Wednesday, June 13, 2018

Nature Communications - 13 June 2018

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Precocious centriole disengagement and centrosome fragmentation induced by mitotic delay OPEN
Menuka Karki, Neda Keyhaninejad & Charles B. Shuster

The spindle assembly checkpoint delays mitotic progression until sister chromatids are bi-oriented. Here the authors show that moderate delays in mitotic progression induce centrosome fragmentation and centriole disengagement and that spindle bipolarity is ensured by HSET-mediated spindle pole clustering.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15803
Centrosome  Mitotic spindle 

Experimental study of thermal rectification in suspended monolayer graphene OPEN
Haidong Wang, Shiqian Hu, Koji Takahashi, Xing Zhang, Hiroshi Takamatsu & Jie Chen

Thermal rectification is instrumental to achieving active heat flow control and energy harvesting in nanoscale devices. Here, the authors demonstrate thermal rectification in asymmetric graphene nanostructures, achieving a large rectification factor up to 26%.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15843
Graphene  Thermoelectric devices and materials 

Routing of the RAB6 secretory pathway towards the lysosome related organelle of melanocytes OPEN
Anand Patwardhan, Sabine Bardin, Stéphanie Miserey-Lenkei, Lionel Larue, Bruno Goud, Graça Raposo & Cédric Delevoye

The anterograde movement of Golgi-derived vesicles requires the small GTPase RAB6, while its effector ELKS targets these vesicles to particular areas of the plasma membrane. Here the authors show that RAB6 and ELKS function in the biogenesis of melanosome, demonstrating that the secretory pathway can be directed towards intracellular organelles of endosomal origin.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15835
Golgi  Small GTPases 

Multiple truncated isoforms of MAVS prevent its spontaneous aggregation in antiviral innate immune signalling OPEN
Nan Qi, Yuheng Shi, Rui Zhang, Wenting Zhu, Bofeng Yuan, Xiaoyan Li, Changwan Wang, Xuewu Zhang & Fajian Hou

MAVS is an essential component of the pathogen-sensing machinery, and functions by forming prion-like filaments. Here the authors show that alternatively translated forms of truncated endogenous MAVS can prevent spontaneous aggregation and degradation in cells to sustain MAVS-mediated immune signalling.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15676
Antimicrobial responses  Mitophagy  RIG-I-like receptors  Signal transduction 

Asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of heterocycles via Rhodium-catalysed allylic arylation of racemates OPEN
Philipp Schäfer, Thomas Palacin, Mireia Sidera & Stephen P. Fletcher

Asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura procedures often have difficulty incorporating heterocyclic reagents, despite the importance of these in the pharmaceutical industry. Here the authors report a rhodium catalysed cross-coupling that tolerates a wide variety of nucleophiles including a range of heterocycles.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15762
Asymmetric catalysis  Asymmetric synthesis  Synthetic chemistry methodology 

An ubiquitin-dependent balance between mitofusin turnover and fatty acids desaturation regulates mitochondrial fusion OPEN
Laetitia Cavellini, Julie Meurisse, Justin Findinier, Zoi Erpapazoglou, Naïma Belgareh-Touzé, Allan M. Weissman & Mickael M. Cohen

Mitochondrial fusion is crucial for cellular homeostasis but its regulation is still not fully understood. Here the authors report that a cross-talk between ubiquitin protease Ubp2 and ligases Mdm30 and Rsp5 modulates mitofusin Fzo1 levels and fatty acids saturation and thus mitochondrial fusion.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15832
Membrane fusion  Mitochondria  Ubiquitylation 

Experimental evidence of Willis coupling in a one-dimensional effective material element OPEN
Michael B. Muhlestein, Caleb F. Sieck, Preston S. Wilson & Michael R. Haberman

Metamaterials enable the realization of unique material properties such as coupling between strain and momentum in a fluid—known as Willis coupling. Here, Muhlestein et al. use homogenization theory to better understand Willis coupling in acoustic metamaterials and demonstrate the unusual material response.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15625
Acoustics  Mechanical engineering 

Reproductive fitness and genetic risk of psychiatric disorders in the general population OPEN
Niamh Mullins, Andrés Ingason, Heather Porter, Jack Euesden, Alexandra Gillett, Sigurgeir Ólafsson, Daniel F. Gudbjartsson, Cathryn M. Lewis, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Evald Saemundsen, Ólafur Ó Gudmundsson, Michael L. Frigge, Augustine Kong, Agnar Helgason, G. Bragi Walters, Omar Gustafsson, Hreinn Stefansson & Kari Stefansson

Why genetic variants that confer risk for psychiatric disorders persist in the genome is an evolutionary conundrum. Here, Mullins et al. report association of polygenic risk for autism with having fewer children and polygenic risk for ADHD with higher reproductive fitness.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15833
Autism spectrum disorders  Evolutionary biology  Genetic association study 

Cellular senescence drives age-dependent hepatic steatosis OPEN

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is more common among older individuals. Here, the authors show that senescent cells in the liver promote fat accumulation and steatosis in the liver, and that clearance of senescent cells reduces hepatic steatosis in old, obese or diabetic mice.

13 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15691
Ageing  Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis  Senescence 

Hierarchical porous carbons with layer-by-layer motif architectures from confined soft-template self-assembly in layered materials OPEN
Jie Wang, Jing Tang, Bing Ding, Victor Malgras, Zhi Chang, Xiaodong Hao, Ya Wang, Hui Dou, Xiaogang Zhang & Yusuke Yamauchi

2D nanomaterials are promising capacitive energy storage materials, but their tendency to restack hinders electrolyte transport. Here, Yamauchi and colleagues introduce 2D ordered mesoporous carbons in between MXene layers, and metal removal affords all-carbon porous 2D–2D heterostructures in which restacking is prevented.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15717
Chemical engineering  Materials chemistry  Porous materials  Supercapacitors 

Mutual synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through a long-range and tunable electrical coupling scheme OPEN
R. Lebrun, S. Tsunegi, P. Bortolotti, H. Kubota, A. S. Jenkins, M. Romera, K. Yakushiji, A. Fukushima, J. Grollier, S. Yuasa & V. Cros

The spintronics based complex network is promising for next generation computing systems but hampered by short-range spin-wave coupling. The authors make progress by achieving long range and tunable mutual synchronization of two spin-torque oscillators with improved emission power and signal linewidth.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15825
Electronic and spintronic devices  Magnetic devices  Spintronics 

In-beam measurement of the hydrogen hyperfine splitting and prospects for antihydrogen spectroscopy OPEN
M. Diermaier, C. B. Jepsen, B. Kolbinger, C. Malbrunot, O. Massiczek, C. Sauerzopf, M. C. Simon, J. Zmeskal & E. Widmann

Comparing the ground-state hyperfine structure of antihydrogen to that of hydrogen will provide insights into CPT symmetry in nature. Here the authors report the most precise in-beam measurement of this quantity for hydrogen to demonstrate the viability of ASACUSA’s setup to measure it in antihydrogen.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15749
Electronic structure of atoms and molecules  Experimental particle physics 

Optogenetic control of RhoA reveals zyxin-mediated elasticity of stress fibres OPEN
Patrick W. Oakes, Elizabeth Wagner, Christoph A. Brand, Dimitri Probst, Marco Linke, Ulrich S. Schwarz, Michael Glotzer & Margaret L. Gardel

Cellular contractility is regulated by the GTPase RhoA, but how local signals are translated to a cell-level response is not known. Here the authors show that targeted RhoA activation results in propagation of force along stress fibres and actin flow, and identify zyxin as a regulator of stress fibre mechanics and homeostasis.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15817
Actin  Biopolymers in vivo  Motor proteins  RHO signalling 

Diffusion engineering of ions and charge carriers for stable efficient perovskite solar cells OPEN
Enbing Bi, Han Chen, Fengxian Xie, Yongzhen Wu, Wei Chen, Yanjie Su, Ashraful Islam, Michael Grätzel, Xudong Yang & Liyuan Han

Ion migration in perovskite solar cells are known to cause hysteresis and instability. Bi et al., report a charge extraction layer based on graphene, fullerenes and carbon quantum dots which suppresses ion diffusion and enhances charge carrier diffusion leading to efficient devices with improved stability.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15330
Electrical and electronic engineering  Solar cells 

The anaphase promoting complex impacts repair choice by protecting ubiquitin signalling at DNA damage sites OPEN
Kyungsoo Ha, Chengxian Ma, Han Lin, Lichun Tang, Zhusheng Lian, Fang Zhao, Ju-Mei Li, Bei Zhen, Huadong Pei, Suxia Han, Marcos Malumbres, Jianping Jin, Huan Chen, Yongxiang Zhao, Qing Zhu & Pumin Zhang

The choice between homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining is largely influenced by cell cycle. Here the authors show that APCCdh1 promotes homologous recombination by removing USP1, allowing polyubiquitinated histones to recruit BRCA1.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15751
DNA damage response  Double-strand DNA breaks 

Pyrazinamide and derivatives block ethylene biosynthesis by inhibiting ACC oxidase OPEN
Xiangzhong Sun, Yaxin Li, Wenrong He, Chenggong Ji, Peixue Xia, Yichuan Wang, Shuo Du, Hongjiang Li, Natasha Raikhel, Junyu Xiao & Hongwei Guo

Ethylene is a plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening. Here, the authors identify pyrazinamide, a drug used to treat tuberculosis, as an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and present the crystal structure of its active form (pyrazinecarboxylic acid) bound to ACC oxidase.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15758
Plant hormones  Target identification  X-ray crystallography 

Immiscible hydrocarbon fluids in the deep carbon cycle OPEN
Fang Huang, Isabelle Daniel, Hervé Cardon, Gilles Montagnac & Dimitri A. Sverjensky

Carbon migration in the deep Earth is still not fully understood. Here, the authors show that immiscible isobutane forms in situ from transformation of aqueous sodium acetate at 300 °C and 2.4–3.5 GPa, indicating that hydrocarbon fluids may play a major role in carbon transfer in the deep carbon cycle.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15798
Geochemistry  Petrology 

Identification of the elementary structural units of the DNA damage response OPEN
Francesco Natale, Alexander Rapp, Wei Yu, Andreas Maiser, Hartmann Harz, Annina Scholl, Stephan Grulich, Tobias Anton, David Hörl, Wei Chen, Marco Durante, Gisela Taucher-Scholz, Heinrich Leonhardt & M. Cristina Cardoso

Phosphorylated histone H2AX is an early signalling event of DNA double-strand breaks. Here the authors use super-resolution microscopy and ChIP-seq and identify ‘nano-domains’ – chromatin loops decorated by γH2AX and flanked by CTCF.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15760
DNA damage and repair  Histone post-translational modifications  Super-resolution microscopy 

Cryogenic strength improvement by utilizing room-temperature deformation twinning in a partially recrystallized VCrMnFeCoNi high-entropy alloy OPEN
Y. H. Jo, S. Jung, W. M. Choi, S. S. Sohn, H. S. Kim, B. J. Lee, N. J. Kim & S. Lee

CrMnFeCoNi high entropy alloys have high fracture toughness at cryogenic temperatures due to deformation twinning but twinning is not active in this alloy at room temperature. Here authors optimize composition and thermomechanical treatments to introduce non-recrystallized grains, producing high yield strength while maintaining good ductility.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15719
Mechanical properties  Metals and alloys 

Electrical resistance of individual defects at a topological insulator surface OPEN
Felix Lüpke, Markus Eschbach, Tristan Heider, Martin Lanius, Peter Schüffelgen, Daniel Rosenbach, Nils von den Driesch, Vasily Cherepanov, Gregor Mussler, Lukasz Plucinski, Detlev Grützmacher, Claus M. Schneider & Bert Voigtländer

Exploiting topological insulator surface states in electronic devices requires an understanding of the factors that affect transport. Here, the authors use scanning tunnelling potentiometry to determine the contributions of different kinds of surface defects to the electrical resistance.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15704
Electronic properties and materials  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films  Topological matter 

Structural and mechanistic basis of differentiated inhibitors of the acute pancreatitis target kynurenine-3-monooxygenase OPEN
Jonathan P. Hutchinson, Paul Rowland, Mark R. D. Taylor, Erica M. Christodoulou, Carl Haslam, Clare I. Hobbs, Duncan S. Holmes, Paul Homes, John Liddle, Damian J. Mole, Iain Uings, Ann L. Walker, Scott P. Webster, Christopher G. Mowat & Chun-wa Chung

Kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an emerging clinical target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and acute pancreatitis. Here, the authors report potent inhibitors that bind KMO in an unexpected conformation, offering structural and mechanistic insights for future drug discovery ventures.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15827
Chemical biology  Drug discovery  X-ray crystallography 

Differential processing of thalamic information via distinct striatal interneuron circuits OPEN
Maxime Assous, Jaime Kaminer, Fulva Shah, Arpan Garg, Tibor Koós & James M. Tepper

The responses of striatal GABAergic interneurons to thalamic inputs are not well characterised. Here, the authors demonstrate that complex intrastriatal circuitry is responsible for thalamic-evoked monosynaptic and disynaptic excitation in NPY-NGF interneurons but a disynaptic inhibition in the NPY-PLTS.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15860
Neural circuits  Striatum  Thalamus 

All-optical observation and reconstruction of spin wave dispersion OPEN
Yusuke Hashimoto, Shunsuke Daimon, Ryo Iguchi, Yasuyuki Oikawa, Ka Shen, Koji Sato, Davide Bossini, Yutaka Tabuchi, Takuya Satoh, Burkard Hillebrands, Gerrit E. W. Bauer, Tom H. Johansen, Andrei Kirilyuk, Theo Rasing & Eiji Saitoh

Observation of the entire dispersion relation for spin waves remains a challenge which prevents the full understanding of many intriguing magnetic properties. Here, the authors develop a table-top all-optical approach to map out the dispersion curve of pure-magnetostatic waves in magnetic films.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15859
Characterization and analytical techniques  Magnetic properties and materials  Spintronics 

CMG2/ANTXR2 regulates extracellular collagen VI which accumulates in hyaline fibromatosis syndrome OPEN
Jérôme Bürgi, Béatrice Kunz, Laurence Abrami, Julie Deuquet, Alessandra Piersigilli, Sabine Scholl-Bürgi, Ekkehart Lausch, Sheila Unger, Andrea Superti-Furga, Paolo Bonaldo & F. Gisou van der Goot

Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a hereditary disease characterized by nodular cutaneous lesions and joint pain. Here Bürgi et al. show that CMG2/ANTXR2 regulates collagen VI abundance, with loss-of-function mutations promoting collagen VI accumulation in HFS nodules and myometrial collagen deposition and sterility in mice, which can be rescued by depleting collagen VI.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15861
Cell signalling  Extracellular matrix  Mechanisms of disease 

Reconstruction of stochastic temporal networks through diffusive arrival times OPEN
Xun Li & Xiang Li

Reconstruction of time-resolved interactions in networks is more challenging than for the time-independent case, as causal relations limit accessibility to empirical data. Here the authors propose a method based on first-arrival observations of a diffusion process to infer stochastic temporal networks.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15729
Complex networks 

Bub1 positions Mad1 close to KNL1 MELT repeats to promote checkpoint signalling OPEN
Gang Zhang, Thomas Kruse, Blanca López-Méndez, Kathrine Beck Sylvestersen, Dimitriya H. Garvanska, Simone Schopper, Michael Lund Nielsen & Jakob Nilsson

The spindle assembly checkpoint ensures correct chromosome segregation and relies on kinetochore localization of the Bub1 and Mad1/Mad2 checkpoint proteins. Here the authors show that main function of Bub1 is to position Mad1 close to KNL1 MELT repeats in human cells.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15822
Checkpoints  Kinetochores 

In vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into ovarian follicle-like cells OPEN
Dajung Jung, Jie Xiong, Min Ye, Xunsi Qin, Lin Li, Shunfeng Cheng, Mengyuan Luo, Jia Peng, Ji Dong, Fuchou Tang, Wei Shen, Martin M. Matzuk & Kehkooi Kee

In vitro production of human oocytes for the treatment of female infertility is a goal in reproductive medicine. Here, the authors establish in vitro conditions to generate human ovarian follicle-like cells from human embryonic stem cells.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15680
Embryonic germ cells  Stem-cell differentiation 

Well-defined porous membranes for robust omniphobic surfaces via microfluidic emulsion templating OPEN
Pingan Zhu, Tiantian Kong, Xin Tang & Liqiu Wang

Designing mechanically and chemically robust liquid-repellent surfaces remains a longstanding challenge. Here, Wang and colleagues report a microfluidic emulsion templating strategy to fabricate bioinspired omniphobic porous membranes with remarkable durability.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15823
Design, synthesis and processing  Self-assembly  Surface patterning  Wetting 

INO80 exchanges H2A.Z for H2A by translocating on DNA proximal to histone dimers OPEN
Sandipan Brahma, Maheshi I. Udugama, Jongseong Kim, Arjan Hada, Saurabh K. Bhardwaj, Solomon G. Hailu, Tae-Hee Lee & Blaine Bartholomew

Chromatin remodellers usually mobilize or disassemble nucleosomes by translocating along the nucleosomal DNA at the H3-H4 interface. Here, the authors provide evidence chromatin remodeller INO80 translocates along DNA at the H2A-H2B interface and displaces DNA from the surface of H2A-H2B.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15616
Chromatin remodelling  Enzyme mechanisms 

Autism-like behaviours and enhanced memory formation and synaptic plasticity in Lrfn2/SALM1-deficient mice OPEN
Naoko Morimura, Hiroki Yasuda, Kazuhiko Yamaguchi, Kei-ichi Katayama, Minoru Hatayama, Naoko H. Tomioka, Maya Odagawa, Akiko Kamiya, Yoshimi Iwayama, Motoko Maekawa, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Hideo Matsuzaki, Masatsugu Tsujii, Kazuyuki Yamada, Takeo Yoshikawa & Jun Aruga

Lrfn2/SALM1 is a synaptic adhesion molecule, and is known to interact with PSD-95. Here the authors show that Lrfn2 regulates excitatory synapse maturation and maintenance, and that Lrfn2 knockout mice exhibit autism-like behaviours as well as enhanced learning and memory.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15800
Developmental disorders  Hippocampus  Long-term potentiation  Molecular neuroscience  Social behaviour 

A solid state source of photon triplets based on quantum dot molecules OPEN
Milad Khoshnegar, Tobias Huber, Ana Predojević, Dan Dalacu, Maximilian Prilmüller, Jean Lapointe, Xiaohua Wu, Philippe Tamarat, Brahim Lounis, Philip Poole, Gregor Weihs & Hamed Majedi

Multipartite photon states are desirable in quantum information technology but their generation in optical systems is less efficient with poor scaling. Here the authors demonstrate time-ordered photon triplets from a quantum dot molecule in a direct generation process with increased efficiency.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15716
Quantum dots  Quantum information 

Genetic diagnosis of Mendelian disorders via RNA sequencing OPEN
Laura S. Kremer , Daniel M. Bader, Christian Mertes, Robert Kopajtich, Garwin Pichler, Arcangela Iuso, Tobias B. Haack, Elisabeth Graf, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Caterina Terrile, Eliška Koňaříková, Birgit Repp, Gabi Kastenmüller, Jerzy Adamski, Peter Lichtner, Christoph Leonhardt, Benoit Funalot, Alice Donati, Valeria Tiranti, Anne Lombes et al.

Genome sequencing alone fails to provide a genetic diagnosis for many Mendelian disorder patients. Here, the authors utilize RNA sequencing to complement genotyping of patients with a rare mitochondrial disease by detecting aberrant RNA expression, splicing and allele-specific expression.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15824
Genetic testing  Genetics research  RNA sequencing  RNA splicing 

EMT cells increase breast cancer metastasis via paracrine GLI activation in neighbouring tumour cells OPEN
Deepika Neelakantan, Hengbo Zhou, Michael U. J. Oliphant, Xiaomei Zhang, Lukas M. Simon, David M. Henke, Chad A. Shaw, Meng-Fen Wu, Susan G. Hilsenbeck, Lisa D. White, Michael T. Lewis & Heide L. Ford

Recent findings have challenged the centrality of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in promoting tumour progression. Here the authors show that EMT cells can promote breast cancer metastasis by non-cell autonomous activation of the GLI transcriptional program in neighbouring epithelial tumour cells.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15773
Breast cancer  Tumour heterogeneity 

Quantum tunnelling and charge accumulation in organic ferroelectric memory diodes OPEN
Matteo Ghittorelli, Thomas Lenz, Hamed Sharifi Dehsari, Dong Zhao, Kamal Asadi, Paul W. M. Blom, Zsolt M. Kovács-Vajna, Dago M. de Leeuw & Fabrizio Torricelli

Organic non-volatile memories based on ferroelectric and semiconductor polymers are one of promising candidates for flexible electronics, yet the relevant device physics remains elusive. Ghittorelli et al. show that quantum tunnelling and charge accumulation govern the ferroelectric memory operation.

12 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15841
Applied physics  Electrical and electronic engineering  Electronic and spintronic devices  Materials science 

Centromeres are maintained by fastening CENP-A to DNA and directing an arginine anchor-dependent nucleosome transition OPEN
Lucie Y. Guo, Praveen Kumar Allu, Levani Zandarashvili, Kara L. McKinley, Nikolina Sekulic, Jennine M. Dawicki-McKenna, Daniele Fachinetti, Glennis A. Logsdon, Ryan M. Jamiolkowski, Don W. Cleveland, Iain M. Cheeseman & Ben E. Black

Centromere maintenance depends on the persistence of the histone variant CENP-A at the centromeres. Here, the authors characterize the core centromeric nucleosome complex wherein CENP-C confers a stable CENP-A nucleosome conformation and CENP-N fastens CENP-A to the DNA.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15775
Centromeres  Supramolecular assembly 

Local probe of single phonon dynamics in warm ion crystals OPEN
A. Abdelrahman, O. Khosravani, M. Gessner, A. Buchleitner, H. -P. Breuer, D. Gorman, R. Masuda, T. Pruttivarasin, M. Ramm, P. Schindler & H. Häffner

An exhausting characterization of the coherence properties of quantum system becomes challenging with increasing system size. Here the authors demonstrate that phonon autocorrelation functions and quantum discord can be measured with local control, and validate it in a string of 42 trapped ions.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15712
Atomic and molecular interactions with photons  Quantum mechanics 

Pumping approximately integrable systems OPEN
Florian Lange, Zala Lenarčič & Achim Rosch

Integrable models have an infinite number of conserved quantities but most realizations suffer from integrability breaking perturbations. Here the authors show that weakly driving such a system by periodic perturbations leads to large nonlinear responses governed by the approximate conservation laws.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15767
Nonlinear phenomena  Statistical physics  Theoretical physics 

Different populations of CD11b+ dendritic cells drive Th2 responses in the small intestine and colon OPEN
Johannes U. Mayer, Mimoza Demiri, William W. Agace, Andrew S. MacDonald, Marcus Svensson-Frej & Simon W. Milling

T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are essential for immunity against parasites, but how Th2 response is modulated in the gut is still unclear. Here the authors show that distinct dendritic cell subsets distinguishable by CD11b, CD103 and IRF4 function in the small intestine or colon to promote Th2 responses.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15820
Antigen-presenting cells  Antimicrobial responses  Lymphocyte differentiation  Mucosal immunology 

Mesoscopic chaos mediated by Drude electron-hole plasma in silicon optomechanical oscillators OPEN
Jiagui Wu, Shu-Wei Huang, Yongjun Huang, Hao Zhou, Jinghui Yang, Jia-Ming Liu, Mingbin Yu, Guoqiang Lo, Dim-Lee Kwong, Shukai Duan & Chee Wei Wong

Chaotic behaviour of optomechanical systems has only recently been investigated and observed. Here, Wu et al. study the chaos dynamics in a silicon platform where coupled electron-hole plasma dynamics is possible, providing a route towards chip-scale mesoscopic nonlinear dynamics.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15570
Optomechanics  Photonic crystals  Statistical physics, thermodynamics and nonlinear dynamics 

Zinc-dependent regulation of zinc import and export genes by Zur OPEN
Seung-Hwan Choi, Kang-Lok Lee, Jung-Ho Shin, Yoo-Bok Cho, Sun-Shin Cha & Jung-Hye Roe

Zinc homeostasis in most bacteria is achieved by a set of regulators, each responding to a certain level of intracellular zinc. Here the authors show that, in Streptomyces coelicolor, the Zur regulator modulates the expression of genes for zinc import and export over a large range of zinc concentrations.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15812
Bacterial genes  Transcriptional regulatory elements 

Anthropogenic climate change has altered primary productivity in Lake Superior OPEN
M. D. O’Beirne, J. P. Werne, R. E. Hecky, T. C. Johnson, S. Katsev & E. D. Reavie

The impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes’ ecosystems compared to historical records are unclear. Here, using paleolimnological evidence, the authors show that Lake Superior experienced a slow increase in productivity throughout the Holocene, but that this rate has increased in the last century.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15713
Carbon cycle  Element cycles  Environmental impact  Limnology 

Reactivation of associative structure specific outcome responses during prospective evaluation in reward-based choices OPEN
Maya Zhe Wang & Benjamin Y. Hayden

How the brain evaluates options to make a reward-based choice is unclear. Here, authors show that, prior to choice, neural activity patterns to the potential outcomes are reactivated in macaque orbitofrontal cortex, in a way that reflects the unique event sequences leading up to the outcomes.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15821
Motivation  Reward  Working memory 

Temperature-regulated guest admission and release in microporous materials OPEN
Gang (Kevin) Li, Jin Shang, Qinfen Gu, Rohan V. Awati, Nathan Jensen, Andrew Grant, Xueying Zhang, David S. Sholl, Jefferson Z. Liu, Paul A. Webley & Eric F. May

Regulating guest access and release in porous materials remains an important goal. Here, May and colleagues elucidate the mechanism by which guest admission can be temperature-regulated in typical microporous materials, and experimentally exploit this process to achieve appreciable and reversible hydrogen storage.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15777
Chemical engineering  Hydrogen storage materials  Metal–organic frameworks  Porous materials 

Structure of the Rpn13-Rpn2 complex provides insights for Rpn13 and Uch37 as anticancer targets OPEN
Xiuxiu Lu, Urszula Nowicka, Vinidhra Sridharan, Fen Liu, Leah Randles, David Hymel, Marzena Dyba, Sergey G. Tarasov, Nadya I. Tarasova, Xue Zhi Zhao, Jun Hamazaki, Shigeo Murata, Terrence R. Burke, Jr. & Kylie J. Walters

In the proteasome, Rpn2 provides the docking site for substrate receptor Rpn13. Here the authors present the structure of human Rpn13 Pru domain bound to its binding site in Rpn2 and provide insights into the mode of action for Rpn13-targeting molecule RA190, which has anticancer properties.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15540
Drug development  Intracellular signalling peptides and proteins  Solution-state NMR 

Age-related delay in visual and auditory evoked responses is mediated by white- and grey-matter differences OPEN
D. Price , L. K. Tyler, R. Neto Henriques, K. L. Campbell, N. Williams, M.S. Treder, J. R. Taylor, Cam-CAN, Carol Brayne, Edward T. Bullmore, Andrew C. Calder, Rhodri Cusack, Tim Dalgleish, John Duncan, Fiona E. Matthews, William D. Marslen-Wilson, James B. Rowe, Meredith A. Shafto, Teresa Cheung, Simon Davis et al.

Neural processing speed slows with age, but the relationship between this slowing and brain atrophy is unknown. Here, authors show that age-related functional brain differences in auditory and visual processing are partly due to structural differences in the distinct brain regions underlying these processes.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15671
Cortex  Neural ageing  Sensory processing  Striate cortex 

Constriction of the mitochondrial inner compartment is a priming event for mitochondrial division OPEN
Bongki Cho, Hyo Min Cho, Youhwa Jo, Hee Dae Kim, Myungjae Song, Cheil Moon, Hyongbum Kim, Kyungjin Kim, Hiromi Sesaki, Im Joo Rhyu, Hyun Kim & Woong Sun

The role of morphological alterations in the mitochondrial inner-membrane in regulating mitochondrial division are unknown. Here, the authors describe spontaneous and repetitive constriction of the mitochondrial inner compartment, and suggest this acts as a priming event for efficient mitochondrial division.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15754
Calcium signalling  Membrane fission  Mitochondria 

Distinct homotypic B-cell receptor interactions shape the outcome of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia OPEN
Claudia Minici, Maria Gounari, Rudolf Übelhart, Lydia Scarfò, Marcus Dühren-von Minden, Dunja Schneider, Alpaslan Tasdogan, Alabbas Alkhatib, Andreas Agathangelidis, Stavroula Ntoufa, Nicholas Chiorazzi, Hassan Jumaa, Kostas Stamatopoulos, Paolo Ghia & Massimo Degano

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is characterized by cell-autonomous B-cell receptor (BcR)-mediated signalling of neoplastic B lymphocytes. Here the authors unveil the structural basis and diversity of activatory homotypic BcR contacts and link them with CLL heterogeneity and the clinical outcome.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15746
B-cell receptor  Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia  X-ray crystallography 

Controlling hybrid nonlinearities in transparent conducting oxides via two-colour excitation OPEN
M. Clerici, N. Kinsey, C. DeVault, J. Kim, E. G. Carnemolla, L. Caspani, A. Shaltout, D. Faccio, V. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva & M. Ferrera

Metamaterials have enabled the tailored engineering of optical properties. Here, Clerici et al. show that independent interband and intraband nonlinearities in transparent conducting oxides allow dynamic optical control of the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15829
Materials for optics  Nonlinear optics 

11% efficiency solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with copper(II/I) hole transport materials OPEN
Yiming Cao, Yasemin Saygili, Amita Ummadisingu, Joël Teuscher, Jingshan Luo, Norman Pellet, Fabrizio Giordano, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Jacques -E. Moser, Marina Freitag, Anders Hagfeldt & Michael Grätzel

Inadequate pore infiltration and low conductivity of hole transporter materials limit the performance of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. Using fast charge-exchange Cu(II/I) complexes as part of the hole transporting material, Cao et al. overcome these issues to achieve a record photoconversion efficiency of 11%.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15390
Energy  Materials for devices  Nanoscale materials  Solar cells 

The influence of Antarctic subglacial volcanism on the global iron cycle during the Last Glacial Maximum OPEN
Silvia Frisia, Laura S. Weyrich, John Hellstrom, Andrea Borsato, Nicholas R. Golledge, Alexandre M. Anesio, Petra Bajo, Russell N. Drysdale, Paul C. Augustinus, Camille Rivard & Alan Cooper

Contributions of iron sources to Southern Ocean CO2 sequestration during the last glacial period remain uncertain. Here, based on the biogeochemical analysis of subglacial calcites, the authors propose Antarctic volcanism, via subglacial drainage of Fe-rich waters, as a key contributor.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15425
Element cycles  Palaeoclimate 

Raptor regulates functional maturation of murine beta cells OPEN
Qicheng Ni, Yanyun Gu, Yun Xie, Qinglei Yin, Hongli Zhang, Aifang Nie, Wenyi Li, Yanqiu Wang, Guang Ning, Weiqing Wang & Qidi Wang

mTORC1 regulates beta cell survival, function and adaptation to physiologic and pathological stimuli. Here Ni et al. demonstrate that that deficiency of Raptor, a component of mTORC1 complex, impairs insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in mice by affecting maturation of beta cells during the postnatal period.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15755
Mechanisms of disease  Nutrient signalling  Type 2 diabetes 

Taming interfacial electronic properties of platinum nanoparticles on vacancy-abundant boron nitride nanosheets for enhanced catalysis OPEN
Wenshuai Zhu, Zili Wu, Guo Shiou Foo, Xiang Gao, Mingxia Zhou, Bin Liu, Gabriel M. Veith, Peiwen Wu, Katie L. Browning, Ho Nyung Lee, Huaming Li, Sheng Dai & Huiyuan Zhu

Tuning electronic properties of metallic catalysts is a useful way to improve their activity, however control over metal-support interactions is still challenging. Here the authors report a vacancy-induced interfacial electronic effect for Pt assembled on vacancy-abundant h-BN nanosheets leading to superior CO oxidation catalysis.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15291
Catalyst synthesis  Heterogeneous catalysis  Nanoparticles  Two-dimensional materials 

Tespa1 regulates T cell receptor-induced calcium signals by recruiting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors OPEN
Jingjing Liang, Jun Lyu, Meng Zhao, Dan Li, Mingzhu Zheng, Yan Fang, Fangzhu Zhao, Jun Lou, Chuansheng Guo, Lie Wang, Di Wang, Wanli Liu & Linrong Lu

The thymocyte development protein Tespa1 is known to translate T cell receptor signals by affecting the calcium signalling cascade, but it is not clear how. Here the authors show that Tespa1 recruits IP3R1 to the TCR signalling complex.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15732
Signal transduction  T-cell receptor 

Genome-wide approach identifies a novel gene-maternal pre-pregnancy BMI interaction on preterm birth OPEN
Xiumei Hong , Ke Hao, Hongkai Ji, Shouneng Peng, Ben Sherwood, Antonio Di Narzo, Hui-Ju Tsai, Xin Liu, Irina Burd, Guoying Wang, Yuelong Ji, Deanna Caruso, Guangyun Mao, Tami R. Bartell, Zhongyang Zhang, Colleen Pearson, Linda Heffner, Sandra Cerda, Terri H. Beaty, M. Daniele Fallin et al.

Preterm birth (PTB) has high prevalence and PTB infants have greater risk for mortality. Here, Hong and colleagues perform a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis and find that maternal COL24A1 variants have a significant interaction with maternal pre-pregnancy obesity in increasing PTB risk.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15608
Epidemiology  Genetic association study  Paediatric research 

A covalent PIN1 inhibitor selectively targets cancer cells by a dual mechanism of action OPEN
Elena Campaner , Alessandra Rustighi, Alessandro Zannini, Alberto Cristiani, Silvano Piazza, Yari Ciani, Ori Kalid, Gali Golan, Erkan Baloglu, Sharon Shacham, Barbara Valsasina, Ulisse Cucchi, Agnese Chiara Pippione, Marco Lucio Lolli, Barbara Giabbai, Paola Storici, Paolo Carloni, Giulia Rossetti, Federica Benvenuti, Ezia Bello et al.

PIN1 is a promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this study, the authors identify a covalent inhibitor of PIN1 with anti-tumour and anti-metastatic properties thanks to PIN1 inactivation and to the release, after binding to PIN1, of a quinone-mimicking compound that elicits reactive oxygen generation and causes DNA damage.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15772
Cancer stem cells  Cell signalling  Structure-based drug design  Targeted therapies  Virtual screening 

Genome-wide association study identifies multiple risk loci for renal cell carcinoma OPEN
Ghislaine Scelo , Mark P. Purdue, Kevin M. Brown, Mattias Johansson, Zhaoming Wang, Jeanette E. Eckel-Passow, Yuanqing Ye, Jonathan N. Hofmann, Jiyeon Choi, Matthieu Foll, Valerie Gaborieau, Mitchell J. Machiela, Leandro M. Colli, Peng Li, Joshua N. Sampson, Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani, Celine Besse, Helene Blanche, Anne Boland, Laurie Burdette et al.

Risk for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is higher when there are first-degree family members with the disease. Here, Scelo and colleagues perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis and new genome-wide scan to identify seven new loci with significant RCC association.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15724
Cancer epidemiology  Genome-wide association studies 

An autonomous organic reaction search engine for chemical reactivity OPEN
Vincenza Dragone, Victor Sans, Alon B. Henson, Jaroslaw M. Granda & Leroy Cronin

While automated reaction systems typically work for the synthesis of pre-defined molecules, automated systems to discover reactivity are more challenging. Here the authors report an autonomous organic reaction search engine that allows discovery of the most reactive pathways in a multi-reagent, multistep reaction system.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15733
Automation  Computational science  Synthetic chemistry methodology  Scientific data 

Neural correlates of evidence accumulation during value-based decisions revealed via simultaneous EEG-fMRI OPEN
M. Andrea Pisauro, Elsa Fouragnan, Chris Retzler & Marios G. Philiastides

Parietal and prefrontal cortices gather information to make perceptual decisions, but it is not known if the same is true for value-based choices. Here, authors use simultaneous EEG-fMRI and modelling to show that during value- and reward-based decisions this evidence is accumulated in the posterior medial frontal cortex.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15808
Decision  Human behaviour 

DNA exonuclease Trex1 regulates radiotherapy-induced tumour immunogenicity OPEN
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Amandine Alard, Molykutty J. Aryankalayil, Yasmeen Sarfraz, Julie M. Diamond, Robert J. Schneider, Giorgio Inghirami, C. Norman Coleman, Silvia C. Formenti & Sandra Demaria

Trex1 is an exonuclease that degrades cytosolic DNA and has been associated with modulation of interferon responses in autoimmunity and viral infections. Here, the authors show that Trex1 attenuates the immunogenicity of cancer cells treated with high radiation doses by degrading cytosolic DNA and preventing the activation of interferon response.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15618
Cancer immunotherapy  Cancer microenvironment  Radiotherapy  Tumour immunology 

Diversity spurs diversification in ecological communities OPEN
Vincent Calcagno, Philippe Jarne, Michel Loreau, Nicolas Mouquet & Patrice David

Diversification may be driven by diversity, a concept Calcagno et al. explore using models of intra- and inter-specific ecological interactions. A threshold number of species is sometimes required before adaptive radiations can occur; a phenomenon they term diversity-dependent adaptive radiation.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15810
Evolutionary ecology  Evolutionary theory 

Refinement of learned skilled movement representation in motor cortex deep output layer OPEN
Qian Li, Ho Ko, Zhong-Ming Qian, Leo Y. C. Yan, Danny C. W. Chan, Gordon Arbuthnott, Ya Ke & Wing-Ho Yung

Motor learning induces structural and functional reorganization in upper layers of motor cortex. Here the authors show that neuronal ensembles in the output layer 5b exhibit temporal dynamics during skilled learning that progressively becomes well-aligned to movement in a dopamine dependent manner.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15834
Cortex  Motor cortex 

Real-time observation of cation exchange kinetics and dynamics at the muscovite-water interface OPEN
Sang Soo Lee, Paul Fenter, Kathryn L. Nagy & Neil C. Sturchio

Ion exchange at charged mineral-water interfaces is an important geochemical process, but a molecular-level understanding is still required. Here, the authors probe real-time variations of the interfacial ion exchange dynamics at the muscovite-water interface, providing a general picture of adsorbed ion coverage and speciation.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15826
Geochemistry  Reaction kinetics and dynamics  Surface chemistry 

Vegetation recovery in tidal marshes reveals critical slowing down under increased inundation OPEN
Jim van Belzen, Johan van de Koppel, Matthew L. Kirwan, Daphne van der Wal, Peter M. J. Herman, Vasilis Dakos, Sonia Kéfi, Marten Scheffer, Glenn R. Guntenspergen & Tjeerd J. Bouma

Theory and controlled experiments have shown that the recovery rate of an ecological variable from perturbation slows down before a critical tipping point. Here, van Belzen and colleagues demonstrate that slowed vegetation recovery to disturbance is also apparent in the natural system of a tidal marsh.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15811
Ecosystem ecology  Wetlands ecology 

A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope OPEN
Peter Bøggild, José M. Caridad, Christoph Stampfer, Gaetano Calogero, Nick Rübner Papior & Mads Brandbyge

Conventional 3D electron microscopes rely on emission, focusing, deflection, and detection of a focused beam of ballistic electrons to analyse the structure and composition of materials. Here, the authors examine the analogous concept of a 2D electron microscope based on graphene ballistic Dirac electrons.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15783
Electronic properties and devices  Electronic properties and materials  Imaging techniques  Surfaces, interfaces and thin films 

Ash1l and lnc-Smad3 coordinate Smad3 locus accessibility to modulate iTreg polarization and T cell autoimmunity OPEN
Meng Xia, Juan Liu, Shuxun Liu, Kun Chen, Hongyu Lin, Minghong Jiang, Xiaoqing Xu, Yiquan Xue, Wei Liu, Yan Gu, Xiang Zhang, Zhiqing Li, Lin Yi, Youcun Qian, Chen Zhou, Ru Li, Xuan Zhang, Zhanguo Li & Xuetao Cao

The transcriptional program activated by Smad2/Smad3 is critical for the induction and function of regulatory T cells. Here the authors show that the expression of Smad3 is modulated by the complementary functions of a methyltransferase Ash1l and an lncRNA lnc-Smad3 on the promoter accessibility of the mouse Smad3 locus.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15818
Autoimmunity  Epigenetics in immune cells  miRNA in immune cells  Regulatory T cells 

Ruthenium(II)-catalysed remote C–H alkylations as a versatile platform to meta-decorated arenes OPEN
Jie Li, Korkit Korvorapun, Suman De Sarkar, Torben Rogge, David J. Burns, Svenja Warratz & Lutz Ackermann

While ortho-selective C-H activation is well explored, general meta-selective methods are rare and often require directing groups that are retained in the final products. Here the authors show that transient imine groups can be used to direct the meta-functionalization of a range of arenes.

09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15430
Homogeneous catalysis  Reaction mechanisms 

Dynamic contrast-enhanced photoacoustic imaging using photothermal stimuli-responsive composite nanomodulators OPEN
Yun-Sheng Chen, Soon Joon Yoon, Wolfgang Frey, Mary Dockery & Stanislav Emelianov

Photoacoustic imaging becomes an enabling technology that is designed for clinic diagnosis of disease. Here, Chen et al. report an imaging contrast agent—plasmonic nanoparticles caged in hydrogel subject to reversible volume change depending on temperature, which exhibits tunable photoacoustic signal.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15782
Cancer imaging  Nanoparticles  Preclinical research 

Pentavalent HIV-1 vaccine protects against simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge OPEN
Todd Bradley , Justin Pollara, Sampa Santra, Nathan Vandergrift, Srivamshi Pittala, Chris Bailey-Kellogg, Xiaoying Shen, Robert Parks, Derrick Goodman, Amanda Eaton, Harikrishnan Balachandran, Linh V. Mach, Kevin O. Saunders, Joshua A. Weiner, Richard Scearce, Laura L. Sutherland, Sanjay Phogat, Jim Tartaglia, Steven G. Reed, Shiu-Lok Hu et al.

A previous human HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial, boosting with HIV envelope protein from two strains, demonstrated moderate vaccine efficacy. Here, Bradley et al. show that a pentavalent HIV envelope protein boost improves protection from viral challenge in non-human primates and they identify immune correlates of protection.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15711
HIV infections  Preclinical research  Vaccines 

Parity-time-symmetric quantum critical phenomena OPEN
Yuto Ashida, Shunsuke Furukawa & Masahito Ueda

Parity-time (PT) symmetry has been mainly studied in optical and weakly interacting open quantum systems without many-body correlations. Here the authors show that in a strongly correlated many-body system the interplay between correlations and PT symmetry leads to the emergence of new critical phenomena.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15791
Phase transitions and critical phenomena  Theoretical physics  Ultracold gases 

Ebola virus VP30 and nucleoprotein interactions modulate viral RNA synthesis OPEN
Wei Xu, Priya Luthra, Chao Wu, Jyoti Batra, Daisy W. Leung, Christopher F. Basler & Gaya K. Amarasinghe

Ebola virus (EBOV) VP30 is a multifunctional protein that plays a role in transcription, but molecular details remain unknown. Here, using X-ray crystallography and minigenome assays, Xu et al. define the interaction between VP30 and a portion of NP that is critical for optimal EBOV RNA synthesis.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15576
Ebola virus  Viral infection  X-ray crystallography 

Spaser as a biological probe OPEN
Ekaterina I. Galanzha, Robert Weingold, Dmitry A. Nedosekin, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Jacqueline Nolan, Walter Harrington, Alexander S. Kuchyanov, Roman G. Parkhomenko, Fumiya Watanabe, Zeid Nima, Alexandru S. Biris, Alexander I. Plekhanov, Mark I. Stockman & Vladimir P. Zharov

Advanced diagnostic probes are required for monitoring disease progression. Here Galanzha et al. demonstrate a 22 nm plasmonic nanolaser to serve as a super-bright, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissue, while targeting cancer cells.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15528
Biosensors  Cancer  Fluorescent labelling  Nanophotonics and plasmonics 

Water pumping in mantle shear zones OPEN
Jacques Précigout, Cécile Prigent, Laurie Palasse & Anthony Pochon

Water plays a key role in many geological processes, including weakening crystals in the crust and mantle. Here, using amphibole distribution and olivine dislocation slip-systems, the authors show that ductile flow also has a dynamic control on water-rich fluid circulation in mantle shear zones.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15736
Structural geology  Tectonics 

Synthesis and preliminary PET imaging of 11C and 18F isotopologues of the ROS1/ALK inhibitor lorlatinib OPEN
Thomas Lee Collier, Marc D. Normandin, Nickeisha A. Stephenson, Eli Livni, Steven H. Liang, Dustin W. Wooten, Shadi A. Esfahani, Michael G. Stabin, Umar Mahmood, Jianqing Chen, Wei Wang, Kevin Maresca, Rikki N. Waterhouse, Georges El Fakhri, Paul Richardson & Neil Vasdev

Lorlatinib—a ROS1/ALK inhibitor—is currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancers. Here the authors develop synthetic routes to 11C- and 18F-labelled lorlatinib, with subsequent PET imaging showing good blood brain barrier permeability in non-human primates.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15761
Cancer imaging  Drug discovery and development  Medicinal chemistry  Nuclear chemistry 

Non-Ising and chiral ferroelectric domain walls revealed by nonlinear optical microscopy OPEN
Salia Cherifi-Hertel, Hervé Bulou, Riccardo Hertel, Grégory Taupier, Kokou Dodzi (Honorat) Dorkenoo, Christian Andreas, Jill Guyonnet, Iaroslav Gaponenko, Katia Gallo & Patrycja Paruch

Understanding the structure of domain walls is an important step in developing nanoscale ferroelectric devices. Here, the authors use second harmonic imaging to verify predictions of Bloch and Néel, rather than simple Ising, domain wall structures in lead zirconium titanate and lithium tantalate.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15768
Ferroelectrics and multiferroics 

Magnetic forces enable controlled drug delivery by disrupting endothelial cell-cell junctions OPEN
Yongzhi Qiu, Sheng Tong, Linlin Zhang, Yumiko Sakurai, David R. Myers, Lin Hong, Wilbur A. Lam & Gang Bao

The transportation of large molecules through the vascular endothelium presents a major challenge for in vivo drug delivery. Here, the authors demonstrate the potential of using external magnetic fields and magnetic nanoparticles to enhance the local extravasation of circulating large molecules.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15594
Biomedical engineering  Drug delivery  Nanoparticles 

Human LACC1 increases innate receptor-induced responses and a LACC1 disease-risk variant modulates these outcomes OPEN
Amit Lahiri, Matija Hedl, Jie Yan & Clara Abraham

LACC1 genetic variants are associated with Crohn's disease, leprosy and arthritis. Here the authors show that LACC1 is needed for optimal innate receptor-induced signalling, mitochondrial ROS production and microbial clearance, effects that are reduced by a Crohn's disease-risk variant in LACC1.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15614
Inflammatory bowel disease  Monocytes and macrophages  Pattern recognition receptors 

Quantum annealing with all-to-all connected nonlinear oscillators OPEN
Shruti Puri, Christian Kraglund Andersen, Arne L. Grimsmo & Alexandre Blais

Quantum annealing aims at solving optimization problems mapped to Ising interactions between neighbouring spins, but it is crucial to implement it in a noise-resilient way. Here the authors propose a network of all-to-all connected driven Kerr-nonlinear resonators, which exhibits high success probabilities.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15785
Quantum information  Quantum simulation 

MYC activation cooperates with Vhl and Ink4a/Arf loss to induce clear cell renal cell carcinoma OPEN
Sean T. Bailey , Aleisha M. Smith, Jordan Kardos, Sara E. Wobker, Harper L. Wilson, Bhavani Krishnan, Ryoichi Saito, Hyo Jin Lee, Jing Zhang, Samuel C. Eaton, Lindsay A. Williams, Ujjawal Manocha, Dorien J. Peters, Xinchao Pan, Thomas J. Carroll, Dean W. Felsher, Vonn Walter, Qing Zhang, Joel S. Parker, Jen Jen Yeh et al.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common and aggressive malignancy. Here, the authors generate two mouse models of the most common RCC subtypes: the human papillary RCC through MYC activation and clear cell RCC through MYC activation combined with Vhl and Cdkn2a deletion.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15770
Cancer models  Renal cell carcinoma 

Conditional internalization of PEGylated nanomedicines by PEG engagers for triple negative breast cancer therapy OPEN
Yu-Cheng Su, Pierre-Alain Burnouf, Kuo-Hsiang Chuang, Bing-Mae Chen, Tian-Lu Cheng & Steve R. Roffler

The majority of treatment options for cancers are ineffective due to limited therapeutic targeting. Here, the authors develop bispecific antibodies that effectively target nanomaterials to triple-negative breast cancer cell receptors and deliver therapeutics leading to inhibition of tumour growth.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15507
Biomaterials – proteins  Drug delivery  Targeted therapies 

Origin of the crossover from polarons to Fermi liquids in transition metal oxides OPEN
Carla Verdi, Fabio Caruso & Feliciano Giustino

Photoemission spectroscopy studies of anatase titanium oxide have demonstrated a doping-driven crossover in the polaronic character of charge carriers. Here, the authors obtain a first principles understanding of these observations in terms of plasma screening and electron–phonon coupling.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15769
Electronic properties and materials  Electronic structure 

Loss of Asxl2 leads to myeloid malignancies in mice OPEN
Jianping Li , Fuhong He, Peng Zhang, Shi Chen, Hui Shi, Yanling Sun, Ying Guo, Hui Yang, Na Man, Sarah Greenblatt, Zhaomin Li, Zhengyu Guo, Yuan Zhou, Lan Wang, Lluis Morey, Sion Williams, Xi Chen, Qun-Tian Wang, Stephen D. Nimer, Peng Yu et al.

ASXL2 mutations are mostly found in a subset of leukemia patients with certain genetic aberrations; however the role of this protein in normal hematopoiesis and related malignancies is still unclear. Here the authors use a knock-out mouse model to uncover the role of Asxl2 in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15456
Cancer stem cells  Mechanisms of disease  Myelodysplastic syndrome 

Insights into Hunter syndrome from the structure of iduronate-2-sulfatase OPEN
Mykhaylo Demydchuk, Chris H. Hill, Aiwu Zhou, Gábor Bunkóczi, Penelope E. Stein, Denis Marchesan, Janet E. Deane & Randy J. Read

Hunter syndrome is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). Here, the authors present the IDS crystal structure and give mechanistic insights into mutations that cause Hunter syndrome.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15786
Metabolic disorders  X-ray crystallography 

Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates OPEN
Lingxiang Jiang, Shenyu Yang, Boyce Tsang, Mei Tu & Steve Granick

Precise assembly of undecorated colloids demands a clever approach. Here, the authors draw unlikely inspiration from vector graphics to direct colloids into 2D structures, pinning the ends and corners of assembled patterns with optical tweezers and manipulating the segments like vectors.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15778
Colloids  Optical tweezers  Self-assembly 

A BaSiC tool for background and shading correction of optical microscopy images OPEN
Tingying Peng, Kurt Thorn, Timm Schroeder, Lichao Wang, Fabian J. Theis, Carsten Marr & Nassir Navab

Accurate quantification of bioimaging data is often confounded by uneven illumination (shading) in space and background variation in time. Here the authors present BaSiC, a Fiji plugin solving both issues. It requires fewer input images and is more robust to artefacts than existing shading correction tools.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms14836
Image processing  Software 

Cross-orientation suppression in visual area V2 OPEN
Ryan J. Rowekamp & Tatyana O. Sharpee

V2 neurons exhibit complex and diverse selectivity for visual features. Here the authors use a statistical analytical framework to model V2 responses to natural stimuli and find three organizing principles, chief among them is the cross-orientation suppression that increases response selectivity.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15739
Extrastriate cortex  Neural encoding  Object vision  Sensory processing 

The ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 promotes caveolin-1 ubiquitination and degradation to modulate inflammation OPEN
Chih-Yuan Lee, Ting-Yu Lai, Meng-Kun Tsai, Yung-Chi Chang, Yu-Hsin Ho, I-Shing Yu, Tzu-Wen Yeh, Chih-Chang Chou, You-Sheng Lin, Toby Lawrence & Li-Chung Hsu

Caveolae and their major constituent Caveolin-1 (CAV1) play an important role in signalling pathways involved in inflammation, but regulators of CAV1 protein stability are unknown. Here, the authors show that E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF1 induces degradation of CAV1 in response to TLR4 activation, and mediates the pro-inflammatory response both in vitro and in vivo.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15502
Cell signalling  Sepsis 

Preventing tissue fibrosis by local biomaterials interfacing of specific cryptic extracellular matrix information OPEN
Christine-Maria Horejs, Jean-Philippe St-Pierre, Juha R. M. Ojala, Joseph A. M. Steele, Patricia Barros da Silva, Angela Rynne-Vidal, Stephanie A. Maynard, Catherine S. Hansel, Clara Rodríguez-Fernández, Manuel M. Mazo, Amanda Y. F. You, Alex J. Wang, Thomas von Erlach, Karl Tryggvason, Manuel López-Cabrera & Molly M. Stevens

Matrix metalloproteinase enzymes are widely known to contribute to the breakdown of tissues. Here, the authors utilise a biomaterial substrate functionalised with a laminin fragment to modulate the expression of these enzymes, subsequently controlling the integrity of tissue.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15509
Biomaterials – cells  Biomedical engineering 

Protein-directed ribosomal frameshifting temporally regulates gene expression OPEN
Sawsan Napthine, Roger Ling, Leanne K. Finch, Joshua D. Jones, Susanne Bell, Ian Brierley & Andrew E. Firth

Programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting (−1 PRF) is a mechanism whereby specific signals within mRNAs direct ribosomes to shift into an alternative reading frame. Here the authors describe a mechanism of −1 PRF that is temporally regulated by a viral protein over the course of the virus replicative cycle.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15582
Ribosome  Translation  Virology 

Codon bias imposes a targetable limitation on KRAS-driven therapeutic resistance OPEN
Moiez Ali, Erin Kaltenbrun, Grace R. Anderson, Sarah Jo Stephens, Sabrina Arena, Alberto Bardelli, Christopher M. Counter & Kris C. Wood

KRAS mutations drive resistance to diverse targeted therapies. In this study, the authors show that the rare codons of KRAS, yielding low oncogene expression, can be overcome to drive resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in CRC through upregulation of global translation or through selection of more potent KRAS Q61 mutations.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15617
Cancer genetics  Cancer therapeutic resistance  Oncogenes 

Time-programmable drug dosing allows the manipulation, suppression and reversal of antibiotic drug resistance in vitro OPEN
Mari Yoshida, Sabrina Galiñanes Reyes, Soichiro Tsuda, Takaaki Horinouchi, Chikara Furusawa & Leroy Cronin

It is unclear whether strategies involving antibiotic cycling can efficiently control the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Here, Yoshida et al. show that the evolution of multi-drug-resistant bacteria in vitro can be manipulated by administering pairs of antibiotics and switching between them.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15589
Antimicrobial resistance  Chemical biology  Experimental evolution 

Carbon nanotube-based three-dimensional monolithic optoelectronic integrated system OPEN
Yang Liu, Sheng Wang, Huaping Liu & Lian-Mao Peng

Single-material monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuits via CMOS compatible low-temperature approaches are crucial to the continued development of post-Moore electronics. Liu et al., report carbon nanotube based electrically driven 3D monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuits.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15649
Electronic devices  Materials for optics  Optoelectronic devices and components 

Myosin-dependent cell-cell communication controls synchronicity of division in acute and chronic stages of Toxoplasma gondii OPEN
Karine Frénal, Damien Jacot, Pierre-Mehdi Hammoudi, Arnault Graindorge, Bohumil Maco & Dominique Soldati-Favre

The mechanism by which Toxoplasma gondii achieves synchronized cell division is incompletely understood. Here, the authors identify an intravacuolar cell-cell communication that ensures synchronized division and depends on myosin I.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15710
Cell division  Myosin  Parasite biology  Parasitic infection 

Current-induced skyrmion generation and dynamics in symmetric bilayers OPEN
A. Hrabec, J. Sampaio, M. Belmeguenai, I. Gross, R. Weil, S. M. Chérif, A. Stashkevich, V. Jacques, A. Thiaville & S. Rohart

The creation of practical devices based on magnetic skyrmions depends on the development of methods to create and control stable individual skyrmions. Here, the authors present a bilayer device that uses dipolar interactions to stabilize skyrmions that can be manipulated using electric currents.

08 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15765
Magnetic properties and materials  Spintronics 

Universal emulsion stabilization from the arrested adsorption of rough particles at liquid-liquid interfaces OPEN
Michele Zanini, Claudia Marschelke, Svetoslav E. Anachkov, Emanuele Marini, Alla Synytska & Lucio Isa

Emulsions are dispersions of two liquids which have industrial applications and can be stabilized by solid particles. Here Zanini et al. investigate the effect of particle roughness and demonstrate that particles with a particular surface roughness can effectively stabilize different types of emulsions.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15701
Surfaces, interfaces and thin films  Wetting 

Type-2 innate lymphoid cells control the development of atherosclerosis in mice OPEN
Stephen A. Newland, Sarajo Mohanta, Marc Clément, Soraya Taleb, Jennifer A. Walker, Meritxell Nus, Andrew P. Sage, Changjun Yin, Desheng Hu, Lauren L. Kitt, Alison J. Finigan, Hans-Reimer Rodewald, Christoph J. Binder, Andrew N. J. McKenzie, Andreas J. Habenicht & Ziad Mallat

Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) affect adipose tissue metabolism and function. Here the authors show that the ILC2 are present in para-aortic adipose tissue and represent a major source of IL-5 and IL-13 required for mounting atheroprotective immunity, which can be altered by high fat diet.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15781
Atherosclerosis  Immunology  Physiology 

Crystal structures of U6 snRNA-specific terminal uridylyltransferase OPEN
Seisuke Yamashita, Yuko Takagi, Takashi Nagaike & Kozo Tomita

After transcription the 3′-end of U6 snRNA is oligo-uridylylated by the terminal uridylyltransferase TUT1. Here the authors present the crystal structure of human TUT1 and give insights into the mechanism of 3′-end uridylylation by the enzyme.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15788
RNA metabolism  X-ray crystallography 

Exploiting macrophage autophagy-lysosomal biogenesis as a therapy for atherosclerosis OPEN

Dysfunction of autophagy in plaque macrophages aggravates atherosclerosis. Here the authors show that induction of macrophage autophagy–lysosomal biogenesis either genetically by overexpression of the master transcriptional regulator of this process, TFEB, or pharmacologically with trehalose is atheroprotective.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15750
Atherosclerosis  Autophagy  Cell death and immune response  Inflammasome 

River plastic emissions to the world’s oceans OPEN
Laurent C. M. Lebreton, Joost van der Zwet, Jan-Willem Damsteeg, Boyan Slat, Anthony Andrady & Julia Reisser

Rivers provide a major pathway for ocean plastic waste, but effective mitigation is dependent on a quantification of active sources. Here, the authors present a global model of riverine plastic inputs, and estimate annual plastic waste of almost 2.5 million tonnes, with 86% sourced from Asia.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15611
Environmental impact  Freshwater ecology  Hydrology 

The CaMKII holoenzyme structure in activation-competent conformations OPEN
Janette B. Myers, Vincent Zaegel, Steven J. Coultrap, Adam P. Miller, K. Ulrich Bayer & Steve L. Reichow

Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) forms a 12 subunit holoenzyme central to synaptic plasticity. Here the authors report a 3D structure of the CaMKII holoenzyme in an activation-competent state obtained by single particle EM, and suggest a role for the intrinsically disordered linker domain in facilitating cooperative activation.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15742
Electron microscopy  Enzyme mechanisms  Kinases  Neuroscience 

Dendro-dendritic cholinergic excitation controls dendritic spike initiation in retinal ganglion cells OPEN
A. Brombas, S. Kalita-de Croft, E. J. Cooper-Williams & S. R. Williams

Neural computations performed by the retinal microcircuit have been extensively studied. Here the authors report using dendritic recordings that the direction selective responses of retinal ganglion cells are controlled by dendro-dendritic cholinergic excitation from starburst amacrine cells.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15683
Neural circuits  Retina 

Inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the magnetic transition in an iron-rhodium thin film OPEN
C. Gatel, B. Warot-Fonrose, N. Biziere, L.A. Rodríguez, D. Reyes, R. Cours, M. Castiella & M.J. Casanove

Films of iron-rhodium alloy undergo a magnetic transition at 100°C, and so are attractive for applications, but a detailed understanding of the transition mechanism has not been achieved. Here, the authors use electron holography to quantitatively map the transition’s progress through the film depth.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15703
Magnetic properties and materials  Phase transitions and critical phenomena 

Contrasting mechanisms of growth in two model rod-shaped bacteria OPEN
Cyrille Billaudeau, Arnaud Chastanet, Zhizhong Yao, Charlène Cornilleau, Nicolas Mirouze, Vincent Fromion & Rut Carballido-López

Protein MreB participates in elongation of sidewalls during growth of most rod-shaped bacteria. Here, the authors use fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking to visualize MreB, showing that Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli appear to use different strategies to adapt to growth rate variations.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15370
Cell growth  Cellular microbiology  Molecular biology 

DNA vaccination protects mice against Zika virus-induced damage to the testes OPEN
Bryan D. Griffin , Kar Muthumani, Bryce M. Warner, Anna Majer, Mable Hagan, Jonathan Audet, Derek R. Stein, Charlene Ranadheera, Trina Racine, Marc-Antoine De La Vega, Jocelyne Piret, Stephanie Kucas, Kaylie N. Tran, Kathy L. Frost, Christine De Graff, Geoff Soule, Leanne Scharikow, Jennifer Scott, Gordon McTavish, Valerie Smid et al.

Zika virus (ZIKV) can persist in human semen and sperm, which can result in sexual transmission. Here, Griffin et al. show that a DNA vaccine, expressing ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope proteins, protects mice from infection-associated damage to testes and sperm, and prevents viral persistence in testes.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15743
DNA vaccines  Viral pathogenesis 

Dynamic alterations in decoy VEGF receptor-1 stability regulate angiogenesis OPEN
Joshua M. Boucher, Ryan P. Clark, Diana C. Chong, Kathryn M. Citrin, Lyndsay A. Wylie & Victoria L. Bautch

Membrane-bound mVEGFR1 is a decoy VEGF-A receptor that regulates VEGF-A signalling amplitude. Boucher et al. show that Rab27a-regulated palmitoylation of mVEGFR1 redirects the receptor from a stable, constitutively recycling mode to a degradative route that removes ligands from the system.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15699
Angiogenesis  Cellular imaging 

Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated Dnm2 knockdown prevents and reverts myotubular myopathy in mice OPEN
Hichem Tasfaout, Suzie Buono, Shuling Guo, Christine Kretz, Nadia Messaddeq, Sheri Booten, Sarah Greenlee, Brett P. Monia, Belinda S. Cowling & Jocelyn Laporte

X-linked myotubular myopathy is caused by mutations in the gene coding for myotubularin 1, and is characterized by overexpression of dynamin 2. Here the authors develop antisense oligonucleotides to dynamin 2, and show that systemic injection leads to improved pathology in mice.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15661
Antisense oligonucleotide therapy  Neuromuscular disease  Skeletal muscle  Target validation 

Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from antibiotic producers to pathogens OPEN
Xinglin Jiang, Mostafa M. Hashim Ellabaan, Pep Charusanti, Christian Munck, Kai Blin, Yaojun Tong, Tilmann Weber, Morten O. A. Sommer & Sang Yup Lee

Some antibiotic resistance genes found in pathogenic bacteria might derive from antibiotic-producing actinobacteria. Here, Jiang et al. provide bioinformatic and experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis, and propose a specific mechanism for the transfer of these genes between bacterial phyla.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15784
Antibiotics  Bacterial evolution  Bacterial genetics  Evolutionary genetics 

Towards colloidal spintronics through Rashba spin-orbit interaction in lead sulphide nanosheets OPEN
Mohammad Mehdi Ramin Moayed, Thomas Bielewicz, Martin Sebastian Zöllner, Carmen Herrmann & Christian Klinke

Exploring the Rashba spin splitting in colloidal materials enables spintronic device with low cost and high flexibility. Here, the authors report Rashba spin splitting in colloidal PbS nanosheets and demonstrate a mechanism for selectively exciting the carriers with different spin states.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15721
Electronic devices  Nanoscale materials  Spintronics 

The signalling receptor MCAM coordinates apical-basal polarity and planar cell polarity during morphogenesis OPEN
Qian Gao, Junfeng Zhang, Xiumei Wang, Ying Liu, Rongqiao He, Xingfeng Liu, Fei Wang, Jing Feng, Dongling Yang, Zhaoqing Wang, Anming Meng & Xiyun Yan

It is unclear if there is an interaction between apical-basal (AB) polarity and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways during morphogenesis. Here, the authors define a role for the melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), known to regulate PCP, in AB polarity via FGF signalling in vitro and in zebrafish.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15279
Body patterning  Cell polarity 

WASH maintains NKp46+ ILC3 cells by promoting AHR expression OPEN
Pengyan Xia, Jing Liu, Shuo Wang, Buqing Ye, Ying Du, Zhen Xiong, Ze-Guang Han, Liang Tong & Zusen Fan

Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are thought to direct immune responses, but little is known about the development and maintenance of ILC subsets. Here the authors show that WASH maintains the pool of NKp46+ ILC3s by recruiting Arid1a to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor promoter and inducing its expression.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15685
Cell signalling  Innate lymphoid cells 

Seepage from an arctic shallow marine gas hydrate reservoir is insensitive to momentary ocean warming OPEN
Wei-Li Hong, Marta E. Torres, JoLynn Carroll, Antoine Crémière, Giuliana Panieri, Haoyi Yao & Pavel Serov

The degree to which warming bottom waters will destabilize shallow gas hydrate reservoirs in the Arctic remains unclear. Here, Hong et al. observe and model porewater profiles from a gas-hydrate-bearing system south of Spitsbergen, and conclude episodic emissions are not warming induced.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15745
Carbon cycle  Environmental impact 

Misfolded polypeptides are selectively recognized and transported toward aggresomes by a CED complex OPEN
Joori Park, Yeonkyoung Park, Incheol Ryu, Mi-Hyun Choi, Hyo Jin Lee, Nara Oh, Kyutae Kim, Kyoung Mi Kim, Junho Choe, Cheolju Lee, Ja-Hyun Baik & Yoon Ki Kim

Misfolded polypeptide aggregates are actively transported to aggresomes, where they are degraded through aggrephagy. Here the authors show that these aggregates are selectively recognized by the CTIF–eEF1A1–DCTN1 (CED) complex and transported to aggresomes through the interactions of DCTN1 with dynein motors.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15730
Protein aggregation  Translation 

Loss of Parkinson’s disease-associated protein CHCHD2 affects mitochondrial crista structure and destabilizes cytochrome c OPEN
Hongrui Meng, Chikara Yamashita, Kahori Shiba-Fukushima, Tsuyoshi Inoshita, Manabu Funayama, Shigeto Sato, Tomohisa Hatta, Tohru Natsume, Masataka Umitsu, Junichi Takagi, Yuzuru Imai & Nobutaka Hattori

Mutations in CHCHD2 are associated with Parkinson’s disease. Here the authors investigate the physiological and pathological roles of CHCHD2 in Drosophila and mammalian cells, and find that it regulates mitochondrial respiration through stabilizing cytochrome c.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15500
Mitochondria  Parkinson's disease 

Mycelium-mediated transfer of water and nutrients stimulates bacterial activity in dry and oligotrophic environments OPEN
Anja Worrich, Hryhoriy Stryhanyuk, Niculina Musat, Sara König, Thomas Banitz, Florian Centler, Karin Frank, Martin Thullner, Hauke Harms, Hans-Hermann Richnow, Anja Miltner, Matthias Kästner & Lukas Y. Wick

The maintenance of bacterial and fungal activity is essential for ecosystem functioning, particularly in dry soils where the two phyla co-exist. Here, Worrich and colleagues show experimentally that mycelia traffic water and nutrients and thereby stimulate bacterial activity in stressful conditions.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15472
Ecosystem ecology  Fungal ecology  Soil microbiology 

Variation in auxin sensing guides AUX/IAA transcriptional repressor ubiquitylation and destruction OPEN
Martin Winkler, Michael Niemeyer, Antje Hellmuth, Philipp Janitza, Gideon Christ, Sophia L. Samodelov, Verona Wilde, Petra Majovsky, Marco Trujillo, Matias D. Zurbriggen, Wolfgang Hoehenwarter, Marcel Quint & Luz Irina A. Calderón Villalobos

The phytohormone auxin is sensed by SCFTIR1-AUX/IAA receptors leading to AUX/IAA repressor ubiquitylation and turnover. Here the authors show that IAA6 and IAA19 differ in their ubiquitylation and turnover dynamics, differentially contributing to auxin sensing and enabling discrimination of auxin concentrations.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15706
Auxin  Ubiquitin ligases  Ubiquitylated proteins 

Astronomical pacing of the global silica cycle recorded in Mesozoic bedded cherts OPEN
Masayuki Ikeda, Ryuji Tada & Kazumi Ozaki

While the global silica cycle is known to play an important role in long-term climate change, the driving factors remain unknown. Here, the authors present a ∼70 million year long record of early Mesozoic biogenic silica and propose orbitally-paced chemical weathering as a primary driver.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15532
Carbon cycle  Element cycles  Palaeoclimate 

Ultra-bright and highly efficient inorganic based perovskite light-emitting diodes OPEN
Liuqi Zhang, Xiaolei Yang, Qi Jiang, Pengyang Wang, Zhigang Yin, Xingwang Zhang, Hairen Tan, Yang (Michael) Yang, Mingyang Wei, Brandon R. Sutherland, Edward H. Sargent & Jingbi You

Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites are garnering attention for light emitting diode (LED) applications. Employing a thin hydrophilic insulating polymer, Zhang et al. report LEDs exhibiting a brightness of 91,000 cd m−2 and external quantum efficiency of 10.4% using a mixed-cation perovskite.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15640
Electronic devices  Organic LEDs 

Tightening of tropical ascent and high clouds key to precipitation change in a warmer climate OPEN
Hui Su, Jonathan H. Jiang, J. David Neelin, T. Janice Shen, Chengxing Zhai, Qing Yue, Zhien Wang, Lei Huang, Yong-Sang Choi, Graeme L. Stephens & Yuk L. Yung

The sensitivity of global precipitation to warming is largely governed by changes in atmospheric longwave radiation, a function of cloud cover. Here the authors show that tightening of the tropical circulation with warming drives a decrease in high cloud cover, resulting in higher precipitation changes.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15771
Atmospheric dynamics  Climate and Earth system modelling  Hydrology 

Compressional pathways of α-cristobalite, structure of cristobalite X-I, and towards the understanding of seifertite formation OPEN
Ana Černok, Katharina Marquardt, Razvan Caracas, Elena Bykova, Gerlinde Habler, Hanns-Peter Liermann, Michael Hanfland, Mohamed Mezouar, Ema Bobocioiu & Leonid Dubrovinsky

The presence of α-seifertite and seiferite in shocked meteorites are used to determine shock pressures. Here, using high-pressure experiments, the authors find that the presence of α-cristobalite does not exclude high-pressure transformation and seifertite does not necessarily indicate high pressures.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15647

WNT10A mutation causes ectodermal dysplasia by impairing progenitor cell proliferation and KLF4-mediated differentiation OPEN
Mingang Xu , Jeremy Horrell, Melinda Snitow, Jiawei Cui, Heather Gochnauer, Camille M. Syrett, Staci Kallish, John T. Seykora, Fei Liu, Dany Gaillard, Jonathan P. Katz, Klaus H. Kaestner, Brooke Levin, Corinne Mansfield, Jennifer E. Douglas, Beverly J. Cowart, Michael Tordoff, Fang Liu, Xuming Zhu, Linda A. Barlow et al.

Human WNT10A mutations are associated with dental defects and adult onset ectodermal dysplasia. Xu et al. show that WNT10A-activated ß-catenin plays dual roles in adult epithelial progenitor proliferation and differentiation by complexing with KLF4 in differentiating, but not proliferating, cells.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15397
Self-renewal  Skin stem cells  Stem cells 

Nanoimaging of resonating hyperbolic polaritons in linear boron nitride antennas OPEN
F. J. Alfaro-Mozaz, P. Alonso-González, S. Vélez, I. Dolado, M. Autore, S. Mastel, F. Casanova, L. E. Hueso, P. Li, A. Y. Nikitin & R. Hillenbrand

Here, the authors report a near-field study of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in linear antennas made of hexagonal boron nitride. Infrared nanospectroscopy and nanoimaging experiments reveal sharp Fabry-Perot resonances with large quality factors, exhibiting atypical modal behaviour.

07 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15624
Nanocavities  Nanophotonics and plasmonics  Polaritons  Sub-wavelength optics 
  Latest Addendum    
Erratum: Lkb1 inactivation drives lung cancer lineage switching governed by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 OPEN
Haikuo Zhang , Christine Fillmore Brainson, Shohei Koyama, Amanda J. Redig, Ting Chen, Shuai Li, Manav Gupta, Carolina Garcia-de-Alba, Margherita Paschini, Grit S. Herter-Sprie, Gang Lu, Xin Zhang, Bryan P Marsh, Stephanie J. Tuminello, Chunxiao Xu, Zhao Chen, Xiaoen Wang, Esra A. Akbay, Mei Zheng, Sangeetha Palakurthi et al.
09 June 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15901
Cancer stem cells  Non-small-cell lung cancer 

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