Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Nature Immunology Contents: May 2017 Volume 18 pp 475 - 593

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Nature Immunology

Nature Protocols: Poster on the production of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cells

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May 2017 Volume 18, Issue 5

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Nature Milestones: Interactive antibody timeline

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Speaking out about gender imbalance in invited speakers improves diversity   pp475 - 478
Robyn S Klein, Rhonda Voskuhl, Benjamin M Segal, Bonnie N Dittel, Thomas E Lane et al.
Omissions of qualified women scientists from major meeting programs continue to occur despite a surge in articles indicating persistent gender-discriminatory practices in hiring and promotion, and calls for gender balance in conference organizing committees.

News and Views


IRE1 gives weight to obesity-associated inflammation   pp479 - 480
Bojan Bujisic and Fabio Martinon
IRE1α is a stress sensor that is activated by a high-fat diet. In adipose-tissue macrophages, it serves as a major switch toward pro-inflammatory M1 polarization and thereby contributes to obesity and associated diseases.

See also: Article by Shan et al.

The immune system as a social network   pp481 - 482
Andreas Bergthaler and Jörg Menche
The immune system employs a multitude of molecules, cells and organs that act together throughout the entire body to guard human health. Much like in a social network, immune cells can exert full functionality only through effective collaboration and communication.

See also: Resource by Rieckmann et al.

Gene-enhancer variants reveal diverse TCR-mediated differentiation   pp483 - 484
Michael P Gallagher and Leslie J Berg
The transcription factor IRF4 acts as a 'rheostat' for TCR signaling. Discrete levels of IRF4 can activate distinct transcriptional programs in T cells due to binding sites of variable affinity in groups of target genes.

See also: Article by Iwata et al.

Dietary short-chain fatty acids protect against type 1 diabetes   pp484 - 486
Li Wen and F Susan Wong
The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate and butyrate, which are released from specialized diets by gut microbes, protect non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice against insulitis and slow the progression of diabetes.

See also: Article by Marino et al.

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Research Highlights


Circulating potential | Glioma immune evasion | Macrophage dynamics | Marking HIV | PD-1 targets CD28 | Vitamin C for microglia



Mitochondria are the powerhouses of immunity   pp488 - 498
Evanna L Mills, Beth Kelly and Luke A J O'Neill
O'Neill and colleagues review the role of mitochondria dynamics and energetics in immunity and inflammation, in innate and adaptive immune cells.



Long noncoding RNA lncKdm2b is required for ILC3 maintenance by initiation of Zfp292 expression   pp499 - 508
Benyu Liu, Buqing Ye, Liuliu Yang, Xiaoxiao Zhu, Guanling Huang et al.
Long noncoding RNAs contribute to the cell-type-specific regulation of gene expression. Fan and colleagues identify a unique conserved lncRNA, lncKdm2b, that is transcribed divergently from the Kdm2b gene and is necessary for ILC3 maintenance in the gut.

IRAP+ endosomes restrict TLR9 activation and signaling   pp509 - 518
Joel Babdor, Delphyne Descamps, Aimé Cézaire Adiko, Mira Tohmé, Sophia Maschalidi et al.
The receptor TLR9 needs to be carefully regulated to avoid recognition of self nucleic acids and ensuing autoinflammation. Saveanu and colleagues demonstrate a further level of regulation through the retention of TLR9 in IRAP+ endosomes.

The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity   pp519 - 529
Bo Shan, Xiaoxia Wang, Ying Wu, Chi Xu, Zhixiong Xia et al.
'Crown-like' structures composed of apoptotic adipocytes surrounded by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are a characteristic of obesity. Liu and colleagues show that engulfment of apoptotic adipocytes triggers an ER stress response in ATMs and drives the proinflammatory response that underlies obesity.

See also: News and Views by Bujisic & Martinon

Opposing macrophage polarization programs show extensive epigenomic and transcriptional cross-talk   pp530 - 540
Viviana Piccolo, Alessia Curina, Marco Genua, Serena Ghisletti, Marta Simonatto et al.
Natoli and colleagues reveal the epigenomic and transcriptional bases for gene-specific cross-repression of the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4 in macrophages.

NLRP12 attenuates colon inflammation by maintaining colonic microbial diversity and promoting protective commensal bacterial growth   pp541 - 551
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery et al.
The intracellular sensor NLRP12 can negatively regulate inflammation. Ting and colleagues demonstrate that an absence of NLRP12 triggers a dysbiosis that feeds forward into a process of inflammation and colitis.

Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes   pp552 - 562
Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap et al.
The gut microbiota can influence immune-cell function by the production of short-chain fatty acids. Mackay and colleagues show that diets enriched for acetate and butyrate protect non-obese diabetic mice from insulitis and diabetes progression.

See also: News and Views by Wen & Wong

Quality of TCR signaling determined by differential affinities of enhancers for the composite BATF-IRF4 transcription factor complex   pp563 - 572
Arifumi Iwata, Vivek Durai, Roxane Tussiwand, Carlos G Briseño, Xiaodi Wu et al.
Murphy and colleagues show that the transcription-factor complex BATF-IRF4, which recognizes AICE motifs within gene enhancers, is sensitive to TCR signaling strength and identify distinct gene targets that respond to graded doses of TCR stimulation.

See also: News and Views by Gallagher & Berg

Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors that regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation   pp573 - 582
Bingfei Yu, Kai Zhang, J Justin Milner, Clara Toma, Runqiang Chen et al.
Distinct transcription factors influence cell fate, including the generation of effector or memory CD8+ T cells. Goldrath, Wang and colleagues have developed a Page-Rank analysis that shows that the transcription factors YY1 and Nr3c1, which are expressed constitutively, promote the differentiation of effector cells or memory cells, respectively.



Social network architecture of human immune cells unveiled by quantitative proteomics   pp583 - 593
Jan C Rieckmann, Roger Geiger, Daniel Hornburg, Tobias Wolf, Ksenya Kveler et al.
Immune cells give rise to the most interconnected system in the body. Meissner and colleagues perform comprehensive proteomics and secretomics to describe in detail the 'social network' of human immune cells and throw light on previously unknown cell connectivities.

See also: News and Views by Bergthaler & Menche

Nature Outlook: Animal Health

Animal and human health are closely linked. This Outlook examines how climate change is pushing diseases into formerly 'safe' regions of the world, the challenges in treating parasites, the efforts to vaccinate gorillas against Ebola and how a holistic approach to disease could further the well-being of animals. 

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