of an essential Plasmodium vivax invasion complex
Structural studies show that conserved residues in Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte-binding protein 2b determine interactions with transferrin receptor 1 that are essential for host invasion, suggesting avenues for designing vaccines that work across P. vivax strains.
Jakub Gruszczyk, Rick K. Huang, Li-Jin Chan et al.
Superfast DNA replication causes damage in cancer cells
Inhibitors of PARP proteins are used in cancer treatment. It emerges that PARP inhibitors exert their effect by accelerating DNA replication to a speed at which DNA damage occurs.
Annabel Quinet, Alessandro Vindigni
OTULIN limits cell death and inflammation by deubiquitinating LUBAC
OTULIN, which removes ubiquitin chains deposited by LUBAC, promotes LUBAC activity by preventing its auto-ubiquitination, thereby supporting normal mouse embryo development and preventing pro-inflammatory cell death in adult mice.
Klaus Heger, Katherine E. Wickliffe, Ada Ndoja et al.
Robust relationship between air quality and infant mortality in Africa
A 10 μg m−3 increase in the concentration of ambient respirable particulate matter is associated with a 9% rise in infant mortality in Africa and this increase is not affected by household wealth.
Sam Heft-Neal, Jennifer Burney, Eran Bendavid et al.
Acquired resistance to IDH inhibition through trans or cis dimer-interface mutations
A new mechanism of acquired clinical resistance in two patients with acute myeloid leukaemia driven by mutant IDH2 is described, in which a second-site mutation on the wild-type allele induces therapeutic resistance to IDH2 inhibitors.
Andrew M. Intlekofer, Alan H. Shih, Bo Wang et al.
IL-23 secreted by myeloid cells drives castration-resistant prostate cancer
IL-23 produced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulates castration resistance in prostate cancer by sustaining androgen receptor signalling.
Arianna Calcinotto, Clarissa Spataro, Elena Zagato et al.
Non-gravitational acceleration in the trajectory of 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua)
'Oumuamua—the first known interstellar object to have entered the Solar System—is probably a comet, albeit with unusual dust and chemical properties owing to its origin in a distant solar system.
Marco Micheli, Davide Farnocchia, Karen J. Meech et al.
High speed of fork progression induces DNA replication stress and genomic instability
Inhibition of PARP is shown to accelerate the speed of replication fork elongation, which prevents fork stalling and induces DNA damage, with implications for genomic instability and cancer treatment.
Apolinar Maya-Mendoza, Pavel Moudry, Joanna Maria Merchut-Maya et al.
Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche
Larvae of the parasitic helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus induce granuloma formation and a fetal-like developmental program in granuloma-associated crypts of infected adult mice.
Ysbrand M. Nusse, Adam K. Savage, Pauline Marangoni et al.
Estimate suggests many infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa attributable to air pollution
A carefully considered observational study estimates that up to 22% of infant deaths in sub-Saharan Africa could be prevented by improving air quality — a value much higher than previous estimates.
Lance A. Waller
Low-temperature crystallization of granites and the implications for crustal magmatism
Thermobarometry and diffusion modelling in quartz crystals show that some granites may crystallize at much lower temperatures than we had thought, possibly explaining observations of cold magma storage.
Michael R. Ackerson, B. O. Mysen, N. D. Tailby et al.
Multifunctional ferrofluid-infused surfaces with reconfigurable multiscale topography
By infusing a ferrofluid into a microstructured matrix and applying a magnetic field, dynamic, multiscale topographical reconfigurations emerge, enabling functions such as colloidal self-assembly, switchable adhesion and friction, and biofilm removal.
Wendong Wang, Jaakko V. I. Timonen, Andreas Carlson et al.
News & Views  
Mars beat Earth in the race for habitable conditions
Linda T. Elkins-Tanton
Lessons for cancer drug treatment from tackling a non-cancerous overgrowth syndrome
Robert K. Semple, Bart Vanhaesebroeck
Upstanding molecule reveals orbital wavefunction
Thomas Greber
Benchtop Linear MALDI-TOF Mass Spec
Providing a dependable, robust, and easy-to-maintain platform, Shimadzu's benchtop MALDI-8020 delivers sensitive detection and accurate mass determination by MALDI-TOF MS for routine analysis. Intuitive software simplifies operation and enables 21 CFR Part 11 compliance. Learn more.
Weighing in on weight loss in pancreatic cancer
J. Matthias Löhr
50 & 100 years ago
Twenty years of network science
Alessandro Vespignani
How the ubiquitous GPCR receptor family selectively activates signalling pathways
Michael J. Capper, Daniel Wacker
Triggers of tree mortality under drought
Because climate change is expected to intensify regional-scale droughts, it is important to identify the physiological thresholds that precipitate the mortality of trees and the mechanisms of recovery after drought.
Brendan Choat, Timothy J. Brodribb, Craig R. Brodersen et al.
Targeted therapy in patients with PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome
A PI3KCA inhibitor reverses symptoms in a mouse model of PROS/CLOVES syndrome, which results from gain-of-function mutations in PI3KCA, and produces improvements in patients with PROS/CLOVES syndrome.
Quitterie Venot, Thomas Blanc, Smail Hadj Rabia et al.
Structure of the µ-opioid receptor–Gi protein complex
A cryo-electron structure of the µ-opioid receptor in complex with the peptide agonist DAMGO and the inhibitory G protein Gi reveals structural determinants of its G protein-binding specificity.
Antoine Koehl, Hongli Hu, Shoji Maeda et al.
Cryo-EM structure of human rhodopsin bound to an inhibitory G protein
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of human rhodopsin bound to the inhibitory Gi protein-coupled receptor provides insights into ligand–receptor–G-protein interactions.
Yanyong Kang, Oleg Kuybeda, Parker W. de Waal et al.
Structure of the adenosine-bound human adenosine A1 receptor–Gi complex
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the human adenosine A1 receptor in complex with adenosine and heterotrimeric Gi2 protein provides molecular insights into receptor and G-protein selectivity.
Christopher J. Draper-Joyce, Maryam Khoshouei, David M. Thal et al.
Macromolecular organic compounds from the depths of Enceladus
The detection of complex organic molecules with masses higher than 200 atomic mass units in ice grains emitted from Enceladus indicates the presence of a thin organic-rich layer on top of the moon’s subsurface ocean.
Frank Postberg, Nozair Khawaja, Bernd Abel et al.
Flying couplers above spinning resonators generate irreversible refraction
One-way propagation of light through a standard telecommunications fibre is demonstrated by coupling the fibre to a rapidly rotating silica-glass sphere.
Shai Maayani, Raphael Dahan, Yuri Kligerman et al.
A standing molecule as a single-electron field emitter
Precision control over matter at the atomic scale enables a planar dye molecule to be lifted up and placed on its edge—a configuration that is surprisingly stable.
Taner Esat, Niklas Friedrich, F. Stefan Tautz et al.
Self-assembly of highly symmetrical, ultrasmall inorganic cages directed by surfactant micelles
Machine-learning algorithms are used to generate single-particle three-dimensional reconstructions, revealing that highly symmetrical dodecahedral silica cages, around 10 nm in size, self-assemble in the presence of surfactant micelles.
Kai Ma, Yunye Gong, Tangi Aubert et al.
Enantioselective remote meta-C–H arylation and alkylation via a chiral transient mediator
Remote, enantioselective C–H activation reactions can be achieved by relaying ortho-C–H activation to the meta position, using a chiral norbornene as the mediator.
Hang Shi, Alastair N. Herron, Ying Shao et al.
Evidence for extremely rapid magma ocean crystallization and crust formation on Mars
Isotopic compositions of ancient zircons from the NWA 7034 Martian meteorite suggest that Mars must have formed its primordial crust extremely swiftly, less than 20 million years after the formation of the Solar System.
Laura C. Bouvier, Maria M. Costa, James N. Connelly et al.
A synaptic threshold mechanism for computing escape decisions
In the midbrain defensive circuit, the decision to escape is computed by an unreliable synaptic connection that thresholds threat information integrated in the medial superior colliculus, and controls activation of dorsal periaqueductal grey neurons.
Dominic A. Evans, A. Vanessa Stempel, Ruben Vale et al.
A distinct abundant group of microbial rhodopsins discovered using functional metagenomics
An analysis based on functional metagenomics reveals a previously unknown group of microbial light-sensory rhodopsins that are widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms.
Alina Pushkarev, Keiichi Inoue, Shirley Larom et al.
Altered exocrine function can drive adipose wasting in early pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice induces loss of adipose tissue through altered function of the exocrine pancreas, and supplementing pancreatic enzymes attenuates the wasting of peripheral tissues induced by pancreatic cancer.
Laura V. Danai, Ana Babic, Michael H. Rosenthal et al.
Codon-specific translation reprogramming promotes resistance to targeted therapy
Enzymes that catalyse modifications of wobble uridine 34 tRNA are essential for the survival of melanoma cells that rely on HIF1α-dependent metabolism through codon-dependent regulation of the translation of HIF1A mRNA.
Francesca Rapino, Sylvain Delaunay, Florian Rambow et al.
A naturally occurring antiviral ribonucleotide encoded by the human genome
Viperin inhibits the replication of various viruses by catalysing the conversion of CTP to ddhCTP, which is a unique nucleotide that functions as replication-chain terminator of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.
Anthony S. Gizzi, Tyler L. Grove, Jamie J. Arnold et al.
Epigenetic inheritance mediated by coupling of RNAi and histone H3K9 methylation
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, histone H3K9 methylation acts synergistically with short interfering RNA to perpetuate gene silencing during multiple mitotic and meiotic cell divisions.
Ruby Yu, Xiaoyi Wang, Danesh Moazed
Cryo-EM structure of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor coupled to heterotrimeric Go
The high-resolution structure of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor in complex with the agonist donitriptan and a Go heterotrimer highlights features that may underlie the specificity of receptor–G-protein coupling and kinetics of signalling.
Javier García-Nafría, Rony Nehmé, Patricia C. Edwards et al.
Climate change is not the only research topic in the Earth and environmental sciences, but few researchers in the discipline work without reference to it. Just as we have depended on them to identify the problem, we look to them for solutions that will help create a better future.
Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: A Myc enhancer cluster regulates normal and leukaemic haematopoietic stem cell hierarchies
Carsten Bahr, Lisa von Paleske, Veli V. Uslu et al.
Author Correction: New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens
Jean-Jacques Hublin, Abdelouahed Ben-Ncer, Shara E. Bailey et al.
Author Correction: Metabolic gatekeeper function of B-lymphoid transcription factors
Lai N. Chan, Zhengshan Chen, Daniel Braas et al.
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