Monday, April 17, 2017

Science X Newsletter Monday, Apr 17

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for April 17, 2017:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Bell correlations measured in half a million atoms

Engineers invent method to control light propagation in waveguides

Quantitative study of aldehyde content in electronic cigarettes

Best of Last Week–First 'image' of dark matter web, why shoes come untied and a link between brain structure and anxiety

Physicists create 'negative mass'

High-resolution imaging with conventional microscopes

Retreating Yukon glacier caused a river to disappear

Researchers provide new insight into dark matter halos

Science fiction horror wriggles into reality with discovery of giant sulfur-powered shipworm

Behind the iron curtain: How methane-making microbes kept the early Earth warm

Physicists create time crystals: New form of matter may hold key to developing quantum machines

Einride set to put trucking on greener path with T-pods

Having a ball on a ball: Meet the self-balancing scooter

Berlin startup offers a year with no money worries

Japan volcanic island may hold key to coral survival

Astronomy & Space news

Researchers provide new insight into dark matter halos

Research from the University of Pennsylvania could shed light on the distribution of one of the most mysterious substances in the universe.

The lifetimes of massive star-forming regions

Astronomers can roughly estimate how long it takes for a new star to form: it is the time it takes for material in a gas cloud to collapse in free-fall, and is set by the mass, the size of the cloud, and gravity. Although an approximation, this scenario of quick, dynamic star formation is consistent with many observations, especially of sources where new material can flow into the cloud, perhaps along filaments, to sustain steady activity. But this simple picture might not apply in the largest systems with star clusters and high-mass stars. Rather than a quick collapse, the process there might be inhibited by pressure, turbulence, or other activities that slow it down.

NASA team explores using LISA Pathfinder as 'comet crumb' detector

LISA Pathfinder, a mission led by ESA (the European Space Agency) with contributions from NASA, has successfully demonstrated critical technologies needed to build a space-based observatory for detecting ripples in space-time called gravitational waves. Now a team of NASA scientists hopes to take advantage of the spacecraft's record-breaking sensitivity to map out the distribution of tiny dust particles shed by asteroids and comets far from Earth.

Supermassive black holes found in two tiny galaxies

Three years ago, a University of Utah-led team discovered that an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy contained a supermassive black hole, then the smallest known galaxy to harbor such a giant black hole. The findings suggested that the dwarfs were likely tiny leftovers of larger galaxies that were stripped of their outer layers after colliding into other, larger galaxies.

Dynamo at moon's heart once powered magnetic field equal to Earth's

When the Apollo astronauts returned to Earth, they came bearing 380.96 kilograms (839.87 lb) of moon rocks. From the study of these samples, scientists learned a great deal about the moon's composition, as well as its history of formation and evolution. For example, the fact that some of these rocks were magnetized revealed that roughly 3 billion years ago, the moon had a magnetic field.

Scientific Synergy between NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey

Building on a 50-year-old partnership, NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are expanding their cooperation with the relocation of one of the largest USGS science groups in the western United States to the NASA Ames Research Center campus in Silicon Valley.

NOAA's GOES-S satellite in thermal vacuum testing

In March, NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-S (GOES-S) satellite was lifted into a thermal vacuum chamber to test its ability to function in the cold void of space in its orbit 22,300 miles above the Earth.

NASA providing 1st live 360-degree view of rocket launch

Want the world's best, up-close view of a rocket launch without being right there at the pad?

All that life needs on Enceladus

If chemical energy is life's coin and water is life's marketplace, there may be a swift economy alive and well beneath the icy shell of Saturn's brightest moon. Such was the announcement during NASA's April 13th press conference: that all three of the presumed key ingredients for life have been detected coming from Enceladus.

Technology news

Einride set to put trucking on greener path with T-pods

(Tech Xplore)—We're always hearing about greener days ahead in the form of electric cars but gray clouds hover over trucks hauling products on the highways and byways, posing considerable concern over emissions and air pollution.

Having a ball on a ball: Meet the self-balancing scooter

(Tech Xplore)—Scooter fans like the feeling of skating, sliding, gliding through life at least for a few minutes when feeling like masters of the universe. Scooters are not for everyone, though, but a new one being offered on Kickstarter might hold forth fresh appeal.

NREL's new perovskite ink opens window for quality cells

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a new perovskite ink with a long processing window that allows the scalable production of perovskite thin films for high-efficiency solar cells.

Repairing bone with 3-D printing

Metallic implants—widely used clinically to replace diseased or damaged bone tissue—are not biodegradable and stay in the human body until removed surgically. The implants may also have problems with corrosion and could cause a negative reaction with the immune system. As a result, new polymer-based biodegradable implants are being developed to provide a needed alternative to metal.

Neural networks explained

In the past 10 years, the best-performing artificial-intelligence systems—such as the speech recognizers on smartphones or Google's latest automatic translator—have resulted from a technique called "deep learning."

Mobile sensing system could give couples the power to anticipate each other's emotional states, adapt behavior

Your partner comes in and slams a door. What was that about? Something you did? What if you knew to anticipate it because you were notified in advance from an automated text message that he/she didn't have a great day at work? Might that change the dynamic of your interactions?

Researchers working toward indoor location detection

Rice University computer scientists are mapping a new solution for interior navigational location detection by linking it to existing sensors in mobile devices. Their results were presented in a paper at last month's 2017 Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE) Conference in Lausanne, Switzerland.

Wearable sweat sensor can diagnose cystic fibrosis, study finds

A wristband-type wearable sweat sensor could transform diagnostics and drug evaluation for cystic fibrosis, diabetes and other diseases.

New battery coating could improve smart phones and electric vehicles

High performing lithium-ion batteries are a key component of laptops, smart phones, and electric vehicles. Currently, the anodes, or negative charged side of lithium ion batteries, are generally made with graphite or other carbon-based materials.

Learn a language while you wait for WiFi: Tool integrates with email and web browsers to harness micro-moments

Hyper-connectivity has changed the way we communicate, wait, and productively use our time. Even in a world of 5G wireless and "instant" messaging, there are countless moments throughout the day when we're waiting for messages, texts and Snapchats to refresh. But our frustrations with waiting a few extra seconds for our emails to push through doesn't mean we have to simply stand by.

Uber says growth strong as it gives a peek at earnings

Uber on Friday provided a glimpse at its earnings, saying it is growing strong while working to overhaul company culture at the scandal-dented on-demand ride service.

Microsoft says users are protected from alleged NSA malware

Up-to-date Microsoft customers are safe from the purported National Security Agency spying tools dumped online, the software company said Saturday, tamping down fears that the digital arsenal was poised to wreak havoc across the internet .

Computer pioneer Robert W. Taylor dies at 85

Robert W. Taylor, who was instrumental in creating the internet and the modern personal computer, has died. He was 85.

Kids prefer the TV for their viewing, but love other devices

Grace Ellis has never known a time when you needed a TV to watch TV.

New adhesive sensor can save patients the discomfort and of pain leaky intravenous drips

A new adhesive sensor can save patients the discomfort and pain resulting from leaky intravenous drips.

Scientists develop a novel algorithm inspired by bee colonies to help dismantling criminal social networks

Researchers from the University of Granada (UGR) have designed an algorithm, inspired by the intelligent and social behavior of bee colonies, which allows law enforcement to attack and dismantle any type of social network that poses a threat, whether physical or virtual, such as social networks linked to organized crime and jihadist terrorism.

Saudi seeks 10% renewable energy in six years: minister

Saudi Arabia wants 10 percent of its electricity to come from renewable sources within several years as part of a transformation in its power sector, the energy minister said Monday.

Google reaches $7.8 mn antitrust settlement with Russia

Google on Monday agreed to pay a nearly $8 million fine and open its Android mobiles to competing search engines in Russia in an antitrust settlement reached after two years.

Telecom lobbying muscle kills privacy rules

The telecom industry's lobbying muscle pushed a consumer privacy measure to a swift death in Congress.

California utility launches first hybrid power systems (Update)

A California utility has launched unique systems combining a hybrid battery and gas turbine to produce and store electricity for use during hot summer months and other times when power demand soars.

Netflix on the verge of hitting 100 million subscribers (Update)

Netflix is on the verge of surpassing 100 million global subscribers, a testament to how much the video streaming service has changed the entertainment landscape since its debut a decade ago.

YouTube channel showing giraffe birth 2nd most live-viewed

The long-awaited arrival of April the giraffe's baby has made Animal Adventure Park the second most live-viewed channel in YouTube's history.

Medicine & Health news

Scientists find evidence that ALS and SMA could be treated with a common drug

Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) researchers have identified a compound that helps protect the cells destroyed by spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most frequent fatal genetic disease in children under 2 years of age.

AI systems found to be better than doctors at gauging heart attack risk

(Medical Xpress)—A team of researchers at the University of Nottingham in the U.K. has found that artificial intelligence systems can be better at gauging a patient's risk of a heart attack than doctors using a standard protocol. In their paper uploaded to the open access site PLOS ONE, the team describes how they tested four AI systems against humans using a protocol, what they found, and why they believe there is still room for improvement.

Think brain games make you smarter? Think again, researchers say

Be skeptical of ads declaring you can rev up your brain's performance by challenging it with products from the growing brain-training industry.

Researchers identify a new HIV reservoir

HIV cure research to date has focused on clearing the virus from T cells, a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. Yet investigators in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have found the virus persists in HIV-infected macrophages. Macrophages are large white blood cells found in tissues throughout the body including the liver, lung, bone marrow and brain. The discovery of this additional viral reservoir has significant implications for HIV cure research. These findings were published in Nature Medicine on Monday, April 17.

Assay of nearly 5,000 mutations reveals roots of genetic splicing errors

It's not so hard anymore to find genetic variations in patients, said Brown University genomics expert William Fairbrother, but it remains difficult to understand whether and how those mutations undermine health.

Sympathetic nervous system is critical in regulating energy expenditure and thermogenesis

A new study from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai provides important insights into how the body regulates its production of heat, a process known as thermogenesis that is currently intensely studied as a target of diabetes and obesity treatment in humans.

For keeping X chromosomes active, chromosome 19 marks the spot

After nearly 40 years of searching, Johns Hopkins researchers report they have identified a part of the human genome that appears to block an RNA responsible for keeping only a single X chromosome active when new female embryos are formed, effectively allowing for the generally lethal activation of more than one X chromosome during development. Because so-called X-inactivation is essential for normal female embryo development in humans and other mammals, and two activated X chromosomes create an inherently fatal condition, the research may help explain the worldwide human sex ratio that has slightly favored males over females for as long as science has been able to measure it. The results appear online in the April 12 issue of the journal PLOS ONE.

Aha! Study examines people as they are struck by sudden insight

Everybody loves those rare "aha moments" where you suddenly and unexpectedly solve a difficult problem or understand something that had previously perplexed you.

Fibrosis reversed when 'don't eat me' signal blocked, study finds

Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have identified a pathway that, when mutated, drives fibrosis in many organs of the body.

Medical mystery solved in record time

In a study published today in PLoS ONE, a team of researchers reports solving a medical mystery in a day's work. In record-time detective work, the scientists narrowed down the genetic cause of intellectual disability in four male patients to a deletion of a small section of the X chromosome that had not been previously linked to a medical condition.

Getting a handle on brain organization: Study finds even those born without hands show hand-tool overlap

Tool use has long been considered one of the behaviors that makes humans, well, human.

The impossibility of immorality: Study suggests the brain views immoral acts as if they are impossible

Imagine you're getting hungry at work and you see a candy bar on a co-worker's desk. Why not just eat it while she's out of the room?

Low cervical cancer screening rates found among mentally ill

Women enrolled in California's Medicaid program (Medi-Cal) who have been diagnosed with severe mental illness have been screened for cervical cancer at much lower rates than other women, according to a new study by researchers at UC San Francisco.

Study paints somber picture of US mental health status and access to care

More Americans than ever before suffer from serious psychological distress, and the country's ability to meet the growing demand for mental health services is rapidly eroding.

Italian Emma Morano, last known survivor of 19th century, dies at 117

Emma Morano, an Italian woman believed to have been the oldest person alive and the last survivor of the 19th century, died Saturday at the age of 117, Italian media reported.

Overcoming Opioids: The quest for less addictive drugs

Tummy tucks really hurt. Doctors carve from hip to hip, slicing off skin, tightening muscles, tugging at innards. Patients often need strong painkillers for days or even weeks, but Mary Hernandez went home on just over-the-counter ibuprofen.

How Spain became the world leader in organ transplants

Juan Benito Druet has just learned that his life may be about to change.

Study reveals enormous advances for rheumatoid arthritis patients

People living with Rheumatoid Arthritis have experienced significant improvements in their daily lives which is probably down to early and more aggressive treatment of the disease, according to new research from The Universities of Manchester and East Anglia.

Fighting for children's rights in the high-tech fertility age

In a time when the fertility business in the U.S. is booming and so much is possible—artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, and potentially, bioengineering of embryos—there are few, if any, laws that protect the children from these less traditional origins.

Periodic check-ups key to baby boomer health and longevity

For some baby boomers, getting ready for a routine visit with their doctor is like training for a marathon. Some patients want to be in the best shape possible before stepping on that scale and getting those lab results. Others are so anxious about their vital stats being below par that they consider postponing or even canceling their examinations, doctors report.

In negotiations, two jerks are better than one

Negotiations work best when both sides have matching personality traits-even if they're both disagreeable-according to research from the University of Georgia Terry College of Business.

Research leads to new drug for hard-to-treat lymphomas

Japan has become the first country to approve a lymphoma drug developed through research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. This also marks the first time that an Einstein-licensed drug has been approved for patient use.

Do meds like Remifemin really ease hot flushes and night sweats in menopausal women?

If you see a female friend or colleague sitting in front of a desk fan in winter while everyone else is shivering in sweaters, chances are she is having a hot flush, courtesy of the menopause.

Making circumcision safer for young men with bleeding disorders

Circumcision is the oldest and most frequent surgical procedure in the world. In some cultures, it marks a clear break from childhood to adulthood. But, reports of young men dying during traditional initiation rites due to spontaneous bleeding are devastating. The Conversation Africa's Health and Medicine Editor Joy Wanja Muraya asked Dr Peter Kibet Shikuku for his views on a safe circumcision programme in Kenya for boys with haemophilia – a bleeding disorder.

Children's Hospital Colorado combats antibiotic resistance with 'handshake stewardship'

Recent research from Children's Hospital Colorado (Children's Colorado) has shown the effectiveness of a unique type of antimicrobial stewardship program in the fight against antibiotic (antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial) resistance. The research examined the impact a strategy known as "handshake stewardship" could have on the use of antibiotics in a freestanding children's hospital. This strategy was characterized by:

Parents struggle with choosing allergy medicine for their children

Tulips, songbirds and itchy little eyes—all are sure signs of spring.

Repeating non-verbs as well as verbs can boost the syntactic priming effect

According to Glasgow and HSE/Northumbria researchers, repetition of non-verbs as well as verbs can boost the effect of syntactic priming, i.e. the likelihood of people reproducing the structure of the utterance they have just heard.

Powered stretchers could reduce injuries, keep paramedics on the job

Moving from manual to powered stretchers could reduce the number of injuries to paramedics by 78 per cent, a University of Waterloo study has found.

3-D prints used to compare effectiveness of top surgical techniques for repairing heel deformity

Using 3-D models of a patient's foot, investigators at Cedars-Sinai have found that the three leading procedures for treating heel deformities do not adequately correct the debilitating problem.

New study shows that antipsychotic medications can be reduced in dementia patients

The use of antipsychotic medication in nearly 100 Massachusetts nursing homes was significantly reduced when staff was trained to recognize challenging behaviors of cognitively impaired residents as communication of their unmet needs, according to a new study led by Jennifer Tjia, MD, MSCE, associate professor of quantitative health sciences. Results of the study were published in JAMA Internal Medicine on April 17.

Examining cost-effectiveness of initial diagnostic exams for microscopic hematuria

Detecting red blood cells in the urine of asymptomatic patients who don't see blood when they urinate (asymptomatic microscopic hematuria) is common but it can signal cancer in the genitourinary system.

Breakdown of neutrophil protein causes severe autoimmune disease of blood vessels

Neutrophils are key players of the innate immune system that help fight off infection. These white blood cells attack in a number of ways: producing enzymes or toxic oxygen-containing molecules, ingesting pathogens, and releasing protein-rich structures (NETs) to immobilize microbes. However, their abnormal responses can lead to autoimmune diseases such as a life-threatening form of vasculitis, AAV, in which autoantibodies are produced against neutrophil proteins and blood vessel walls are destroyed. SEMA4D, a type of protein that controls immune responses, is thought to be involved in autoimmunity, but its function in neutrophil-associated autoimmune disorders such as AAV was unknown.

Electroacupuncture may improve regulation of blood sugar in overweight and obese women

For women who are overweight or obese and are unable to exercise, new research appearing online in The FASEB Journal suggests combining acupuncture with an electrical current may help. In the report, an international team of researchers used electroacupuncture to assist with muscle contraction, which led to improved blood sugar regulation. This research also may benefit women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the most common hormonal disorder among women, which is associated with prediabetes and an increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes.

Lyme disease imposes large cost on the northeast United States

As people across the northeastern U.S. begin venturing back into the outdoors with the arrival of spring, they will make 1 billion fewer trips than they otherwise would have if Lyme disease didn't exist, a new Yale study concludes.

South Carolina hospitals see major drop in post-surgical deaths with safety checklist

South Carolina saw a 22 percent reduction in post-surgical deaths in hospitals that completed a voluntary, statewide program to implement the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist.

Study offers hope, sheds light on how vets respond to trauma

A new study of military veterans who went through trauma finds that those veterans who have related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also more likely to experience "post-traumatic growth" - such as an increased appreciation of life, awareness of new possibilities and enhanced inner strength.

Older victims of fraud have poorer cognitive skills and are less conscientious, honest

When comparing victims of fraud to those who had never been victimized, lead authors Dr. Kang Lee and doctoral researcher Rebecca Judges at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto, along with researchers at Ryerson University, found that older victims have poorer cognitive abilities in everyday activities and are less conscientious and less honest than non-victims of the same age group.

Synthetic carbohydrates against autoimmune diseases

Researchers are developing an innovative approach for the treatment of a rare autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system, using a type of molecular sponge consisting of carbohydrates to remove pathogenic antibodies from the bloodstream. Developed to treat anti-MAG neuropathy, the approach also has potential applications for the treatment of other autoimmune diseases. Scientists from the University of Basel and University Hospital Basel have reported their findings in the scientific journal PNAS.

Potential new treatment strategy for neuroinflammation related to severe type of stroke

Scientists have discovered a potential new treatment strategy to reduce the effects of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a severe form of stroke where a blood vessel bursts and bleeds into the brain, causing life-threatening edema and neuroinflammation. Using mice, they found that a ligand of the TPSO protein called etifoxine reduces inflammation and brain edema in animal models. This research has been published online in The FASEB Journal.

Do BAT receptors hold the key to treating obesity and diabetes?

According to research published online in The FASEB Journal, scientists have discovered a way to increase the amount of metabolism-boosting brown adipose tissue (BAT) ("good" fat) by employing two receptors on BAT cells as potential therapeutic targets. Both receptors, TRPM8 and TRPP3, are associated with the creation of BAT in humans, and may be activated by certain foods, and possibly the envisioned new drugs. This has implications for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders.

Teaching happiness to men with HIV boosts their health

When individuals recently diagnosed with HIV were coached to practice skills to help them experience positive emotions, the result was less HIV in their blood and lower antidepressant use, reports a new Northwestern Medicine study.

When parents get vaccinated, their kids do too

(HealthDay)—When parents get a flu shot, their kids are more likely to be vaccinated against not only the flu, but also other diseases, new research reveals.

Get to know the mediterranean diet

(HealthDay)—The diet followed by people who live in countries around the Mediterranean Sea has been shown to be more than just delicious. The so-called Mediterranean diet can help you limit daily calories so you can lose weight. Plus, it's a healthy long-term way of eating.

Anthrax cases linked to use of vintage shaving brushes

(HealthDay)—During and after the First World War, there was an increase in anthrax cases associated with use of new shaving brushes, which were made of imported horsehair, according to research published in the May issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emerging Infectious Diseases.

One in five post-op patients need unscheduled help

(HealthDay)—A sizable minority of patients need to make contact with health services after outpatient surgery, most often due to inadequate pain management, according to a study published online April 10 in Anesthesiology.

ASCO updates recs on potentially curable pancreatic cancer

(HealthDay)—Guidelines relating to the appropriate adjuvant regimen for patients with pancreatic cancer have been updated in light of new evidence, according to a special article published online April 11 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

Dizziness inPparkinson's may be due to cerebral hypoperfusion

(HealthDay)—Cerebral hypoperfusion contributes to dizziness in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), even without orthostatic hypotension (OH), according to a study published online April 12 in the Journal of Clinical Ultrasound.

Major bleeding risk from drugs similar in elderly

(HealthDay)—The risk of major bleeding is similar for older patients with atrial fibrillation taking either antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, according to a review published online April 10 in the Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

Early invasive doesn't beat selective strategy in NSTE-ACS

(HealthDay)—An early invasive strategy has no benefit for reducing the 10-year composite outcomes of death or spontaneous myocardial infarction (MI) for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) and elevated cardiac troponin T, according to a study published in the April 18 issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

RUNX1 may play role in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

(HealthDay)—The Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) gene may play a role in human proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and upregulation may be a marker of aberrant retinal angiogenesis, according to a study published online April 11 in Diabetes.

Study shows high-salt diet decreases thirst, increases hunger

When you eat salty food, you get thirsty and drink water. Right? Maybe in the short-term, but within 24 hours, you actually get less thirsty because your body starts to conserve and produce more water.

Scientists grow eye cells to fix corneas

A Stanford University research team has created a potentially powerful new way to fix damaged corneas—a major source of vision problems and blindness.

An Australian woman birthed a 13-pound baby. What are the health risks?

Natasha Corrigan is making international headlines after giving birth to a 13-pound, 4-ounce baby—or a "fat little man," as she called him.

What men should know about new prostate cancer screening guidelines

Men ages 55 to 69 should talk with their health care provider about prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening for prostate cancer. That's according to new recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

New drug provides long-awaited breakthrough for Parkinson's psychosis

Julie Torrence clearly remembers the emotional jolt she felt the day her father, Clyde Hill, failed to recognize her at his Kansas care center.

Type 2 diabetes, once considered a disease for adults, is increasingly common in tweens and teens

For years, health experts have bemoaned the rise of childhood obesity in the United States. About 17 percent of kids and teens in the U.S. are now considered obese, a figure that has more than tripled since the 1970s, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Poll: Marijuana safer than opioids, but moms shouldn't use

Americans think it's safer to use marijuana than opioids to relieve pain, but they were less comfortable with children and pregnant women using pot to treat medical conditions, according to a new Yahoo/Marist poll released Monday.

Money a barrier to independence for young adults with autism

More than 3 million people in the United States are estimated to have an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and annual diagnosis rates continue to rise. Researchers from the University of Missouri have found when teenagers and young adults with autism enter adulthood and age out of many of the services designed to help them, they often are anxious about how to handle new adult responsibilities such as paying bills and filing taxes. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating financial management into early education to empower young adults with autism.

Eye expressions offer a glimpse into the evolution of emotion

New research by Adam Anderson, professor of human development at Cornell University's College of Human Ecology, reveals why the eyes offer a window into the soul.

More multiple sclerosis-causing mutations found in Canadian families

Less than a year after publishing research identifying a single genetic mutation that caused multiple sclerosis (MS) in two Canadian families, scientists at the University of British Columbia have found a combination of two other mutations in another family that made them highly susceptible to the disease.

Moderate, high-intensity exercise programs show similar results

(HealthDay)—Short-term moderate-intensity to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) leads to modest body composition improvements in overweight and obese individuals, according to research published online April 11 in Obesity Reviews.

Epilepsy: Another potential Zika threat to babies

(HealthDay)—Beyond its known links to birth defects and other problems, the Zika virus may also trigger cases of epilepsy in infants, warn experts from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Leading medical groups join March for Science on April 22

(HealthDay)—More than two dozen U.S. medical groups say they will join the March for Science on Earth Day.

New bowel disorder treatments needed, FDA says

(HealthDay)—There's no known cause or cure for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects more than 15 million Americans, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

President aims for tobacco-free Turkmenistan by 2025

Turkmenistan's president has signed a program aimed at pushing forward his goal of making the Central Asian country tobacco-free by 2025.

Thousands of people with autism join new online genetic study

Autism has a strong genetic component. To date, approximately 50 genes have been identified that almost certainly play a role in autism, and researchers estimate that at least an additional 300 are involved. But to identify all the genes at play, many more genetic samples are needed from those with autism and their immediate families.

International Chagas Day draws attention to serious infection

April 14 marks International Chagas Day, which signifies an important awareness day for those living with or concerned about Chagas disease, a chronic disease that is caused a parasitic microorganism, Trypanosoma cruzi, and is transmitted by kissing bugs. Experts at the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine are taking a comprehensive approach to tackling the disease through research, clinical care and vaccine development.

Academia, industry collaborate on solutions to neural disease, injury

Neurological disorders like Parkinson's, the aftermath of stroke, limb loss and paralysis significantly diminish the length and quality of life—affecting about one in six people worldwide. But a growing number of biomedical innovations, driven in large part by an aging population dealing with debilitating health issues, are improving both cognitive and motor function.

Article examines studies on antidepressants, autism spectrum disorders

A new article published by JAMA Pediatrics reviews and analyzes a small collection of studies on fetal exposure to antidepressants and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).

Scientists work to strengthen the synergy of chemotherapy and immunotherapy against cancer

In the war on cancer, powerful chemotherapy agents are increasingly packaged with immunotherapy that primes a patient's immune system to better battle the disease.

Pancreatic cancer project scores in research 'lightning round'

Scientists get funded for their ideas through a marathon grant-writing process, scores of collaborators, weeks of information gathering and a final product that often tops 250 pages.

New ASTRO guideline establishes standard of care for curative treatment of oropharyngeal cancer with radiation therapy

The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) today issued a new clinical guideline for the management of oropharyngeal cancer. The guideline, "Radiation therapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: An ASTRO Evidence-based Clinical Practice Guideline," is available as a free access article in Practical Radiation Oncology, ASTRO's clinical practice journal.

Baseball great rod carew owes his life to NFL player's transplanted organs

(HealthDay)— When Baseball Hall of Famer Rod Carew received a new heart and kidney last December, he and his family had no idea who they had to thank for the lifesaving organs.

Imbalances in neural pathways may contribute to repetitive behaviors in autism

Genetic studies have linked a number of risk genes to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although the complex genetics underlying ASD likely involve interactions between many genes, some risk genes are singular drivers of autism-like behaviors in rodent models, particularly genes that guide synaptic development and function.

A single high-sensitivity troponin T result could quickly and safely rule out MI in the ED

High-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin T can quickly and safely rule out myocardial infarction (MI) in patients presenting to emergency departments (ED) with possible emergency acute coronary syndrome. A single troponin T concentration below the limit of detection in combination with a nonischemic electrocardiogram (EKG) means that MI is unlikely and patients can be safely discharged. The findings of a collaborative meta-analysis are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

Updated AATS guidelines help cardiovascular surgeons navigate the challenges of managing ischemic mitral regurgitation

Mitral regurgitation can occur in up to 50% of patients with ischemic heart disease and even mild ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) has been linked to increased long-term mortality. How best to treat IMR is controversial, in part, because of the fragility and complexity of the patients, difficulty of grading IMR, the variety of medical and surgical options, and lack of long-term quality studies. Noting that other guidelines generally do not focus on optimal surgical approaches to IMR, the AATS enlisted a group of experts to create a consensus document to provide clinicians with their recommendations based on their opinions and the best available evidence. The Guidelines are published in The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, the official publication of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery (AATS).

Virtual microscopy: New online resource for educators and researchers

A medical student in Michigan. A nursing student in Ghana. An anatomy professor in Brazil. A researcher in Australia. All need to learn—or teach—about the human body at the most basic level.

Biology news

Science fiction horror wriggles into reality with discovery of giant sulfur-powered shipworm

Our world seems to grow smaller by the day as biodiversity rapidly dwindles, but Mother Earth still has a surprise or two up her sleeve. An international team of researchers were the first to investigate a never before studied species—a giant, black, mud dwelling, worm-like animal. The odd animal doesn't seem to eat much, instead it gets its energy from a form of sulfur. The findings, led by scientists at the University of Utah, Northeastern University, University of the Philippines, Sultan Kudarat State University and Drexel University, will be published online in the Apr. 17 issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Protein's flexibility helps its response to diverse pollutants

How some industrial pollutants or abnormal levels of cellular metabolites contribute to diverse human diseases is now more clearly understood, based on a new study from the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center (UWCCC) and the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research.

Researchers locate control center for DNA breaks during cell division

Breaks in DNA can wreak havoc in the body, giving rise to cancer and other health problems. Yet sometimes cells rupture their own DNA for a good reason.

Lack of oxygen not a showstopper for life

The hot springs of Yellowstone National Park may be extreme environments, but they are host to a diversity of microbes that could shed light on the evolution of life on Earth and, perhaps, what lurks on distant planets.

Plant genes may lack off switch, but have volume control

Scientists at the University of California, Davis have discovered that DNA sequences thought to be essential for gene activity can be expendable. Sequences once called junk sometimes call the shots instead.

Reading the genetic code depends on context

The so-called central dogma of molecular biology states the process for turning genetic information into proteins that cells can use. "DNA makes RNA," the dogma says, "and RNA makes protein." Each protein is made of a series of amino acids, and each amino acid is coded for by sets of "triplets," which are sets of three informational DNA units, in the genetic code.

Scientists engineer human-germ hybrid molecules to attack drug-resistant bacteria

Inspired by viruses that attack and kill bacteria, researchers at The Rockefeller University have created an entirely new weapon against disease-causing bacteria that shows great promise for treating drug-resistant infections.

New many-toothed clingfish discovered with help of digital scans

A set of curious researchers, state-of-the-art visual technology and a bit of good luck helped find a new fish whose tooth collection could put a shark to shame.

Scientists find that the space bullethead parrotfish use is influenced more by competition than by fear of predators

It's a fish-eat-fish world out in the ocean, and prey species usually fear the predators that would make them into a tasty snack.

Termite gut holds a secret to breaking down plant biomass

In the Microbial Sciences Building at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the incredibly efficient eating habits of a fungus-cultivating termite are surprising even to those well acquainted with the insect's natural gift for turning wood to dust.

Study: Bird population in Vermont forests drop 14.2 percent

The bird population in Vermont's forests has declined 14.2 percent over 25 years, largely due to several factors, including invasive species, climate change, and the natural cycle of maturing forests, scientists with the Vermont Center for Ecostudies say.

It's a boy! Zoo confirms April the giraffe's calf is a male

And baby makes glee.

Wait is over for April the giraffe, YouTube star and new mom

The wait is over for April the giraffe and the legions of fans who watched a New York zoo's livestream for signs that the long-legged internet star was in labor.

Like animals, plants have skin that reacts to the environment around them, and this is crucial to their survival

Human beings have five senses – taste, touch, sight, hearing and smell. These senses help us navigate the world and act as warning signs of dangers. We use them to make everyday decisions; for example, when it starts raining we pull out our umbrellas, and when it's hot we take off our jackets.

Tweaking the transcriptome to tackle stress

Single-celled plankton known as dinoflagellates are shown to cope with stress using an unexpected strategy of editing their RNA rather than changing gene expression levels.

Spotted hyenas rarely die from disease—scientists set out to discover why

Ol-konôî, the Maa or Maasai word for hyena, means "to eat greedily" or "the gluttonous one". It shows a not so subtle disdain many communities have for spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). It's true that hyenas scramble and "laugh" during intense feeding events. But then so do many human social groups.

Mating success follows duet dancing in the Java sparrow

Java sparrows are more likely to mate after dancing together, according to a study from Hokkaido University, contradictory to the belief that songs are the primary sexual signal.

Dietary supplement may enhance dairy cattle health and reproductive capacity

Animal scientist Phil Cardoso knew that milk protein increases when dairy cows are fed the amino acid methionine, but he suspected that the supplement might have additional health benefits.

Rare white wolf in Yellowstone park euthanized over injuries

One of only three white wolves roaming Yellowstone National Park has been put down by park staff after it was found with severe injuries.

On intelligence

During human evolution, our cerebral cortex increased in size in response to new environmental challenges. The cerebral cortex is the site of diverse processes, including visual perception and language acquisition. However, no accepted unitary theory of cortical function exists yet. One hypothesis is that there is an evolutionarily conserved neural circuit that implements a simple and flexible computation. This idea is known as the "canonical circuit." As Gary Marcus, Adam Marblestone, and Thomas Dean note in a perspective piece in Science, there is still no consensus about whether such a canonical circuit exists nearly four decades later. Researchers argue that there is little evidence that such a uniform structure can capture the diversity of cortical function in simple mammals.

Experts: Ship may have hit endangered whale found dead

Researchers say preliminary findings show a North Atlantic right whale may have been struck by a ship before the animal was found dead in Massachusetts waters.

New York preps rat birth control test-run

The New York rat race is notorious—the commute and the endemic rodent population. But the city may soon have a new weapon in its arsenal: rat birth control.

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1 comment:

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