Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Nature contents: 13 July 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 547 Issue 7662
This Week  
Don’t pay prizes for published science
China and other countries should look again at how they pay bonuses and allocate grants that are based on individual research papers.
Proposed US public-health chief is a champion for women and children
In sharp contrast to President Trump, Brenda Fitzgerald has put maternal and child health at the heart of her policies.
Let’s talk about sex robots
Interactions between humans and robots may eventually include sex.
World View  
Kill the myth of the miracle machine
Unchallenged assumptions about how science works threaten its support and decrease its ability to contribute to society, says Daniel Sarewitz.
Seven Days  
Panda diplomats, smuggled relics and a nuclear-weapons treaty
The week in science: 7–13 July 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Nature Insight Plants

This Insight highlights pertinent issues in plant research, including signalling in plant immunity, plant interactions with the environment, progress in agricultural genomics and harnessing the quantum properties of photosynthesis for human-made energy conversion systems.
News in Focus
White House’s dwindling science office leaves major research programmes in limbo
Pared-back staff struggles to continue cybersecurity, climate-change and science-education efforts without direction from the Trump administration.
Sara Reardon
  Why planetary scientists want better fake space dirt
Artificial soils that mimic the surfaces of the Moon, Mars and asteroids are hard to make — and often miss the mark.
Alexandra Witze
Massive database of 182,000 leaves is helping predict plants' family trees
The technique could be used on everything from flowers to cells to examine the factors that influence the shapes of plant parts.
Heidi Ledford
  Tricks to mute quantum noise aid hunt for gravitational waves
Physicists find ways to make LIGO and other gravitational-wave detectors even more sensitive.
Elizabeth Gibney
Ancient-genome studies grapple with Africa’s past
Clutch of DNA analyses show that ancient humans moved around on the continent far more than has been appreciated.
Ewen Callaway
How poverty affects the brain
An unprecedented study in Bangladesh could reveal how malnutrition, poor sanitation and other challenges make their mark on child development.
Carina Storrs
Nature: 13 July 2017
This week, defying quantum noise, looking at early signs of autism, and taking steps to assess exercise.
Stop Alzheimer’s before it starts
The hunt for treatments to halt Alzheimer’s disease has been frustrating; it is time to trial preventive drugs, urge Eric McDade and Randall J. Bateman.
Eric McDade, Randall J. Bateman
Witness gravity’s quantum side in the lab
Physicists should rethink interference experiments to reveal whether or not general relativity follows classical theory, argue Chiara Marletto and Vlatko Vedral.
Chiara Marletto, Vlatko Vedral
Books and Arts  
Information technology: A digital genius at play
Vint Cerf savours a life of Claude Shannon, information-theory pioneer and wildly inventive tinkerer.
Vint Cerf
History: Science lessons from the Gulag
Asif Siddiqi examines a biography of a Soviet meteorologist who taught his daughter from prison.
Asif Siddiqi
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Solar energy: Switch it off on eclipse day
Steve Elgar
  Research foundations: Philanthropic risks can hit home runs
Melissa L. Stevens
Sustainable development: Manage chemicals and waste globally
Quanyin Tan, Jinhui Li
  Taxonomy: refine rather than stabilize
Fenton P. D. Cotterill, Colin P. Groves, Peter J. Taylor
Gene editing: CRISPR book review — Doudna responds
Jennifer Doudna
Biomechanics: How fish feel the flow
Hair-like sensors are suspected to aid fish navigation in complex environments. Laboratory experiments and computational simulations reveal how these sensors can detect water flow to direct the swimming responses of fish.
Immunology: Nervous crosstalk to make antibodies
Immune cells called T cells help immune-system B cells mature to produce antibodies. This entails signalling between cells using the molecule dopamine — a surprising immunological role for this neurotransmitter.
Neurobiology: Synapses get together for vision
A sophisticated analysis in mice of how inputs to neurons from other neurons are distributed across individual cells of the brain's visual cortex provides information about how mammalian vision is processed.
TFH-derived dopamine accelerates productive synapses in germinal centres
Human follicular helper T cells engaging in synaptic interactions with germinal centre B cells release dopamine stored in chromogranin B+ granules, causing rapid externalization of ICOS ligand, which in turn enhances CD40L delivery to the synaptic cleft and synaptic contact, and results in an accelerated response.
Infant viewing of social scenes is under genetic control and is atypical in autism
Monozygotic twins show high concordance in eye- and mouth-looking, and this behaviour is markedly reduced in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder.
Open and closed structures reveal allostery and pliability in the HIV-1 envelope spike
New high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures of the HIV-1 envelope protein provide a detailed description and understanding of how the HIV-1 fusion machinery functions and how it changes its structure over time to convert from the pre-fusion to the fusion-intermediate conformation.
A novel mechanism for mechanosensory-based rheotaxis in larval zebrafish
In the absence of visual information, larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) use their mechanosensory lateral line to perform rheotaxis by using flow velocity gradients as navigational cues.
Cholangiocytes act as facultative liver stem cells during impaired hepatocyte regeneration
Two independent systems impairing hepatocyte proliferation during liver injury cause physiologically significant levels of functional hepatocyte regeneration from biliary cells.
CRISPR–Cas encoding of a digital movie into the genomes of a population of living bacteria
The authors encode pixel values of a short motion picture into the DNA of a population of Escherichia coli.
Synaptic organization of visual space in primary visual cortex
Mapping the organization of excitatory inputs onto the dendritic spines of individual mouse visual cortex neurons reveals how inputs representing features from the extended visual scene are organized and establishes a computational unit suited to amplify contours and elongated edges.
Corrigendum: Crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a peptide agonist
Corrigendum: Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans
Corrigendum: Molecular mechanism for the regulation of yeast separase by securin
Brief Communications Arising  
Conflicting evidence for ferroelectricity
Gabriele D’Avino, Manuel Souto, Matteo Masino et al.
Tayi et al. reply
Alok S. Tayi, Alexander K. Shveyd, Andrew C.-H. Sue et al.
Overestimate of committed warming
Gavin A. Schmidt, Jeff Severinghaus, Ayako Abe-Ouchi et al.
Snyder replies
Carolyn W. Snyder
News and Views  
Precision measurement: Sensing past the quantum limit
Christopher G. Baker, Warwick P. Bowen
Cancer: Precision T-cell therapy targets tumours
Cornelis J. M. Melief
Biogeochemistry: Arctic plants take up mercury vapour
William Shotyk
Charles River has proudly partnered with the EBD Group to provide the scientific program for this year's BioPharm America Conference. Be a part of this two-day conference that aims to bridge the gap between drug discovery and clinical application.
Molecular biology: A liquid reservoir for silent chromatin
Adam Klosin, Anthony A. Hyman
50 & 100 Years Ago
Neurodegeneration: Taming tangled tau
David S. Eisenberg, Michael R. Sawaya
Bioengineering: Bile ducts regenerated
Ludi Zhang, Lijian Hui
Fine-mapping inflammatory bowel disease loci to single-variant resolution
Results of fine-mapping 94 inflammatory bowel disease loci using high-density genotyping in 67,852 individuals and several new fine-mapping methods.
Hailiang Huang, Ming Fang, Luke Jostins et al.
The extracellular matrix protein agrin promotes heart regeneration in mice
The extracellular matrix protein agrin promotes cardiac regeneration in adult mice after myocardial infarction; it modulates cardiac differentiation and proliferation by interacting with the dystrophin–glycoprotein complex, Yap and ERK-mediated signalling.
Elad Bassat, Yara Eid Mutlak, Alex Genzelinakh et al.
Cryo-EM structures of tau filaments from Alzheimer’s disease
High-resolution structures of tau filaments shed light on the ultrastructure of neurofibrillary lesions in Alzheimer’s disease.
Anthony W. P. Fitzpatrick, Benjamin Falcon, Shaoda He et al.
Quantum back-action-evading measurement of motion in a negative mass reference frame
By coupling a mechanical object to an ensemble of atomic spins with negative effective mass, the object’s position can be measured without the usual quantum back-action perturbation of its momentum.
Christoffer B. Møller, Rodrigo A. Thomas, Georgios Vasilakis et al.
Catalytic allylic oxidation of internal alkenes to a multifunctional chiral building block
Non-symmetric internal alkenes are selectively converted into allylic functionalized products with high stereoselectivity and regioselectivity.
Liela Bayeh, Phong Q. Le, Uttam K. Tambar
Tundra uptake of atmospheric elemental mercury drives Arctic mercury pollution
A two-year study of mercury deposition in the Arctic finds that the main source of mercury is gaseous elemental mercury, which is deposited throughout the year and leads to very high soil mercury levels.
Daniel Obrist, Yannick Agnan, Martin Jiskra et al.
The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH
The pyrite-type high-pressure form of FeOOH is predicted from first principles, and found experimentally to be stable under the conditions at the base of the mantle, with implications for transport of water within Earth’s deep interior.
Masayuki Nishi, Yasuhiro Kuwayama, Jun Tsuchiya et al.
Pre-oral gut contributes to facial structures in non-teleost fishes
In contrast to the prevailing belief that the gut begins with the mouth and continues backwards from there, this work shows that substantial areas of the faces of ray-finned fishes originate from the pre-oral gut or endoderm.
Martin Minarik, Jan Stundl, Peter Fabian et al.
Nutrient sensing modulates malaria parasite virulence
Malaria parasites use a sensing mechanism to moderate their growth in response to the nutrient content of their host.
Liliana Mancio-Silva, Ksenija Slavic, Margarida T. Grilo Ruivo et al.
An immunogenic personal neoantigen vaccine for patients with melanoma
The results of a phase I trial assessing a personal neoantigen multi-peptide vaccine in patients with melanoma, showing feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity.
Patrick A. Ott, Zhuting Hu, Derin B. Keskin et al.
Personalized RNA mutanome vaccines mobilize poly-specific therapeutic immunity against cancer
The authors report the first-in-human application of personalized neo-antigen RNA vaccines in patients with melanoma.
Ugur Sahin, Evelyna Derhovanessian, Matthias Miller et al.
Dystrophin–glycoprotein complex sequesters Yap to inhibit cardiomyocyte proliferation
After injury in the heart, postnatal mouse hearts deficient in the Hippo pathway show efficient repair, and in the hearts of Mdx mice (a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy) Hippo deficiency protects against overload-induced heart failure.
Yuka Morikawa, Todd Heallen, John Leach et al.
Allelic reprogramming of 3D chromatin architecture during early mammalian development
A low-input Hi-C method is used to show that chromatin organization is markedly relaxed in pre-implantation mouse embryos after fertilization and that the subsequent maturation of 3D chromatin architecture is surprisingly slow.
Zhenhai Du, Hui Zheng, Bo Huang et al.
Liquid droplet formation by HP1α suggests a role for phase separation in heterochromatin
Phosphorylation or DNA binding promotes the physical partitioning of HP1α out of a soluble aqueous phase into droplets, suggesting that the repressive action of heterochromatin may in part be mediated by the phase separation of HP1.
Adam G. Larson, Daniel Elnatan, Madeline M. Keenen et al.
Phase separation drives heterochromatin domain formation
HP1a can nucleate into foci that display liquid properties during the early stages of heterochromatin domain formation in Drosophila embryos, suggesting that the repressive action of heterochromatin may be mediated in part by emergent properties of phase separation.
Amy R. Strom, Alexander V. Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir et al.
Corrigendum: Mineral supply for sustainable development requires resource governance
Saleem H. Ali, Damien Giurco, Nicholas Arndt et al.
Retraction: Oncogenic activity of Cdc6 through repression of the INK4/ARF locus
Susana Gonzalez, Peter Klatt, Sonia Delgado et al.
Careers & Jobs
Housing: A home on a budget
Chris Woolston
Turning point: Tenacious chemist
Virginia Gewin
Meet the home help.
Hugh Cartwright
  Science jobs of the week


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Imperial College London 


PhD Candidates


Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main 


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