Tuesday, March 14, 2017

Scientific Reports Earth Sciences Table of Contents e-alert: 14 March 2017

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Earth & Environmental Sciences

Stage-specific, Nonlinear Surface Ozone Damage to Rice Production in China


Colin A. Carter, Xiaomeng Cui, Aijun Ding et al.


China is one of the most heavily polluted nations and is also the largest agricultural producer. There are relatively few studies measuring the effects of pollution on crop …


A significant net sink for CO2 in Tokyo Bay


Atsushi Kubo, Yosaku Maeda, Jota Kanda


Most estuaries and inland waters are significant source for atmospheric CO2 because of input of terrestrial inorganic carbon and mineralization of terrestrially supplied organic …


Monitoring and Modeling the Tibetan Plateau’s climate system and its impact on East Asia


Yaoming Ma, Weiqiang Ma, Lei Zhong et al.


The Tibetan Plateau is an important water source in Asia. As the “Third Pole” of the Earth, the Tibetan Plateau has significant dynamic and thermal effects on East Asian climate …


Uptake and biotransformation of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) in four marine microalgae species


Beverly H. K. Po, Ka-Lok Ho, Michael H. W. Lam et al.


Hydroxylated- and methoxylated- polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) are more toxic than PBDEs and occur widely in the marine environment, and yet their …


Tool use for corpse cleaning in chimpanzees


Edwin J. C. van Leeuwen, Katherine A. Cronin, Daniel B. M. Haun


For the first time, chimpanzees have been observed using tools to clean the corpse of a deceased group member. A female chimpanzee sat down at the dead body of a young male, …


Using Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi tessellation to predict the toxicities of binary mixtures containing hormetic compound


Rui Qu, Shu-Shen Liu, Qiao-Feng Zheng et al.


Concentration addition (CA) was proposed as a reasonable default approach for the ecological risk assessment of chemical mixtures. However, CA cannot predict the toxicity of …


A unified nonlinear stochastic time series analysis for climate science


Woosok Moon, John S. Wettlaufer


Earth’s orbit and axial tilt imprint a strong seasonal cycle on climatological data. Climate variability is typically viewed in terms of fluctuations in the seasonal cycle …


δ15N Values in Crassostrea virginica Shells Provides Early Direct Evidence for Nitrogen Loading to Chesapeake Bay


H. D. Black, C. F. T. Andrus, W. J. Lambert et al.


Crassostrea virginica is one of the most common estuarine bivalves in the United States’ east coast and is frequently found in archaeological sites and sub-fossil deposits. …


Changes in land use driven by urbanization impact nitrogen cycling and the microbial community composition in soils


Haitao Wang, Christopher W. Marshall, Minying Cheng et al.


Transition of populations from rural to urban living causes landscape changes and alters the functionality of soil ecosystems. It is unclear how this urbanization disturbs the …


Direct Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Tropical And Sub-Tropical Agricultural Systems - A Review And Modelling Of Emission Factors


Fabrizio Albanito, Ulrike Lebender, Thomas Cornulier et al.


There has been much debate about the uncertainties associated with the estimation of direct and indirect agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions in developing countries and in …


Assessing the Spatiotemporal Variation and Impact Factors of Net Primary Productivity in China


Xue Wang, Kun Tan, Baozhang Chen et al.


In this study, the net primary productivity (NPP) in China from 2001 to 2012 was estimated based on the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model using Moderate Resolution …


Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments


Kathryn Willis, Britta Denise Hardesty, Lorne Kriwoken et al.


Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation …


A high-resolution history of the South American Monsoon from Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene


Valdir F. Novello, Francisco W. Cruz, Mathias Vuille et al.


The exact extent, by which the hydrologic cycle in the Neotropics was affected by external forcing during the last deglaciation, remains poorly understood. Here we present a new …


Carbon sequestration by Australian tidal marshes


Peter I. Macreadie, Q. R. Ollivier, J. J. Kelleway et al.


Australia’s tidal marshes have suffered significant losses but their recently recognised importance in CO2 sequestration is creating opportunities for their protection and …


Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth


Eivydas Andriukonis, Elena Gorokhova


Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that …


Cumulative effects of suspended sediments, organic nutrients and temperature stress on early life history stages of the coral Acropora tenuis


Adriana Humanes, Gerard F. Ricardo, Bette L. Willis et al.


Coral reproduction is vulnerable to both declining water quality and warming temperatures, with simultaneous exposures likely compounding the negative impact of each stressor. We …


Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate


Guoqing Geng, Rupert J. Myers, Jiaqi Li et al.


The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary …


Prevalence and magnitude of groundwater use by vegetation: a global stable isotope meta-analysis


Jaivime Evaristo, Jeffrey J. McDonnell


The role of groundwater as a resource in sustaining terrestrial vegetation is widely recognized. But the global prevalence and magnitude of groundwater use by vegetation is …


Albedo feedbacks to future climate via climate change impacts on dryland biocrusts


William A. Rutherford, Thomas H. Painter, Scott Ferrenberg et al.


Drylands represent the planet’s largest terrestrial biome and evidence suggests these landscapes have large potential for creating feedbacks to future climate. Recent studies …


A decade of global volcanic SO2 emissions measured from space


S. A. Carn, V. E. Fioletov, C. A. McLinden et al.


The global flux of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted by passive volcanic degassing is a key parameter that constrains the fluxes of other volcanic gases (including carbon dioxide, CO2


Isolation mediates persistent founder effects on zooplankton colonisation in new temporary ponds


Anna Badosa, Dagmar Frisch, Andy J. Green et al.


Understanding the colonisation process in zooplankton is crucial for successful restoration of aquatic ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the clonal and genetic structure of the …


Observed and simulated submesoscale vertical pump of an anticyclonic eddy in the South China Sea


Yisen Zhong, Annalisa Bracco, Jiwei Tian et al.


Oceanic mesoscale eddies with typical sizes of 30–200 km contain more than half of the kinetic energy of the ocean. With an average lifespan of several months, they are major …


Calcium isotope fractionation between aqueous compounds relevant to low-temperature geochemistry, biology and medicine


Frédéric Moynier, Toshiyuki Fujii


Stable Ca isotopes are fractionated between bones, urine and blood of animals and between soils, roots and leaves of plants by >1000 ppm for the 44Ca/40Ca ratio. These isotopic …


High-frequency Coastal Overwash Deposits from Phra Thong Island, Thailand


Chris Gouramanis, Adam D. Switzer, Kruawun Jankaew et al.


The 26th December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) emanated from an Mw 9.2 earthquake that generated a 1600 km-long rupture along the Sumatran Megathrust and generated tsunami …


Widespread platinum anomaly documented at the Younger Dryas onset in North American sedimentary sequences


Christopher R. Moore, Allen West, Malcolm A. LeCompte et al.


Previously, a large platinum (Pt) anomaly was reported in the Greenland ice sheet at the Younger Dryas boundary (YDB) (12,800 Cal B.P.). In order to evaluate its geographic …


A norm knockout method on indirect reciprocity to reveal indispensable norms


Hitoshi Yamamoto, Isamu Okada, Satoshi Uchida et al.


Although various norms for reciprocity-based cooperation have been suggested that are evolutionarily stable against invasion from free riders, the process of alternation of norms …


The Interaction Effects of Meteorological Factors and Air Pollution on the Development of Acute Coronary Syndrome


Ching-Hui Huang, Heng-Cheng Lin, Chen-Dao Tsai et al.


This study investigated the interaction effects of meteorological factors and air pollutants on the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Data of ACS patients were obtained …


Historical range, extirpation and prospects for reintroduction of saigas in China


Shaopeng Cui, E. J. Milner-Gulland, Navinder J. Singh et al.


An assessment of historical distribution patterns and potential reintroduction sites is important for reducing the risk of reintroduction failure of endangered species. The saiga …


The δ30Si peak value discovered in middle Proterozoic chert and its implication for environmental variations in the ancient ocean


T. P. Ding, J. F. Gao, S. H. Tian et al.


The silicon isotope composition of chert has recently been used to study the historic evolution of the global ocean. It has been suggested that Precambrian cherts have much …


A new urease-inhibiting formulation decreases ammonia volatilization and improves maize nitrogen utilization in North China Plain


Qianqian Li, Xiaoqing Cui, Xuejun Liu et al.


Overuse of urea, low nitrogen (N) utilization, and large N losses are common in maize production in North China Plain (NCP). To solve these problems, we conducted two field …


Mathematical model of sediment and solute transport along slope land in different rainfall pattern conditions


Wanghai Tao, Junhu Wu, Quanjiu Wang


Rainfall erosion is a major cause of inducing soil degradation, and rainfall patterns have a significant influence on the process of sediment yield and nutrient loss. The …


Enhancing adsorption of U(VI) onto EDTA modified L. cylindrica using epichlorohydrin and ethylenediamine as a bridge


Shouzheng Su, Qi Liu, Jingyuan Liu et al.


Benefiting from strong coordination ability and unique vascular structure, EDTA modified L. cylindrica opens up an alternative way for uranium recovery from seawater. However, …


Characterizing Biochar as Alternative Sorbent for Oil Spill Remediation


Ludovica Silvani, Blanka Vrchotova, Petr Kastanek et al.


Biochar (BC) was characterized as a new carbonaceous material for the adsorption of toluene from water. The tested BC was produced from pine wood gasification, and its sorption …


Extensive wet episodes in Late Glacial Australia resulting from high-latitude forcings


Germain Bayon, Patrick De Deckker, John W. Magee et al.


Millennial-scale cooling events termed Heinrich Stadials punctuated Northern Hemisphere climate during the last glacial period. Latitudinal shifts of the intertropical …


Individual Movement Strategies Revealed through Novel Clustering of Emergent Movement Patterns


Denis Valle, Sreten Cvetojevic, Ellen P. Robertson et al.


Understanding movement is critical in several disciplines but analysis methods often neglect key information by adopting each location as sampling unit, rather than each …


Maximum Power Game as a Physical and Social Extension of Classical Games


Pilwon Kim


We consider an electric circuit in which the players participate as resistors and adjust their resistance in pursuit of individual maximum power. The maximum power game(MPG) …


Physiological Integration Affects Expansion of an Amphibious Clonal Plant from Terrestrial to Cu-Polluted Aquatic Environments


Liang Xu, Zhen-Feng Zhou


The effects of physiological integration on clonal plants growing in aquatic and terrestrial habitats have been extensively studied, but little is known about the role in the …


Corrigendum: A fossil biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from early Eocene Indian amber with a complex pheromone evaporator


Frauke Stebner, Ryszard Szadziewski, Peter T. Rühr et al.



Robustness and Uncertainties of the “Temperature and Greenness” Model for Estimating Terrestrial Gross Primary Production


Jiaqi Dong, Longhui Li, Hao Shi et al.


Terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) plays a vital role in offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emission and regulating global carbon cycle. Various remote sensing approaches for …


Global and regional changes in exposure to extreme heat and the relative contributions of climate and population change


Zhao Liu, Bruce Anderson, Kai Yan et al.


The frequency and intensity of extreme heat wave events have increased in the past several decades and are likely to continue to increase in the future under the influence of …


Tree-ring width reveals the preparation of the 1974 Mt. Etna eruption


Ruedi Seiler, Nicolas Houlié, Paolo Cherubini


Reduced near-infrared reflectance observed in September 1973 in Skylab images of the western flank of Mt. Etna has been interpreted as an eruption precursor of the January 1974 …


Assessing the anticipated growth response of northern conifer populations to a warming climate


John H. Pedlar, Daniel W. McKenney


The growth response of trees to ongoing climate change has important implications for future forest dynamics, accurate carbon accounting, and sustainable forest management. We …


Arsenic Methylation and its Relationship to Abundance and Diversity of arsM Genes in Composting Manure


Weiwei Zhai, Mabel T. Wong, Fei Luo et al.


Although methylation is regarded as one of the main detoxification pathways for arsenic (As), current knowledge about this process during manure composting remains limited. In …


Increasing temperature reduces the coupling between available nitrogen and phosphorus in soils of Chinese grasslands


Yan Geng, Frank Baumann, Chao Song et al.


Changes in climatic conditions along geographical gradients greatly affect soil nutrient cycling processes. Yet how climate regimes such as changes in temperature influence soil …


Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans


Mark J. Hopwood, Insa Rapp, Christian Schlosser et al.


Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are …


A potential large and persistent black carbon forcing over Northern Pacific inferred from satellite observations


Zhongshu Li, Junfeng Liu, Denise L. Mauzerall et al.


Black carbon (BC) aerosol strongly absorbs solar radiation, which warms climate. However, accurate estimation of BC’s climate effect is limited by the uncertainties of its …


Nitrification inhibitors can increase post-harvest nitrous oxide emissions in an intensive vegetable production system


Clemens Scheer, David Rowlings, Mary Firrell et al.


To investigate the effect of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 3-methylpyrazole 1,2,4-triazole (3MP + TZ), on N2O emissions and yield from …


Important fossil source contribution to brown carbon in Beijing during winter


Caiqing Yan, Mei Zheng, Carme Bosch et al.


Organic aerosol (OA) constitutes a substantial fraction of fine particles and affects both human health and climate. It is becoming clear that OA absorbs light substantially …


Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems


Arnald Puy, Rachata Muneepeerakul, Andrea L. Balbo


This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a …


Genetic signatures of natural selection in a model invasive ascidian


Yaping Lin, Yiyong Chen, Changho Yi et al.


Invasive species represent promising models to study species’ responses to rapidly changing environments. Although local adaptation frequently occurs during contemporary range …


Suppression of cognitive function in hyperthermia; From the viewpoint of executive and inhibitive cognitive processing


Manabu Shibasaki, Mari Namba, Misaki Oshiro et al.


Climate change has had a widespread impact on humans and natural systems. Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition in severe environments. The execution or inhibition of …


Complexation of Manganese with Glutarimidedioxime: Implication for Extraction Uranium from Seawater


Xiang Xie, Yin Tian, Zhen Qin et al.


The molecule of glutaroimidedioxime, a cyclic imidedioxime moiety that can form during the synthesis of the poly(amidoxime)sorbent and is reputedly responsible for the extraction …


Abundant iron and sulfur oxidizers in the stratified sediment of a eutrophic freshwater reservoir with annual cyanobacterial blooms


Long Jin, Chang Soo Lee, Chi-Yong Ahn et al.


The microbial community in eutrophic freshwater sediment was investigated from a 67-cm-deep sediment core collected from the Daechung Reservoir in South Korea, where …


In vivo microsampling to capture the elusive exposome


Vincent Bessonneau, Jennifer Ings, Mark McMaster et al.


Loss and/or degradation of small molecules during sampling, sample transportation and storage can adversely impact biological interpretation of metabolomics data. In this study, …


Implications of the cattle trade network in Cameroon for regional disease prevention and control


Paolo Motta, Thibaud Porphyre, Ian Handel et al.


Movement of live animals is a major risk factor for the spread of livestock diseases and zoonotic infections. Understanding contact patterns is key to informing cost-effective …


Subglacial discharges create fluctuating foraging hotspots for sea birds in tidewater glacier bays


Jacek Andrzej Urbanski, Lech Stempniewicz, Jan Marcin Węsławski et al.


Although the processes occurring at the front of an ice face in tidewater glacier bays still await thorough investigation, their importance to the rapidly changing polar …


Human amniotic fluid contaminants alter thyroid hormone signalling and early brain development in Xenopus embryos


Jean-Baptiste Fini, Bilal B. Mughal, Sébastien Le Mével et al.


Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development in vertebrates. In humans, abnormal maternal thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy are associated with …


ELF-MF exposure affects the robustness of epigenetic programming during granulopoiesis


Melissa Manser, Mohamad R. Abdul Sater, Christoph D. Schmid et al.


Extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) have been classified as “possibly carcinogenic” to humans on the grounds of an epidemiological association of ELF-MF exposure …


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