Thursday, March 2, 2017

Nature Geoscience contents: March 2017 Volume 10 Number 3 pp157-240

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Nature Geoscience


March 2017 Volume 10, Issue 3

News and Views
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Iron entangled   p157
Iron is an essential fuel for life in the oceans. The influence of this element on biogeochemistry — and nitrogen cycling in particular — varies across environments and time.



Subsea mining moves closer to shore   pp158 - 159
Mark Hannington, Sven Petersen & Anna Kratschell
Mining the deep seabed is fraught with challenges. Untapped mineral potential under the shallow, more accessible continental shelf could add a new dimension to offshore mining and help meet future mineral demand.

News and Views


Geodynamics: Surviving mantle convection   p161
Frederic Deschamps
Hints from seismic tomography and geochemistry indicate that Earth's mantle is heterogeneous at large scale. Numerical simulations of mantle convection show that, if it started enriched in silicates, the lower mantle may remain unmixed today.
See also: Article by Ballmer et al.

Biogeochemistry: Deep ocean iron balance   pp162 - 163
William B. Homoky
Dissolved iron is mysteriously pervasive in deep ocean hydrothermal plumes. An analysis of gas, metals and particles from a 4,000 km plume transect suggests that dissolved iron is maintained by rapid and reversible exchanges with sinking particles.
See also: Article by Fitzsimmons et al.

Palaeoclimate: Carbon-ocean gateway links   pp164 - 165
Howie Scher
A global cooling trend culminated in the glaciation of Antarctica during the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Simulations suggest that ocean circulation changes and enhanced drawdown of atmospheric carbon dioxide can explain this climate shift.
See also: Article by Elsworth et al.

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Biotic and abiotic retention, recycling and remineralization of metals in the ocean   pp167 - 173
Philip W. Boyd, Michael J. Ellwood, Alessandro Tagliabue & Benjamin S. Twining
External metal inputs to oceans affect ocean productivity and metal cycling. A synthesis of researchreveals that internal processes such as metal retention, recycling and remineralizationare also important.

npj Climate and Atmospheric Science: open for submissions

An open access, online-only journal providing researchers, policy makers and the public with the latest research on weather and climate, publishing high-quality papers that focus on topics including climate dynamics, climate variability, weather and climate prediction, climate change, weather extremes, atmospheric composition including aerosols, the hydrological cycle and atmosphere-ocean interactions.

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Elevated atmospheric escape of atomic hydrogen from Mars induced by high-altitude water   pp174 - 178
M. S. Chaffin, J. Deighan, N. M. Schneider & A. I. F. Stewart
Most of Mars's initial water has been lost through atmospheric escape, but seasonal imbalances of measured hydrogen loss compared to oxygen are enigmatic. Photochemical models suggest that seasonal water vapour at high altitudes enhances hydrogen loss rates.

Extreme winds and precipitation during landfall of atmospheric rivers   pp179 - 183
Duane Waliser & Bin Guan
Atmospheric rivers have been associated with extreme rainfall events. A global detection algorithm, applied to reanalysis data, suggests that they contribute substantially to extremes in wind as well as precipitation along coasts globally.

Black-carbon absorption enhancement in the atmosphere determined by particle mixing state   pp184 - 188
Dantong Liu, James Whitehead, M. Rami Alfarra, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Dominick V. Spracklen et al.
Mixing with non-black carbon can enhance the radiative effect of black-carbon aerosols. Lab and field measurements of aerosol properties reveal that the mass ratio of black to non-black carbon determines the amount of enhancement.

Carbon sequestration in the deep Atlantic enhanced by Saharan dust   pp189 - 194
Katsiaryna Pabortsava, Richard S. Lampitt, Jeff Benson, Christian Crowe, Robert McLachlan et al.
Dust-borne nutrients can enhance productivity in the surface ocean. Two years of sediment trap data reveal that dust enhances carbon export to depth by increasing surface nitrogen fixation, productivity and carbon sinking rates in the North Atlantic.

Iron persistence in a distal hydrothermal plume supported by dissolved-particulate exchange   pp195 - 201
Jessica N. Fitzsimmons, Seth G. John, Christopher M. Marsay, Colleen L. Hoffman, Sarah L. Nicholas et al.
The largest known hydrothermal plume moves dissolved iron halfway across the Pacific. In situ measurements show that dissolved and particulate iron transport is facilitated by reversible exchange of dissolved iron onto organic compounds.
See also: News and Views by Homoky

Silicon and zinc biogeochemical cycles coupled through the Southern Ocean   pp202 - 206
Derek Vance, Susan H. Little, Gregory F. de Souza, Samar Khatiwala, Maeve C. Lohan et al.
Zinc and silicon distributions co-vary in much of the global oceans. Observations and numerical modelling suggest that this co-variation can arise in the absence of mechanistic links between the uptake of zinc and silicate.

Warm Mediterranean mid-Holocene summers inferred from fossil midge assemblages   pp207 - 212
Stephanie Samartin, Oliver Heiri, Fortunat Joos, Hans Renssen, Jorg Franke et al.
Reconstructions of Holocene summer temperatures differ between models and vegetation-based proxies. A quantitative reconstruction for the Mediterranean region based on fossil midge assemblages suggests warm summers, in line with climate models.

Enhanced weathering and CO2 drawdown caused by latest Eocene strengthening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation   pp213 - 216
Genevieve Elsworth, Eric Galbraith, Galen Halverson & Simon Yang
During the latest Eocene, declining atmospheric CO2 levels led to the inception of the Antarctic ice sheet. Simulations suggest that the deepening of the Drake Passage caused climate changes that enhanced continental weathering and CO2 drawdown.
See also: News and Views by Scher

Iron-dependent nitrogen cycling in a ferruginous lake and the nutrient status of Proterozoic oceans   pp217 - 221
Celine C. Michiels, Francois Darchambeau, Fleur A. E. Roland, Cedric Morana, Marc Lliros et al.

Fixed nitrogen is lost from oxygen minimum zones. Experimental data from an anoxic lake show that the presence of Fe(II) limits this loss, suggesting that ancient anoxic and iron-rich oceans may not have been nitrogen limited.

Seawater cycled throughout Earth's mantle in partially serpentinized lithosphere   pp222 - 228
M. A. Kendrick, C. Hemond, V. S. Kamenetsky, L. Danyushevsky, C. W. Devey et al.
The dominant source for water in Earth's mantle is unclear. Geochemical analyses of rock samples from mid-ocean ridges and ocean islands globally suggest the water is largely derived from seawater-altered crust introduced during subduction.

Evolution of carbonated melt to alkali basalt in the South China Sea   pp229 - 235
Guo-Liang Zhang, Li-Hui Chen, Matthew G. Jackson & Albrecht W. Hofmann
Carbonated silicate melts are expected to exist in the mantle, but have been elusive in nature. Geochemical analyses of rocks from the South China Sea identify such melts formed in the mantle and erupted at the surface through thin lithosphere.

Persistence of strong silica-enriched domains in the Earth's lower mantle   pp236 - 240
Maxim D. Ballmer, Christine Houser, John W. Hernlund, Renata M. Wentzcovitch & Kei Hirose
Seismic data are inconsistent with a compositionally homogenous lower mantle. Simulations show that viscosity variation with depth in Earth's early mantle may have prevented efficient mixing and allowed ancient mantle domains to persist.
See also: News and Views by Deschamps

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