Tuesday, January 30, 2018

Nature Reviews Immunology Contents February 2018 Volume 18 Number 2 pp 77-89

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Nature Reviews Immunology

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 Featured article:
Immune checkpoint blockade in infectious diseases
Michelle N. Wykes & Sharon R. Lewin

Can you trust your Antibody? Implications for disease research.
A recent publication in Scientific Reports rigorously tested nine commercially available antibodies for specificity and sensitivity and found that only one, from Cell Signaling Technology, met all validation criteria. Read this open-access article to explore the potentially serious implications of non-specific antibodies and disease research.
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Tumour immunology: Natural killer cells spy greedy tumours
p77 | doi:10.1038/nri.2018.2
An NK cell activating receptor can recognize a cellular growth factor to limit tumour cell growth.

Immunotherapy: HLA genotype: good to be different
p78 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.220
HLA class I homozgosity and loss of heterozygosity are associated with poor response to checkpoint blockade therapy.

Innate lymphoid cells: Lipid surveillance by skin ILCs
p78 | doi:10.1038/nri.2018.1
Group 2 innate lymphoid cells present endogenous lipids via CD1a to skin-resident T cells

Innate immunity: Sensing bacterial messages
p78 | doi:10.1038/nri.2018.5
ER adaptor protein identified as key sensor of the bacterial cyclic dinucleotide c-di-AMP.

Raging evolution of a B cell response to a viral infection

p79 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.219
Shane Crotty discusses a 2013 study by Barton Haynes and colleagues that beautifully illustrates the extreme capacity of a B cell response to evolve in real time to a viral infection.


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Immunometabolism in 2017: Driving immunity: all roads lead to metabolism
Edward J. Pearce & Erika L. Pearce

p81 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.139
In 2017, studies of cellular metabolism broadly permeated immunological research. Accumulating data support the view that understanding how metabolism regulates immune cell function could provide new therapeutic opportunities for the many diseases associated with immune system dysregulation.
Full Text | PDF

Neuroimmunology in 2017: The central nervous system: privileged by immune connections
Jonathan Kipnis & Anthony J. Filiano

p83 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.152
Over the past few years, interest in the field of neuroimmunology has expanded dramatically, thanks largely to new technologies that have advanced our understanding of the intimate connections between the nervous and immune systems. Here, we highlight key advances in 2017 that have defined new roles for microglia in brain maintenance, for cytokines as neuromodulators and for the immune system in peripheral nerve activity.
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Macrophages and monocytes in 2017: Macrophages and monocytes: of tortoises and hares
Steffen Jung

p85 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.158
Monocytes and tissue macrophages represent two main branches of the mononuclear phagocyte system, and they have complementary roles during immunological challenges. Several studies published in 2017 highlighted the distinct properties of these two cell types and furthered our understanding of their development and cellular functions.
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Cancer immunotherapy in 2017: The breakthrough of the microbiota
Guido Kroemer & Laurence Zitvogel

p87 | doi:10.1038/nri.2018.4
In 2017, epidemiological studies in humans and experiments in mouse models showed that the intestinal microbiota determines the effectiveness of anticancer immunotherapies. As such the microbiota offers new prognostic biomarkers and shows promise as a target for future antineoplastic treatments.
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Vaccines in 2017: Closing in on a Zika virus vaccine
Michael S. Diamond & Carolyn B. Coyne

p89 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.132
Over the past 2 years, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a pathogen capable of causing devastating congenital malformations in the developing fetus and significant neurological disease in adults. In 2017, substantial progress has been made towards the development, immunological analysis and preclinical evaluation of vaccine platforms to prevent the pathologies associated with ZIKV infection.
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Immune checkpoint blockade in infectious diseases
Michelle N. Wykes & Sharon R. Lewin

p91 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.112
Recent clinical trials have shown that blocking immune checkpoint molecules can boost antitumour immune responses. In this Review, the authors consider whether targeting these pathways could also be used to combat a range of infectious diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis and chronic viral infections.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

The hygiene hypothesis in autoimmunity: the role of pathogens and commensals
Jean-Francois Bach

p105 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.111
The hygiene hypothesis postulates that an increased frequency of infections contributes to a decrease in autoimmune and allergic diseases. Here, Bach summarizes the epidemiological and experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis and discusses the importance of innate immune receptors in mediating the protective effect of pathogens and commensals on autoimmunity.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

TH2 cell development and function
Jennifer A. Walker & Andrew N. J. McKenzie

p121 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.118
This Review describes our current understanding of the mechanisms regulating T helper 2 (TH2) cell development and function. The authors discuss how our increasing comprehension of these pathways is leading to the development of novel therapies for TH2 cell-mediated diseases, such as asthma and allergy.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Neutrophil extracellular traps in immunity and disease
Venizelos Papayannopoulos

p134 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.105
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) protect against infection, but they are also implicated in the pathology associated with various immune-mediated conditions. This Review describes when and how they are formed, how they function and how they are regulated.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Are histones real pathogenic agents in sepsis?
Isaac Ginsburg & Erez Koren

p148 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.156
Full Text | PDF
Are histones real pathogenic agents in sepsis?
Tom van der Poll, Frank L. van de Veerdonk, Brendon P. Scicluna & Mihai G. Netea

p148 | doi:10.1038/nri.2017.157
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