Thursday, June 21, 2018

Nature contents: 21 June 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 558 Issue 7710
This Week  
Curbing opioid addiction needs more than new drugs
Nature’s under-representation of women
Evidence synthesis needs greater incentives
World View  
How will you judge me if not by impact factor?
John Tregoning
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Mars storm, AI ethics and the LHC’s big upgrade
News in Focus
World Cup ban on radioactive chemicals frustrates Russian biochemistry labs
Quirin Schiermeier
Sexual harassment is rife in the sciences, finds landmark US study
Alexandra Witze
Microsoft’s purchase of GitHub leaves some scientists uneasy
Andrew Silver
New human gene tally reignites debate
Cassandra Willyard
Cancer researchers target the dormant cells that seed tumours
Heidi Ledford
Bias detectives: the researchers striving to make algorithms fair
Rachel Courtland
Nature Podcast 21 June 2018
This week, pancreatic cancer-related weight loss, tiny silica cages, and bias in Artificial Intelligence algorithms.
Four principles to make evidence synthesis more useful for policy
Christl A. Donnelly, Ian Boyd, Philip Campbell et al.
A fresh approach to evidence synthesis
William J. Sutherland, Claire F. R. Wordley
North Korean disarmament: build technology and trust
R. Scott Kemp
Books and Arts  
Maria Mitchell at 200: a pioneering astronomer who fought for women in science
Richard Holmes
Risk assessment of tech metals is ongoing
Montserrat Filella, Ishai Dror, Sebastien Rauch
Humanities need a replication drive too
Rik Peels, Lex Bouter
DOIs and other persistent identifiers have much more to offer science
Alice Meadows
Keep cruises off remote reef rich in fish and birds
Philippe Borsa, Bertrand Richer de Forges, Julien Baudat-Franceschi
How a hobby can boost researchers’ productivity and creativity
Julia Rosen
A deforestation detective rethinks how industry can quell emissions
Virginia Gewin
Going back for Hitler

George Nikolopoulos
Structure of the adenosine-bound human adenosine A1 receptor–Gi complex
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of the human adenosine A1 receptor in complex with adenosine and heterotrimeric Gi2 protein provides molecular insights into receptor and G-protein selectivity.
Christopher J. Draper-Joyce, Maryam Khoshouei, David M. Thal et al.
Codon-specific translation reprogramming promotes resistance to targeted therapy
Enzymes that catalyse modifications of wobble uridine 34 tRNA are essential for the survival of melanoma cells that rely on HIF1α-dependent metabolism through codon-dependent regulation of the translation of HIF1A mRNA.
Francesca Rapino, Sylvain Delaunay, Florian Rambow et al.
Epigenetic inheritance mediated by coupling of RNAi and histone H3K9 methylation
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, histone H3K9 methylation acts synergistically with short interfering RNA to perpetuate gene silencing during multiple mitotic and meiotic cell divisions.
Ruby Yu, Xiaoyi Wang, Danesh Moazed
Self-assembly of highly symmetrical, ultrasmall inorganic cages directed by surfactant micelles
Machine-learning algorithms are used to generate single-particle three-dimensional reconstructions, revealing that highly symmetrical dodecahedral silica cages, around 10 nm in size, self-assemble in the presence of surfactant micelles.
Kai Ma, Yunye Gong, Tangi Aubert et al.
Decarboxylative sp3 C–N coupling via dual copper and photoredox catalysis
The synergistic combination of copper catalysis and photoredox catalysis forms sp3 C–N bonds in a rapid, room-temperature coupling protocol with high efficiencies and regioselectivities and a broad substrate scope.
Yufan Liang, Xiaheng Zhang, David W. C. MacMillan
Cryo-EM structure of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor coupled to heterotrimeric Go
The high-resolution structure of the serotonin 5-HT1B receptor in complex with the agonist donitriptan and a Go heterotrimer highlights features that may underly the specificity of receptor–G-protein coupling and kinetics of signalling.
Javier García-Nafría, Rony Nehmé, Patricia C. Edwards et al.
Actin proteins assemble to protect the genome
The assembly of polymerized actin with motor proteins at DNA breaks in the nucleus supports the mobility and repair of DNA. This finding reveals a layer of regulation that helps to preserve genome integrity.
Vassilis Roukos
Nuclear ARP2/3 drives DNA break clustering for homology-directed repair
Polymerization of actin in the cell nucleus, promoted by the ARP2/3 complex, drives the clustering of double-strand DNA breaks into nuclear compartments where they can undergo homology-directed repair.
Benjamin R. Schrank, Tomas Aparicio, Yinyin Li et al.
A distinct abundant group of microbial rhodopsins discovered using functional metagenomics
An analysis based on functional metagenomics reveals a previously unknown group of microbial light-sensory rhodopsins that are widespread among a diverse range of microorganisms.
Alina Pushkarev, Keiichi Inoue, Shirley Larom et al.
A synaptic threshold mechanism for computing escape decisions
In the midbrain defensive circuit, the decision to escape is computed by an unreliable synaptic connection that thresholds threat information integrated in the medial superior colliculus, and controls activation of dorsal periaqueductal grey neurons.
Dominic A. Evans, A. Vanessa Stempel, Ruben Vale et al.
Weighing in on weight loss in pancreatic cancer
Weight loss and tissue wasting often occur in pancreatic cancer. Analyses of human and mouse data reveal a mechanism behind these events, and raise the question of whether tissue wasting affects cancer survival rates.
J. Matthias Löhr
Unexpected cell population gives fat a brake
Single-cell transcriptional profiling of stem and progenitor cells in fat tissue identifies distinct cell subpopulations, one of which inhibits fat growth by signalling to neighbouring cells.
David A. Guertin
Altered exocrine function can drive adipose wasting in early pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in mice induces loss of adipose tissue through altered function of the exocrine pancreas, and supplementing pancreatic enzymes attenuates the wasting of peripheral tissues induced by pancreatic cancer.
Laura V. Danai, Ana Babic, Michael H. Rosenthal et al.
Nuclear F-actin and myosins drive relocalization of heterochromatic breaks
Relocalization of heterochromatic double-strand breaks to the nuclear periphery in Drosophila cells occurs via directed motions driven by nuclear actin filaments and myosins activated by the Smc5/6 complex.
Christopher P. Caridi, Carla D’Agostino, Taehyun Ryu et al.
A naturally occurring antiviral ribonucleotide encoded by the human genome
Viperin inhibits the replication of various viruses by catalysing the conversion of CTP to ddhCTP, which is a unique nucleotide that functions as replication-chain terminator of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.
Anthony S. Gizzi, Tyler L. Grove, Jamie J. Arnold et al.
A stromal cell population that inhibits adipogenesis in mammalian fat depots
Single-cell transcriptomics reveals that, in mice and humans, a population of cells in the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue regulates adipogenesis by suppressing adipocyte formation in a paracrine manner.
Petra C. Schwalie, Hua Dong, Magda Zachara et al.
A multiprotein supercomplex controlling oncogenic signalling in lymphoma
James D. Phelan, Ryan M. Young, Daniel E. Webster et al.
Twenty years of network science
The idea that everyone in the world is connected to everyone else by just six degrees of separation was explained by the ‘small-world’ network model 20 years ago. What seemed to be a niche finding turned out to have huge consequences.
Alessandro Vespignani
A molecular signature for social isolation identified in the brain
Extended social isolation causes debilitating effects in social mammals such as humans. A study in mice shows that the gene Tac2 is upregulated throughout the brains of socially isolated animals, driving massive behavioural changes.
Noga Zilkha, Tali Kimchi
Enantioselective remote meta-C–H arylation and alkylation via a chiral transient mediator
Remote, enantioselective C–H activation reactions can be achieved by relaying ortho-C–H activation to the meta position, using a chiral norbornene as the mediator.
Hang Shi, Alastair N. Herron, Ying Shao et al.
News & Views  
Cell umbrella protects stem cells from DNA damage
Isabel Beerman
Missing matter found in the cosmic web
Taotao Fang
New windows open for immunotherapy in lung cancer
Lizza Hendriks, Benjamin Besse
Sea-level rise could overwhelm coral reefs
Ilsa B. Kuffner
Frictionless gas flow observed in perfectly flat-walled nanochannels
Chuanhua Duan
Debate over the identity of an intestinal niche-cell population settled
Linda C. Samuelson
Antarctic ice shelf disintegration triggered by sea ice loss and ocean swell
Less sea ice allowed ocean swells to flex weakened ice shelves in Antarctica, contributing to their collapse.
Robert A. Massom, Theodore A. Scambos, Luke G. Bennetts et al.
An Early Cretaceous eutherian and the placental–marsupial dichotomy
Morphological studies and phylogenetic analyses based on the newly discovered Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal Ambolestes zhoui show that the oldest purported metatherian Sinodelphys is instead a eutherian.
Shundong Bi, Xiaoting Zheng, Xiaoli Wang et al.
Loss of coral reef growth capacity to track future increases in sea level
Analyses of current coral reef growth rates in the tropical western Atlantic and Indian Ocean show that few reefs will have the capacity to track sea-level rise projections under Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios without sustained ecological recovery.
Chris T. Perry, Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip, Nicholas A. J. Graham et al.
Structural basis of mitochondrial receptor binding and constriction by DRP1
Cryo-electron microscopy is used to resolve the structure of human dynamin-related protein 1 co-assembled with its receptor mitochondrial dynamics protein of 49 kDa, along with an analysis of structure- and disease-based mutations.
Raghav Kalia, Ray Yu-Ruei Wang, Ali Yusuf et al.
Observations of the missing baryons in the warm–hot intergalactic medium
Observations of two absorbers of highly ionized oxygen in the X-ray spectrum of a quasar account for the missing baryons in the Universe.
F. Nicastro, J. Kaastra, Y. Krongold et al.
Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene–nitride microresonators
Coupling graphene sheets with a silicon nitride ring microresonator allows the nonlinear cavity dynamics to be altered by a gate voltage, resulting in tunable, chip-scale, optical frequency combs.
Baicheng Yao, Shu-Wei Huang, Yuan Liu et al.
Comprehensive suppression of single-molecule conductance using destructive σ-interference
Highly insulating silicon-based molecules, engineered so that conduction is fully suppressed by σ quantum interference even for molecules less than a nanometre long, could prove useful in molecular-scale electronic circuitry.
Marc H. Garner, Haixing Li, Yan Chen et al.
Ballistic molecular transport through two-dimensional channels
Specular scattering of atoms of helium gas flowing through atomically flat, two-dimensional channels results in frictionless gas flow, which is much faster than expected assuming purely diffusive scattering.
A. Keerthi, A. K. Geim, A. Janardanan et al.
Heterointerface effects in the electrointercalation of van der Waals heterostructures
The electrointercalation of lithium into van der Waals heterostructures of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and molybdenum dichalcogenides is studied at the level of individual atomic interfaces.
D. Kwabena Bediako, Mehdi Rezaee, Hyobin Yoo et al.
Extensive retreat and re-advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Holocene
Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores and ice-penetrating radar observations are used to demonstrate that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has not retreated progressively during the Holocene epoch, but has instead showed periods of retreat and re-advance.
J. Kingslake, R. P. Scherer, T. Albrecht et al.
Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the molecular substrates of sleep need
A subset of synaptic proteins are cumulatively phosphorylated during wakefulness and dephosphorylated during sleep, in accordance with sleep need; this may represent a common mechanism underlying regulation of both synaptic homeostasis and sleep–wake homeostasis.
Zhiqiang Wang, Jing Ma, Chika Miyoshi et al.
Novel soil bacteria possess diverse genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis
Metagenomic and soil microcosm analyses identify abundant biosynthetic gene clusters in genomes of microorganisms from a northern Californian grassland ecosystem that provide a potential source for the future development of bacterial natural products.
Alexander Crits-Christoph, Spencer Diamond, Cristina N. Butterfield et al.
Protection from UV light is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the haematopoietic niche
Melanocytes above the haematopoietic niche protect haematopoietic stem cells from ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in aquatic vertebrates throughout evolution; this niche moved to the bone marrow during the transition to terrestrial life.
Friedrich G. Kapp, Julie R. Perlin, Elliott J. Hagedorn et al.
GLI1-expressing mesenchymal cells form the essential Wnt-secreting niche for colon stem cells
GLI1-positive cells in the colon secrete Wnt ligands and thereby support homeostasis of intestinal stem cells.
Bahar Degirmenci, Tomas Valenta, Slavica Dimitrieva et al.
Induction and transcriptional regulation of the co-inhibitory gene module in T cells
A module of co-inhibitory T cell receptors, driven by the cytokine IL-27, is identified in mice that is regulated by the transcription factors PRDM1 and c-MAF.
Norio Chihara, Asaf Madi, Takaaki Kondo et al.
A Cdk9–PP1 switch regulates the elongation–termination transition of RNA polymerase II
The kinase Cdk9 and the phosphatase Dis2 regulate the termination of transcription in fission yeast in part by controlling the phosphorylation state of the elongation factor Spt5.
Pabitra K. Parua, Gregory T. Booth, Miriam Sansó et al.
Structural basis of G-quadruplex unfolding by the DEAH/RHA helicase DHX36
A mechanism for the unfolding of guanine-rich DNA ‘quadruplexes’ by helicases is suggested, based on the structure of a DNA-bound helicase.
Michael C. Chen, Ramreddy Tippana, Natalia A. Demeshkina et al.
Structural basis for regulation of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase
Cryo-electron microscopy studies of distinct, catalytically active and inactive filaments of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 reveal the structural basis of its regulation.
Moritz Hunkeler, Anna Hagmann, Edward Stuttfeld et al.
KACST Impact

KACST Impact is a new online publication highlighting the latest cutting edge scientific research conducted at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) that features various stories ranging from exciting new scientific finds to the commercialization of innovative discoveries.

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Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: Discovery of a selective catalytic p300/CBP inhibitor that targets lineage-specific tumours
Loren M. Lasko, Clarissa G. Jakob, Rohinton P. Edalji et al.
Author Correction: SZT2 dictates GATOR control of mTORC1 signalling
Min Peng, Na Yin, Ming O. Li
Author Correction: Evidence for a Fe3+-rich pyrolitic lower mantle from (Al,Fe)-bearing bridgmanite elasticity data
A. Kurnosov, H. Marquardt, D. J. Frost et al.
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The University of Hong Kong 


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