Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Nature Physics April Issue

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Nature Physics

Nature Outline: Quantum Computing 

Quantum computers are big news, but the quantum world can seem mysterious and confusing. In this Outline we explain the differences between classical and quantum computing, and suggest how quantum computers could transform science and technology. 

Access the Outline free for six months

Produced with support from 
Nokia Bell Labs

April 2017 Volume 13, Issue 4

Books and Arts
Research Highlights
News and Views
Measure for Measure

Recommend to library



A ton for Thompson's tome   p315
The centennial celebrations for morphology masterwork On Growth and Form are just kicking off. We look at why physicists should get involved.



Science needs reason to be trusted   pp316 - 317
Sabine Hossenfelder
That we now live in the grip of post-factualism would seem naturally repellent to most physicists. But in championing theory without demanding empirical evidence, we're guilty of ignoring the facts ourselves.



Physics under the fold   p318
Mark Buchanan

Books and Arts


The many hats of a Cold War scientist   p319
True Genius: The Life and Work of Richard Garwin by Joel N. Shurkin

Exhibition: The future's bright   p320
Luke Fleet and Federico Levi

Research Highlights


General relativity: Going underground | Active soft matter: Toroidal swimmers | Quantum physics: Heroes of zeroes | Accretion: Gone with the wind | Computational ecology: The eyes have it

News and Views


CP violation: Another piece of the puzzle   p322
Gauthier Durieux and Yuval Grossman
A study of Λb baryon decays has provided the first direct experimental evidence that spinning matter and antimatter differ. This result may help us understand the puzzling matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe.

See also: Article by Aaij et al.

Origin of life: Division for multiplication   pp323 - 324
Ramin Golestanian
Early forms of life could have started by molecular compounds coming together under conditions dense enough to promote reactions. But how might these droplets have undergone what we now know as cell division? The answer may be simpler than we think.

See also: Article by Zwicker et al.

Colloids: A microscopic army   pp324 - 326
Pietro Tierno
Ensembles of magnetic colloids can undergo an instability triggering the formation of clusters that move faster than the particles themselves. The many-body process relies on hydrodynamics alone and may prove useful for load delivery in fluidics.

See also: Letter by Driscoll et al.

Hydrodynamics: Modus vivendi   pp326 - 327
Vicente I. Fernandez and Roman Stocker
Striking visualization of the flows generated by starfish larvae in their fluid environment offers unique insight into how these organisms live. The beautiful vortices they create betray a dynamic mechanism for trading swimming off against feeding.

See also: Letter by Gilpin et al.

High harmonic generation: A twist in coherent X-rays   pp327 - 329
Carlos Hernández-García
Light beams with controllable orbital angular momentum can be generated in the extreme-ultraviolet or soft-X-ray regime, pushing the application of twisted light to the nanoscale.

JOBS of the week
Postdoctoral Researcher (NUS-Physics)
National University of Singapore-Department of Physics
Post-doctoral and student fellowships in Atomic Physics
Ron Folman
PhD position (m / f) in Physics or Physical Chemistry
Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften - ISAS - e.V.

More Science jobs from
International Conference on Advances in Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics ( ICACMMP 2017 )
Moscow, Russia
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Accelerated quantum control using superadiabatic dynamics in a solid-state lambda system   pp330 - 334
Brian B. Zhou, Alexandre Baksic, Hugo Ribeiro, Christopher G. Yale, F. Joseph Heremans et al.
Adiabatic processes are useful in quantum control, but they are slow. A way around this is to exploit shortcuts to adiabaticity, which can speed things up — for instance, by boosting stimulated Raman adiabatic passage.

Optical-field-controlled photoemission from plasmonic nanoparticles   pp335 - 339
William P. Putnam, Richard G. Hobbs, Phillip D. Keathley, Karl K. Berggren and Franz X. Kärtner
Photoemission is usually driven by the energy of the illuminating laser pulses, but in the strong-field regime, the photoemission from an array of plasmonic nanoparticles is shown to be controlled by the light's electric field.

Sharp tunnelling resonance from the vibrations of an electronic Wigner crystal   pp340 - 344
Joonho Jang, Benjamin M. Hunt, Loren N. Pfeiffer, Kenneth W. West and Raymond C. Ashoori
Resonances in the tunnelling spectra of a two-dimensional electron system provide strong evidence that the electrons arrange themselves into a Wigner crystal lattice with long-range ordering.

Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals   pp345 - 349
Yong Sing You, David A. Reis and Shambhu Ghimire
High-harmonic generation in a solid turns out to be sensitive to the interatomic bonding — a very useful feature that could enable the all-optical imaging of the interatomic potential.

Giant anisotropic nonlinear optical response in transition metal monopnictide Weyl semimetals   pp350 - 355
Liang Wu, S. Patankar, T. Morimoto, N. L. Nair, E. Thewalt et al.
An optical second-harmonic generation study of a series of transition metal monopnictide Weyl semimetals reveals a giant, anisotropic nonlinear optical response in these systems.

Topological mosaics in moiré superlattices of van der Waals heterobilayers   pp356 - 362
Qingjun Tong, Hongyi Yu, Qizhong Zhu, Yong Wang, Xiaodong Xu et al.
Engineering moiré superlattices by stacking two-dimensional crystals could enable lateral superstructures to be formed where the local topological phase is periodically modulated, creating topological mosaics that are electrically switchable.

Intrinsic photonic wave localization in a three-dimensional icosahedral quasicrystal   pp363 - 368
Seung-Yeol Jeon, Hyungho Kwon and Kahyun Hur
Unlike the usual picture of Anderson localization, in three-dimensional quasicrystals light waves can localize without disorder, thanks to their short mean free path.

Observation of topological valley transport of sound in sonic crystals   pp369 - 374
Jiuyang Lu, Chunyin Qiu, Liping Ye, Xiying Fan, Manzhu Ke et al.
Valleytronics — exploiting a system's pseudospin degree of freedom — is being increasingly explored in sonic crystals. Now, valley transport of sound is reported for a macroscopic triangular-lattice array of rod-like scatterers in a 2D air waveguide.

Unstable fronts and motile structures formed by microrollers   pp375 - 379
Michelle Driscoll, Blaise Delmotte, Mena Youssef, Stefano Sacanna, Aleksandar Donev et al.
Collections of rolling colloids are shown to pinch off into motile clusters resembling droplets sliding down a windshield. These stable dynamic structures are formed through a fingering instability that relies on hydrodynamic interactions alone.

See also: News and Views by Tierno

Vortex arrays and ciliary tangles underlie the feeding–swimming trade-off in starfish larvae   pp380 - 386
William Gilpin, Vivek N. Prakash and Manu Prakash
Larval starfish use an outer layer of cilia to generate vortices in the fluid around their bodies. Spectacular imaging and mathematical modelling are combined to reveal that these dynamics are alternately optimized for swimming and feeding.

See also: News and Views by Fernandez & Stocker

A laboratory model for deep-seated jets on the gas giants   pp387 - 390
Simon Cabanes, Jonathan Aurnou, Benjamin Favier and Michael Le Bars
A laboratory study of turbulent flows reproduces the properties of jets in the atmospheres of gas giants, providing a better understanding of how these jets could extend deep into the planetary atmosphere.



Measurement of matter–antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays OPEN   pp391 - 396
The LHCb collaboration:
CP violation has deep implications for particle physics and cosmology. Previously observed only in meson decays, signs of CP violation have now been spotted in baryon decays by analysing the proton–proton collision data from the LHCb detector.

See also: News and Views by Durieux & Grossman

Characterizing quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light   pp397 - 402
Bienvenu Ndagano, Benjamin Perez-Garcia, Filippus S. Roux, Melanie McLaren, Carmelo Rosales-Guzman et al.
Classical light is as good as quantum light to characterize a quantum channel. This unexpected result has practical consequences that make an experimentalist's life easier in some situations.

Control of the millisecond spin lifetime of an electrically probed atom   pp403 - 407
William Paul, Kai Yang, Susanne Baumann, Niklas Romming, Taeyoung Choi et al.
Single atoms on a surface can be useful in spintronics applications, but their spin lifetime is limited by relaxation. By cleverly employing an STM tip, one can probe the spin dynamics and disentangle different effects leading to relaxation.

Growth and division of active droplets provides a model for protocells   pp408 - 413
David Zwicker, Rabea Seyboldt, Christoph A. Weber, Anthony A. Hyman and Frank Jülicher
Droplets are an appealing picture for protocells in origin-of-life studies, but it/'s unclear how they would have propagated by growth and division. Theory suggests that chemically active droplets spontaneously split into equal daughter droplets.

See also: News and Views by Golestanian

Measure for Measure


Tricks for ticks   p414
Hidetoshi Katori
Optical-lattice clocks have pushed the limits of frequency measurement — to such an extent that a tiny difference in altitude affects the clock's tick rate, as Hidetoshi Katori elucidates.

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