Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Nature Physics May Issue

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Nature Physics

Collection: Entrepreneurship in Quantum Technology

Nature want to help inspire and educate today's young scientists in quantum physics to become tomorrow's quantum-technology entrepreneurs. This Collection presents advice for young quantum technology entrepreneurs and features about commercialisation of the technologies. 

Access the Collection online

May 2017 Volume 13, Issue 5

Books and Arts
Research Highlights
News and Views
Progress Article
Measure for Measure
Recommend to library
All content now free to access including archives!

Nature Communications is an open access journal that publishes high-quality research from all areas of the natural sciences. Papers published by the journal represent important advances of significance to specialists within each subject area including physics.

Visit the website to explore ALL the content available within your field.



Meet the editors   p415
Like all journals based on Nature's editorial philosophy, Nature Physics relies on a dedicated team of full-time editors. We briefly describe who they are and what they do.



Nanotube mystery   p416
Mark Buchanan

Books and Arts


Dance: The light fantastic   p417
Elizaveta Dubrovina and Lina Persechini

Television: Big brains on the small screen   p418
Abigail Klopper

Research Highlights


Primordial Black Holes: Still missing | Ferroelectrics: Learn the hard way | Quantum Mechanics: Indefinite causality | Membrane Fission: Crowd control | Pattern Formation: Lizard computer

News and Views


Machine learning: New tool in the box   pp420 - 421
Lenka Zdeborová
A recent burst of activity in applying machine learning to tackle fundamental questions in physics suggests that associated techniques may soon become as common in physics as numerical simulations or calculus.

See also: Letter by Carrasquilla & Melko | Letter by van Nieuwenburg et al.

Crystallization: Brought to the surface   pp421 - 422
Rajesh Ganapathy and Ajay K. Sood
There is growing evidence for the kinetics of homogeneous nucleation being a multi-step process. Colloid experiments and simulations now suggest that heterogeneous nucleation is no exception.

See also: Article by Arai & Tanaka

Supernovae: Memories of a dying star   pp422 - 423
Norbert Langer
The spectroscopic observations of the very early stages of a supernova provide a glimpse into its environment prior to the explosion.

See also: Article by Yaron et al.

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Progress Article


Equilibration and order in quantum Floquet matter   pp424 - 428
R. Moessner and S. L. Sondhi
Over the past decade, remarkable progress has occurred in the physics of closed quantum systems away from equilibrium, culminating in the recent experimental realization of so-called time crystals. This Progress Article surveys these developments.



Machine learning phases of matter   pp431 - 434
Juan Carrasquilla and Roger G. Melko
The success of machine learning techniques in handling big data sets proves ideal for classifying condensed-matter phases and phase transitions. The technique is even amenable to detecting non-trivial states lacking in conventional order.

See also: Letter by van Nieuwenburg et al. | News and Views by Zdeborova

Learning phase transitions by confusion   pp435 - 439
Evert P. L. van Nieuwenburg, Ye-Hua Liu and Sebastian D. Huber
A neural-network technique can exploit the power of machine learning to mine the exponentially large data sets characterizing the state space of condensed-matter systems. Topological transitions and many-body localization are first on the list.

See also: Letter by Carrasquilla & Melko | News and Views by Zdeborova

Plasma holograms for ultrahigh-intensity optics   pp440 - 443
A. Leblanc, A. Denoeud, L. Chopineau, G. Mennerat, Ph. Martin et al.
Plasma optics enables the manipulation of highly intense laser beams. Now, plasma holograms, involving the creation of a modulated plasma surface on a solid target, are reported — for example, plasma hologram fork gratings produce optical vortices.

Switching chiral solitons for algebraic operation of topological quaternary digits   pp444 - 447
Tae-Hwan Kim, Sangmo Cheon and Han Woong Yeom
A demonstration of switching between solitons of different chirality in a one-dimensional electronic system shows how topological excitations can be used to realize non-trivial algebraic operations.

Magnetic domain wall depinning assisted by spin wave bursts   pp448 - 454
Seonghoon Woo, Tristan Delaney and Geoffrey S. D. Beach
Experiments show how domain walls can act as reservoirs of exchange energy that can be used to controllably launch or detect spin waves in ferromagnetic nanowires.

Intertwined superfluid and density wave order in two-dimensional 4He   pp455 - 459
Ján Nyéki, Anastasia Phillis, Andrew Ho, Derek Lee, Piers Coleman et al.
A detailed analysis of low-temperature torsional oscillation measurements on two-dimensional 4He reveals evidence for intertwined superfluid and density wave order in this system.

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Periodically driving a many-body localized quantum system   pp460 - 464
Pranjal Bordia, Henrik Luschen, Ulrich Schneider, Michael Knap and Immanuel Bloch
Many-body localization, which exhibits a fascinating interplay between disorder and interactions, can be studied using ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Adding periodic driving makes things even more interesting.

Generalized non-reciprocity in an optomechanical circuit via synthetic magnetism and reservoir engineering   pp465 - 471
Kejie Fang, Jie Luo, Anja Metelmann, Matthew H. Matheny, Florian Marquardt et al.
Combining synthetic magnetism and controlled dissipation, researchers created an optomechanical device in which photons and phonons are coupled, enabling non-reciprocal (asymmetric) photon transport and directional amplification.

State-resolved attosecond reversible and irreversible dynamics in strong optical fields   pp472 - 478
Mazyar Sabbar, Henry Timmers, Yi-Jen Chen, Allison K. Pymer, Zhi-Heng Loh et al.
An experimental and theoretical study of the real-time dynamics in strong-field ionization of xenon atoms reveals the previously unknown role of transient ground-state polarization.

Transient superconductivity from electronic squeezing of optically pumped phonons   pp479 - 483
Dante M. Kennes, Eli Y. Wilner, David R. Reichman and Andrew J. Millis
Recent developments in advanced light sources have made it possible to transiently alter the electronic properties of materials by exciting specific atomic vibrations in solids. This study provides a theoretical framework for these experiments.

Emergent Dirac fermions and broken symmetries in confined and deconfined phases of Z2 gauge theories   pp484 - 490
Snir Gazit, Mohit Randeria and Ashvin Vishwanath
Lattice gauge theories are notoriously hard to analyse at finite fermion density, due to the so-called fermion sign problem. A study now shows this can be circumvented for the case of Ising gauge theories.

Edge reconstruction in fractional quantum Hall states   pp491 - 496
Ron Sabo, Itamar Gurman, Amir Rosenblatt, Fabien Lafont, Daniel Banitt et al.
Two challenging questions related to the quantum Hall effect (QHE) are how edge reconstruction works and where the current flows. A new model now gives the answer for two types of QHE states — two separate downstream chiral edge channels are involved.

Correlation-enhanced control of wave focusing in disordered media   pp497 - 502
Chia Wei Hsu, Seng Fatt Liew, Arthur Goetschy, Hui Cao and A. Douglas Stone
Controlled wave propagation in disordered media is a challenge because of scattering processes. Now it is shown that for speckled targets much larger than the wavelength, long-range correlations between the speckles enhance wave propagation control.

Surface-assisted single-crystal formation of charged colloids   pp503 - 509
Shunto Arai and Hajime Tanaka
Controlled crystal growth can be achieved by initiating nucleation on a substrate — but the mechanisms at play are still poorly understood. Experiments and simulations now reveal conditions for the growth of defect-free crystals of charged colloids.

See also: News and Views by Ganapathy & Sood

Confined dense circumstellar material surrounding a regular type II supernova   pp510 - 517
O. Yaron, D. A. Perley, A. Gal-Yam, J. H. Groh, A. Horesh et al.
Type II supernova explosions are common, but our understanding of such events is not complete. Such an event was observed just three hours after the explosion started, providing important information about the early stages.

See also: News and Views by Langer

Measure for Measure


Deviations from 2   p518
Alberto Moscatelli
Alberto Moscatelli surveys a series of experiments on the electron g-factor that marked the departure from the Dirac equation and contributed to the development of quantum electrodynamics.

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