Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Nature contents: 20 July 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 547 Issue 7663
This Week  
New Antarctic iceberg echoes old problem
The break in the Larsen C ice shelf highlights the vulnerable nature of other Antarctic environments and the impact people are having on the continent.
All shook up over topology
Physicists and mathematicians have bonded over their shared explorations of bizarre states of matter.
Ditching diesel won’t clear the air
Arguments about the environmental benefits of petrol or diesel engines are outdated.

Presented by: Ospedale San Raffaele | Nature

The conference will feature sessions on regeneration in animal models, functional and dysfunctional regeneration in mammals, and new therapeutic approaches to regeneration.

November 16-18, 2017 | Milan, Italy
World View  
The DeepMind debacle demands dialogue on data
Mishandling of patient information shows how governments and companies must become more worthy of trust, says Hetan Shah.
Seven Days  
Maryam Mirzakhani, quantum teleportation and the Great Red Spot
The week in science: 14–20 July 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
The 5th Helmholtz-Nature Medicine

September 17-19, 2017 | Munich, Germany

Presented by: Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen | Nature Medicine

News in Focus
Satellite snafu masked true sea-level rise for decades
Revised tallies confirm that the rate of sea-level rise is accelerating as the Earth warms and ice sheets thaw.
Jeff Tollefson
  Female astronomers of colour face daunting discrimination
Two-fifths report feeling unsafe at work, and 18% have concerns about attending conferences.
Rachael Lallensack
European Commission urges logging ban in ancient Białowieża Forest
Europe’s highest court will rule on Poland's policy that encourages tree-felling in biodiversity hotspot.
Quirin Schiermeier
  US lawmakers seek $1.1-billion boost for the NIH
Legislation introduced in the House of Representatives also rejects a White House plan to cut 'indirect cost' payments to research institutions.
Lauren Morello
Climate scientists flock to France’s call
President said ‘Make Our Planet Great Again’ — and researchers signed up.
Declan Butler
  Engineered cell therapy for cancer gets thumbs up from FDA advisers
Treatment shows promise in young people with leukaemia, but safety risks abound.
Heidi Ledford
The strange topology that is reshaping physics
Topological effects might be hiding inside perfectly ordinary materials, waiting to reveal bizarre new particles or bolster quantum computing.
Davide Castelvecchi
Solve Antarctica’s sea-ice puzzle
John Turner and Josefino Comiso call for a coordinated push to crack the baffling rise and fall of sea ice around Antarctica.
John Turner, Josefino Comiso
Books and Arts  
Environment: A journey on plastic seas
Richard Thompson applauds a chronicle alerting the world to marine polymer pollution.
Richard Thompson
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
History: Tracking down a doomed Arctic expedition
Daniel Cressey surveys the remains of John Franklin's fatal 1845 voyage.
Daniel Cressey
Second World War: Paris neurosurgeon's map outwitted Nazis
Pierre Bourdillon, Marc Lévêque, Caroline Apra
  NASA: No cost crisis for space telescope
Thomas H. Zurbuchen
Africa: Restrict bush fires used in animal hunts
Mwazvita T. B. Dalu, Tatenda Dalu & Ryan J. Wasserman
Metabolism: Energy sensing through a sugar diphosphate
The molecule fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which is produced during glucose metabolism, has been shown to mediate cellular sensing of glucose deprivation through an unexpected mechanism.
Cognition: Neurons couple up to make decisions
The use of state-of-the-art techniques to study neuronal activity during a navigational task involving sound stimuli broadens our understanding of how neuronal populations produce complex behaviours.
Cancer: A precision approach to tumour treatment
Progress is being made in the use of personalized approaches to create both in vitro and in vivo tumour models that could be used to aid cancer drug-treatment decisions and increase our understanding of how tumours respond to therapy.
Maternal H3K27me3 controls DNA methylation-independent imprinting
Analysis of parental allele-specific chromatin accessibility genome-wide in mouse zygotes and morula embryos, and investigation of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying these allelic sites, identifying maternal H3K27me3 as a DNA methylation-independent mechanism for genomic imprinting.
In vivo CRISPR screening identifies Ptpn2 as a cancer immunotherapy target
In vivo CRISPR screening reveals that loss of Ptpn2 increases the response of tumour cells to immunotherapy and increases IFNγ signalling, suggesting that PTPN2 inhibition may potentiate the effect of immunotherapies that invoke an IFNγ response.
Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex
Calcium imaging data from mice performing a virtual reality auditory decision-making task are used to analyse the population codes in primary auditory and posterior parietal cortex that support choice behaviour.
The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 adopts a novel tetrameric architecture
The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 has a tetrameric structure unlike that of the canonical potassium channels, with an hourglass-shaped pore in which isoleucine residues have a key role in channel selectivity.
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase mediate glucose sensing by AMPK
Glucose starvation activates AMPK via an AMP/ADP-independent mechanism that involves fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase.
Cysteine protease cathepsin B mediates radiation-induced bystander effects
The cysteine protease CPR-4, a cathepsin B homologue, is identified as a radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) factor in nematodes in response to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation, and causes inhibition of cell death and increased embryonic lethality.
Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes
Deforestation increases the odds of a species being threatened by extinction, and this effect is disproportionately strong in relatively intact landscapes, suggesting that efforts are needed to protect intact forest landscapes and prevent a new wave of extinctions.
News and Views  
Gravitational waves: Stellar palaeontology
Ilya Mandel, Alison Farmer
Archaeology: Early signs of human presence in Australia
Curtis W. Marean
50 & 100 Years Ago
Materials science: Chemistry and physics happily wed
Gregory A. Fiete
Immunology: Nervous crosstalk to make antibodies
Hai Qi
Imaging techniques: X-rays used to watch spins in 3D
Peter Fischer
Cancer: Keeping it real to kill glioblastoma
Paul A. Northcott
Ribosomes are optimized for autocatalytic production
The large number of small, similarly sized proteins and the small number of heavy RNA molecules that make up a ribosome reduce the time required for reproduction.
Shlomi Reuveni, Måns Ehrenberg, Johan Paulsson
Topological quantum chemistry
A complete electronic band theory is presented that describes the global properties of all possible band structures and materials, and can be used to predict new topological insulators and semimetals.
Barry Bradlyn, L. Elcoro, Jennifer Cano et al.
Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago
Optical dating of sediments containing stone artefacts newly excavated at Madjedbebe, Australia, indicate that human occupation began around 65,000 years ago, thereby setting a new minimum age for the arrival of people in Australia.
Chris Clarkson, Zenobia Jacobs, Ben Marwick et al.
The whole-genome landscape of medulloblastoma subtypes OPEN
Genomic analysis of 491 medulloblastoma samples, including methylation profiling of 1,256 cases, effectively assigns candidate drivers to most tumours across all molecular subgroups.
Paul A. Northcott, Ivo Buchhalter, A. Sorana Morrissy et al.
TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres
Human follicular helper T cells engaging in synaptic interactions with germinal centre B cells release dopamine stored in chromogranin B+ granules, causing rapid externalization of ICOS ligand, which in turn enhances CD40L delivery to the synaptic cleft and synaptic contact, and results in an accelerated response.
Ilenia Papa, David Saliba, Maurilio Ponzoni et al.
Three-dimensional magnetization structures revealed with X-ray vector nanotomography
Techniques exist for imaging the magnetization patterns of magnetic thin films and at the surfaces of magnets, but here hard-X-ray tomography is used to image the three-dimensional magnetic structure within a micrometre-sized magnet in the vicinity of Bloch points.
Claire Donnelly, Manuel Guizar-Sicairos, Valerio Scagnoli et al.
Nitrogen reduction and functionalization by a multimetallic uranium nitride complex
A complex containing two uranium ions and three potassium ions, held together by a nitride group and a flexible molecular framework, can reduce and functionalize N2 under mild conditions.
Marta Falcone, Lucile Chatelain, Rosario Scopelliti et al.
Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality
A huge smartphone dataset of physical activity yields global insights, revealing that activity inequality predicts obesity better than does volume of activity and that much of the inequality is a result of reduced activity in females.
Tim Althoff, Rok Sosič, Jennifer L. Hicks et al.
CRISPR–Cas encoding of a digital movie into the genomes of a population of living bacteria
The authors encode pixel values of a short motion picture into the DNA of a population of Escherichia coli.
Seth L. Shipman, Jeff Nivala, Jeffrey D. Macklis et al.
Cholangiocytes act as facultative liver stem cells during impaired hepatocyte regeneration
Two independent systems impairing hepatocyte proliferation during liver injury cause physiologically significant levels of functional hepatocyte regeneration from biliary cells.
Alexander Raven, Wei-Yu Lu, Tak Yung Man et al.
Experimental signatures of the mixed axial–gravitational anomaly in the Weyl semimetal NbP
A positive magneto-thermoelectric conductance is observed in the Weyl semimetal niobium phosphide, suggesting the presence of the elusive mixed axial–gravitational anomaly.
Johannes Gooth, Anna C. Niemann, Tobias Meng et al.
Infant viewing of social scenes is under genetic control and is atypical in autism
Monozygotic twins show high concordance in eye- and mouth-looking, and this behaviour is markedly reduced in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.
John N. Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum et al.
Transcription elongation factors represent in vivo cancer dependencies in glioblastoma
An in vivo RNA interference screening strategy in glioblastoma enabled the identification of a host of epigenetic targets required for glioblastoma cell survival that were not identified by parallel standard screening in cell culture, including the transcription pause–release factor JMJD6, and could be a powerful tool to uncover new therapeutic targets in cancer.
Tyler E. Miller, Brian B. Liau, Lisa C. Wallace et al.
Open and closed structures reveal allostery and pliability in the HIV-1 envelope spike
New high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the HIV-1 envelope protein provide a detailed description and understanding of how the HIV-1 fusion machinery functions and how it changes its structure over time to convert from the pre-fusion to the fusion-intermediate conformation.
Gabriel Ozorowski, Jesper Pallesen, Natalia de Val et al.
K2P2.1 (TREK-1)–activator complexes reveal a cryptic selectivity filter binding site
Crystal structures of an activated two-pore potassium channel reveal a cryptic binding pocket that binds small-molecule activators that restrict the mobility of the selectivity filter and surrounding structure, stabilizing an active ‘leak-mode’ conformation.
Marco Lolicato, Cristina Arrigoni, Takahiro Mori et al.
Careers & Jobs
Enterprise: Game on
Roberta Kwok
Turning point: Soft-skills sculptor
Virginia Gewin
Catalogue of Items in the Chess Exhibition at the Humanities Museum, Pre-Enlightenment Wing
A unique insight into a remarkable game.
Alex Shvartsman
  Science jobs of the week


Postdoctoral Fellow


University of Otago 


Postdoctoral Fellow


Massachusetts General Hospital 


Director of the Animal Research Centre


Ulm University 


KBRI Researcher Position Notice


Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI) 


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