Thursday, June 29, 2017

Nature Cell Biology contents: July 2017 Volume 19 Number 7, pp 741 - 873

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Nature Cell Biology

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July 2017 Volume 19, Issue 7

News and Views
Technical Report
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Enhancing the quality and transparency of reporting   p741
The Nature journals' recently updated reporting requirements for life sciences aim to enhance the quality and transparency of methodological and experimental reporting.



Quantifying forces in cell biology   pp742 - 751
Pere Roca-Cusachs, Vito Conte and Xavier Trepat
Physical forces influence the growth and development of all organisms. In the second Review in the Series on Mechanobiology, Trepat and co-authors describe techniques to measure forces generated by cells, and discuss their use and limitations.

News and Views


Lgr5 joins the club of gastric stem cell markers in the corpus   pp752 - 754
Toby J. Phesse and Owen J. Sansom
Several markers of gastric stem cells have been identified in recent years. Now a study demonstrates that Lgr5 marks a population of reserve stem cells located at the base of the corpus glands of the gastric epithelium, and that these cells can also act as a cell-of-origin for gastric tumorigenesis.

See also: Article by Leushacke et al.

Revolving around constriction by ESCRT-III   pp754 - 756
Henri G. Franquelim and Petra Schwille
The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III is critical for membrane abscission; however, the mechanism underlying ESCRT-III-mediated membrane constriction remains elusive. A study of the dynamic assembly and disassembly of the ESCRT-III machinery in vitro and in vivo now suggests that the turnover of the observed spiralling filaments is critical for membrane abscission during cytokinesis.

See also: Article by Mierzwa et al.

Inter-organ regulation of haem homeostasis   pp756 - 758
Jason N. Pitt and Matt Kaeberlein
Haem is an iron-containing cofactor required for life. Many cellular processes rely on haem and failure to maintain iron homeostasis results in numerous pathological conditions. A study now identifies a Caenorhabditis elegans inter-organ signalling pathway in which secreted intestinal HRG-7 and neuronally secreted BMP signals coordinate animal haem homeostasis.

See also: Article by Sinclair et al.

snoRNAs contribute to myeloid leukaemogenesis   pp758 - 760
Mona Khalaj and Christopher Y. Park
The mechanism of action of oncogenes in acute myeloid leukaemia is poorly understood. A study now shows that the fusion oncoprotein AML1-ETO regulates leukaemogenesis by increasing the expression of small nucleolar RNAs through post-transcriptional mechanisms, resulting in increased ribosomal RNA methylation, protein translation, and promotion of leukaemic-cell self-renewal and growth.

See also: Article by Zhou et al.

OPA1 and cardiolipin team up for mitochondrial fusion   pp760 - 762
Raymond Liu and David C. Chan
Fusion between the inner membranes of two mitochondria requires the GTPase optic atrophy 1 (OPA1), but the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. A study now shows that fusion of two liposomes can be performed by OPA1 tethered to just one liposome, through an interaction with the phospholipid cardiolipin on the opposing liposome.

See also: Letter by Ban et al.

Nature Cell Biology
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Pramel7 mediates ground-state pluripotency through proteasomal-epigenetic combined pathways   pp763 - 773
Urs Graf, Elisa A. Casanova, Sarah Wyck, Damian Dalcher, Marco Gatti et al.
Graf et al. demonstrate that Pramel7 maintains ground-state pluripotency by repressing DNA methylation through proteasomal degradation of UHRF1, thus linking the proteasome and epigenetics with cell fate regulation.

Lgr5-expressing chief cells drive epithelial regeneration and cancer in the oxyntic stomach   pp774 - 786
Marc Leushacke, Si Hui Tan, Angeline Wong, Yada Swathi, Amin Hajamohideen et al.
Leushacke et al. provide insights into the role of Lgr5 cells in the oxyntic stomach, demonstrating that they label a subpopulation of chief cells that function as reserve stem cells during regeneration and cells-of-origin of gastric cancer.

See also: News and Views by Phesse & Sansom

Dynamic subunit turnover in ESCRT-III assemblies is regulated by Vps4 to mediate membrane remodelling during cytokinesis   pp787 - 798
Beata E. Mierzwa, Nicolas Chiaruttini, Lorena Redondo-Morata, Joachim Moser von Filseck, Julia König et al.
Mierzwa et al. show that ESCRT-III subunit turnover at the cell midbody is driven by Vps4. Rapid turnover sustains the net growth of ESCRT-III assemblies in the presence of inhibitory Vps2 and Vps24 subunits.

See also: News and Views by Franquelim & Schwille

Inter-organ signalling by HRG-7 promotes systemic haem homeostasis   pp799 - 807
Jason Sinclair, Katherine Pinter, Tamika Samuel, Simon Beardsley, Xiaojing Yuan et al.
Sinclair et al. show in Caenorhabditis elegans that intestinal HRG-7 communicates haem status with extra-intestinal tissues. Reciprocally, a DBL-1-dependent signal from neurons regulates both hrg-7 and haem transport.

See also: News and Views by Pitt & Kaeberlein

Cholesterol and fatty acids regulate cysteine ubiquitylation of ACAT2 through competitive oxidation   pp808 - 819
Yong-Jian Wang, Yan Bian, Jie Luo, Ming Lu, Ying Xiong et al.
Wang et al. show that lipid-induced ROS lead to ACAT2 stabilization by oxidizing a cysteine residue, thereby preventing its ubiquitylation and ACAT2 degradation. They further show that ACAT2 stabilization improves lipotoxicity and insulin resistance.

The MBNL3 splicing factor promotes hepatocellular carcinoma by increasing PXN expression through the alternative splicing of lncRNA-PXN-AS1   pp820 - 832
Ji-hang Yuan, Xiao-ning Liu, Tian-tian Wang, Wei Pan, Qi-fei Tao et al.
Yuan et al. show that the MBNL3 splicing factor promotes alternative splicing of the lncRNA-PXN-AS1 antisense transcript of PXN, leading to the stabilization of PXN mRNA and increasing its protein levels to promote liver cancer growth.

O-GlcNAcylation of fumarase maintains tumour growth under glucose deficiency   pp833 - 843
Ting Wang, Qiujing Yu, Jingjie Li, Bin Hu, Qin Zhao et al.
Wang et al. show that glucose deprivation causes AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of fumarase leading to ATF2 binding and gene transcription for cell cycle arrest. In cancer cells O-GlcNAcylation of fumarase blocks ATF2 binding to allow proliferation.

AML1-ETO requires enhanced C/D box snoRNA/RNP formation to induce self-renewal and leukaemia   pp844 - 855
Fengbiao Zhou, Yi Liu, Christian Rohde, Cornelius Pauli, Dennis Gerloff et al.
Zhou et al. show that in the context of AML1-ETO-driven leukaemia, AES and DDX21 induce small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)–ribonucleoprotein (RNP) formation and this is important for self-renewal of leukaemic cells.

See also: News and Views by Khalaj & Park

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Molecular basis of selective mitochondrial fusion by heterotypic action between OPA1 and cardiolipin   pp856 - 863
Tadato Ban, Takaya Ishihara, Hiroto Kohno, Shotaro Saita, Ayaka Ichimura et al.
Ban et al. show that optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and cardiolipin mediate mitochondrial fusion. In contrast, a homotypic trans-OPA1 interaction independent of cardiolipin mediates membrane tethering to form mitochondrial cristae.

See also: News and Views by Liu & Chan

Technical Report


Long-term imaging of cellular forces with high precision by elastic resonator interference stress microscopy   pp864 - 872
Nils M. Kronenberg, Philipp Liehm, Anja Steude, Johanna A. Knipper, Jessica G. Borger et al.
Kronenberg et al. develop a system to record cell–substrate interactions allowing the measurement of horizontal and vertical forces at high resolution, and demonstrate its use by monitoring podosome protrusion and other cell behaviours.



Erratum: SWELL1 is a regulator of adipocyte size, insulin signalling and glucose homeostasis   p873
Yanhui Zhang, Litao Xie, Susheel K. Gunasekar, Dan Tong, Anil Mishra et al.

Erratum: Microtubule minus-end regulation at spindle poles by an ASPM–katanin complex   p873
Kai Jiang, Lenka Rezabkova, Shasha Hua, Qingyang Liu, Guido Capitani et al.

Erratum: The metabolic co-regulator PGC1α suppresses prostate cancer metastasis   p873
Veronica Torrano, Lorea Valcarcel-Jimenez, Ana Rosa Cortazar, Xiaojing Liu, Jelena Urosevic et al.

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