This year's Frontiers in Biology Insight features Reviews on how genomics is helping to uncover the peopling of the world, the interplay between morphogens and morphogenesis in determining organismal shape, the factors that influence the immune response to cancer, advances in single-cell genomics, and the effects of base modifications in messenger RNA.
Lab Animal, a Nature Research journal focusing on in vivo methods, research and technology with model organisms of human health & disease, presents a special Focus on reproducibility and translation of in vivo research with disease models.
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The continued search of high-performance semiconductors for organic electronics calls for smart molecular designs. Here, Ying et al. review the recent development of synthesizing regioregular narrow bandgap conjugated polymers and the effect of regioregularity on transistor and photovoltaic performance.
Shuo Xiao, Jonathan R. Coppeta, Hunter B. Rogers, Brett C. Isenberg, Jie Zhu, Susan A. Olalekan, Kelly E. McKinnon, Danijela Dokic, Alexandra S. Rashedi, Daniel J. Haisenleder, Saurabh S. Malpani, Chanel A. Arnold-Murray, Kuanwei Chen, Mingyang Jiang, Lu Bai, Catherine T. Nguyen, Jiyang Zhang, Monica M. Laronda, Thomas J. Hope, Kruti P. Maniar et al.
The female reproductive tract constitutes the ovary, fallopian tubes, uterus, and cervix, but it is challenging to engineer this system in vitro. Here, the authors develop a microfluidic device (EVATAR) with reproductive tract and peripheral tissues to replicate hormone release of a 28-day menstrual cycle.
Kuan-lin Huang, Shunqiang Li, Philipp Mertins, Song Cao, Harsha P. Gunawardena, Kelly V. Ruggles, D. R. Mani, Karl R. Clauser, Maki Tanioka, Jerry Usary, Shyam M. Kavuri, Ling Xie, Christopher Yoon, Jana W Qiao, John Wrobel, Matthew A. Wyczalkowski, Petra Erdmann-Gilmore, Jacqueline E. Snider, Jeremy Hoog, Purba Singh et al.
Patient-derived xenografts recapitulate major genomic signatures and transcriptome profiles of their original tumours. Here, the authors, performing proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of 24 breast cancer PDX models, demonstrate that druggable candidates can be identified based on a comprehensive proteogenomic profiling.
Linping Qian, Zhen Wang, Evgeny V. Beletskiy, Jingyue Liu, Haroldo J. dos Santos, Tiehu Li, Maria do C. Rangel, Mayfair C. Kung and Harold H. Kung
Gold catalysts have previously been reported for the epoxidation of alkenes with molecular oxygen. Here the authors show that, rather than the gold nanoparticles, the active species for this reaction are actually small, soluble gold species stabilized by the oxidised organic products.
Rebecca J. Bluett, Rita Báldi, Andre Haymer, Andrew D. Gaulden, Nolan D. Hartley, Walker P. Parrish, Jordan Baechle, David J. Marcus, Ramzi Mardam-Bey, Brian C. Shonesy, Md. Jashim Uddin, Lawrence J. Marnett, Ken Mackie, Roger J. Colbran, Danny G. Winder and Sachin Patel
Understanding inter-individual differences in stress-susceptibility could lead to novel treatments and preventative strategies for stress-related pathologies. Here the authors provide evidence that increased endocannabinoid signalling is a resilience factor that buffers against adverse consequences of stress.
Laure Botella, Julien Vaubourgeix, Jonathan Livny and Dirk Schnappinger
The transcription termination factor Rho is essential for growth in some bacteria but not in others. Here, Botella et al. show that Rho inactivation causes extensive pervasive transcription and loss of viability of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis both in vitro and in a mouse model of infection.
Cochlear implants have variable outcomes for adult deafness. Here the authors show that fast responses and specific recruitment of right temporal cortex on a simple visual rhyming task strongly predicts poor implant performance.
David S. Liu, Cuong P. Duong, Sue Haupt, Karen G. Montgomery, Colin M. House, Walid J. Azar, Helen B. Pearson, Oliver M. Fisher, Matthew Read, Glen R. Guerra, Ygal Haupt, Carleen Cullinane, Klas G. Wiman, Lars Abrahmsen, Wayne A. Phillips and Nicholas J. Clemons
Efficient therapeutic strategies to target mutant-p53 cancers are needed. Here, the authors demonstrate the molecular mechanism through which mutant-p53 tumours are susceptible to oxidative damage and propose a potential strategy for targeting such cancers by inhibiting the SLC7A11-glutathione axis.
Jinshui Lin, Weipeng Zhang, Juanli Cheng, Xu Yang, Kaixiang Zhu, Yao Wang, Gehong Wei, Pei-Yuan Qian, Zhao-Qing Luo and Xihui Shen
Pathogens require iron for their metabolism and virulence. Here the authors identify an iron acquisition system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa involving a protein secreted by a type VI secretion system, the PQS signalling compound and siderophore receptors.
S. M. Aciego, C. S. Riebe, S. C. Hart, M. A. Blakowski, C. J. Carey, S. M. Aarons, N. C. Dove, J. K. Botthoff, K. W. W. Sims and E. L. Aronson
Dust is an important nutrient source to landscapes, but often the source of dust is poorly constrained. Here, the authors quantify the origin of different dust sources in the Sierra Nevada by analysing dust composition and suggest exogenic dust may drive nutrient budgets in montane ecosystems.
Emiliano Cortés, Wei Xie, Javier Cambiasso, Adam S. Jermyn, Ravishankar Sundararaman, Prineha Narang, Sebastian Schlücker and Stefan A. Maier
Quantitative understanding of the spatial localization of hot carriers has been elusive. Here Cortes et al. spatially map hot-electron-driven reduction chemistry with 15 nm resolution as a function of time and electromagnetic field polarization for different plasmonic nanostructures.
Vasavi Sundaram, Mayank N. K. Choudhary, Erica Pehrsson, Xiaoyun Xing, Christopher Fiore, Manishi Pandey, Brett Maricque, Methma Udawatta, Duc Ngo, Yujie Chen, Asia Paguntalan, Tammy Ray, Ava Hughes, Barak A. Cohen and Ting Wang
The gene-battery model posits transposable elements (TEs) may be cis-regulatory elements to control gene expression. Here, mouse-specific TEs are shown as binding sites for multiple collaborating transcription factors in embryonic stem cells, and act as cis-regulatory modules in synergistic fashion.
Rapid fabrication of well-controlled metallic nanostructures remains a challenge. Here, the authors directly nanoimprint several different crystalline metals by superplastic forming well below their melting temperatures, obtaining uniform nanostructures with small features and high aspect ratios in one step.
Kai-Qiang Lin, Jun Yi, Jin-Hui Zhong, Shu Hu, Bi-Ju Liu, Jun-Yang Liu, Cheng Zong, Zhi-Chao Lei, Xiang Wang, Javier Aizpurua, Rubén Esteban and Bin Ren
Localized surface plasmon resonances induce strong modifications of surface-enhanced Raman spectra. Here the authors propose a robust method to retrieve the fingerprint of intrinsic chemical information by using the photoluminescence of the metallic structures to correct the spectra.
Liwei Cao, Jolene K. Diedrich, Daniel W. Kulp, Matthias Pauthner, Lin He, Sung-Kyu Robin Park, Devin Sok, Ching Yao Su, Claire M. Delahunty, Sergey Menis, Raiees Andrabi, Javier Guenaga, Erik Georgeson, Michael Kubitz, Yumiko Adachi, Dennis R. Burton, William R. Schief, John R. Yates III and James C. Paulson
The analysis of site-specific glycosylation of HIV Envelope glycoprotein (Env) is challenging as it contains 25–30 glycosylation sites with multiple glycan forms at each site. Here the authors present a generally applicable mass spectrometry-based method for site-specific analysis of protein glycosylation that they apply to the analysis of the HIV-1 Env.
Aitao Li, Binju Wang, Adriana Ilie, Kshatresh D. Dubey, Gert Bange, Ivan V. Korendovych, Sason Shaik and Manfred T. Reetz
The majority of enzymatic Kemp elimination reactions proceed via a well-established acid-base mechanism. Here, the authors show that cytochrome P450 is able to metabolize the leflunomide drug via a redox Kemp elimination, offering new insights into enzyme catalysis.
Fausto D’Apuzzo, Alba R. Piacenti, Flavio Giorgianni, Marta Autore, Mariangela Cestelli Guidi, Augusto Marcelli, Ulrich Schade, Yoshikazu Ito, Mingwei Chen and Stefano Lupi
Recently, fabrication processes have realised three-dimensional nanoporous graphene. Here, the authors reveal two-dimensional Dirac plasmons in three-dimensional nanoporous graphene disclosing strong plasmonic absorptions tunable from terahertz to mid-infrared via controllable doping level and porosity.
Chi Wai Cheung, Marten Leendert Ploeger and Xile Hu
Direct conversion of esters to amides, while attractive, is often limited to activated esters or highly nucleophilic amines. Here the authors report a nickel-catalysed reductive coupling between unactivated esters and nitroarenes, giving a direct route to aromatic amides.
Andre S. Godoy, Gustavo M. A. Lima, Ketllyn I. Z. Oliveira, Naiara U. Torres, Fernando V. Maluf, Rafael V. C. Guido and Glaucius Oliva
The Zika virus outbreak is a global health threat and there is an urgent need for drugs against the virus. Here the authors present the structure of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase domain from Zika non-structural protein 5, which is a template for the design of non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors.
H. E. Maunder, J. Wright, B. R. Kolli, C. R. Vieira, T. T. Mkandawire, S. Tatoris, V. Kennedy, S. Iqball, G. Devarajan, S. Ellis, Y. Lad, N. G. Clarkson, K. A. Mitrophanous and D. C. Farley
The maximum titre of therapeutic viral vectors can be adversely affected by the encoded transgene. Here the authors repress transgene expression in producing cells by employing the tryptophan RNA-binding attenuation protein and show that it improves titre of RNA- and DNA-based viral vectors expressing toxic transgenes.
Boxiao Wang, Xiao-Feng Tan, Stephanie Thurmond, Zhi-Min Zhang, Asher Lin, Rong Hai and Jikui Song
The recent outbreak of Zika virus is a major worldwide health concern and effective drugs are currently not available. Here the authors present the structure of Zika non-structural protein 5 and identify a potential drug-binding site, which might facilitate the development of novel antivirals.
Weikang Cai, Masaji Sakaguchi, Andre Kleinridders, Gonzalo Gonzalez-Del Pino, Jonathan M. Dreyfuss, Brian T. O’Neill, Alfred K. Ramirez, Hui Pan, Jonathon N. Winnay, Jeremie Boucher, Michael J. Eck and C. Ronald Kahn
Despite being structurally similar, the insulin receptor (IR) and insulin growth factor I receptor (IGF1R) elicit distinct signalling pathways. Here the authors use receptor chimeras to unveil that IR and IGF1R signalling is related primarily to differences in their intracellular juxtamembrane region.
Hair can be regenerated after skin wounding. Here the authors show that inflammatory macrophages produce TNF that activates Wnt signalling in hair follicle stem cells to drive this hair regeneration after wound repair in mice.
Shiming Liu, Pramod K. Kandoth, Naoufal Lakhssassi, Jingwen Kang, Vincent Colantonio, Robert Heinz, Greg Yeckel, Zhou Zhou, Sadia Bekal, Johannes Dapprich, Bjorn Rotter, Silvia Cianzio, Melissa G. Mitchum and Khalid Meksem
Peking-type and PI 88788-type soybeans are both used as sources of resistance against soybean cyst nematode. Here the authors show that in contrast to PI 88788-type resistance, where GmSNAP18 acts in combination with two neighbouring genes, in Peking-type resistance GmSNAP18 acts with GmSHMT08 to confer resistance.
Zuqiang Liu, Roshni Ravindranathan, Pawel Kalinski, Z. Sheng Guo and David L. Bartlett
Anti-PD-L1 therapy often fails in cancers with minimal lymphocytic infiltrates and low PD-L1 expression. Here, the authors show that an oncolytic virus increases PD-L1 expression in cancer models and that the combination with an anti-PD-L1 antibody enhances therapy by increasing the infiltration of activated T cells, and reducing exhausted T cells.
Zhentao Zhang, Obiamaka Obianyo, Elfriede Dall, Yuhong Du, Haian Fu, Xia Liu, Seong Su Kang, Mingke Song, Shan-Ping Yu, Chiara Cabrele, Mario Schubert, Xiaoguang Li, Jian-Zhi Wang, Hans Brandstetter and Keqiang Ye
Delta-secretases are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) as they cleave both amyloid precursor protein and tau. Here the authors develop a series of orally bioactive small molecule delta-secretase inhibitors and report its therapeutic effects in mouse models of AD.
Global marine fish harvest increased over the 20th century, reaching a peak in the 1990s. Here, Galbraith and colleagues analyse a model combining both ecological and economic drivers to weigh the factors most likely to contribute to long-term changes in fish harvests.
Baoyu Zhao, Guanghui Yi, Fenglei Du, Yin-Chih Chuang, Robert C. Vaughan, Banumathi Sankaran, C. Cheng Kao and Pingwei Li
Zika virus infection can cause human birth defects and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Here the authors present the structures of the full-length nonstructural protein 5 and its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain of Zika virus, which are targets for inhibitors of virus replication.
Ramon Nogueira, Juan M. Abolafia, Jan Drugowitsch, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Maria V. Sanchez-Vives and Rubén Moreno-Bote
The orbitofrontal cortex encodes outcomes, expected rewards and values, but it is unclear how this region uses this information to inform action selection. Here, the authors show that lateral orbitofrontal cortex anticipates upcoming choices and combines recent prior information with current sensory information.
Zibao Gan, Jishi Chen, Juan Wang, Chengming Wang, Man-Bo Li, Chuanhao Yao, Shengli Zhuang, An Xu, Lingling Li and Zhikun Wu
Metal nanoclusters are explored for their precise structures and compelling properties. Here, the authors synthesize a gold cluster with unique structural features, including giant staple motifs, tetrahedral-coordinate μ4-S atoms, and a helical closest-packed crystallographic pattern that influences the cluster’s photoluminescence.
Chang Seok Lee, Amy D. Hanna, Hui Wang, Adan Dagnino-Acosta, Aditya D. Joshi, Mark Knoblauch, Yan Xia, Dimitra K. Georgiou, Jianjun Xu, Cheng Long, Hisayuki Amano, Corey Reynolds, Keke Dong, John C. Martin, William R. Lagor, George G. Rodney, Ergun Sahin, Caroline Sewry and Susan L. Hamilton
Mutations in the RyR1 channel cause core myopathies. Here the authors show that ER stress and the unfolded protein response underlie the pathology caused by a common RyR1 channel mutation, and show that treatment with a chemical chaperone restores muscle function in mice.
Kristofer Bodvard, Ken Peeters, Friederike Roger, Natalie Romanov, Aeid Igbaria, Niek Welkenhuysen, Gaël Palais, Wolfgang Reiter, Michel B. Toledano, Mikael Käll and Mikael Molin
While yeasts lack dedicated photoreceptors, they nonetheless possess metabolic rhythms responsive to light. Here the authors find that light signalling in budding yeast involves the production of H2O2, which in turn regulates protein kinase A through a peroxiredoxin-thioredoxin redox relay.
Wenbin Zhou, Qingxia Fan, Qiang Zhang, Le Cai, Kewei Li, Xiaogang Gu, Feng Yang, Nan Zhang, Yanchun Wang, Huaping Liu, Weiya Zhou and Sishen Xie
Thermoelectric modules can generate electricity directly from heat and have applications to waste heat-energy conversion. Here Zhou et al. have fabricated a thermoelectric module based on an air-stable n-type single-walled carbon nanotube sheet which can reach a high power factor of 1500 μWm−1K−2.
Juwon Lee, Sangyeon Pak, Young-Woo Lee, Yuljae Cho, John Hong, Paul Giraud, Hyeon Suk Shin, Stephen M. Morris, Jung Inn Sohn, SeungNam Cha and Jong Min Kim
Memory devices are key building blocks of image sensing circuitry. Here, the authors demonstrate a MoS2 monolayer optoelectronic memory device based on charge trapping and subsequent optically-induced charge release, capable of 12-bit operation.
Chung-Jung Li, Tian Hong, Ying-Tsen Tung, Ya-Ping Yen, Ho-Chiang Hsu, Ya-Lin Lu, Mien Chang, Qing Nie and Jun-An Chen
In the spinal cord, some Hox genes are transcribed in progenitors while their proteins are only detected in differentiating postmitotic motor neurons. Here, the authors show that miRNAs (specifically mir-27) regulate post-transcriptional Hoxa5 expression in motor neurons.
Bin Wang, Yong-Min Lee, Woon-Young Tcho, Samat Tussupbayev, Seoung-Tae Kim, Yujeong Kim, Mi Sook Seo, Kyung-Bin Cho, Yavuz Dede, Brenna C. Keegan, Takashi Ogura, Sun Hee Kim, Takehiro Ohta, Mu-Hyun Baik, Kallol Ray, Jason Shearer and Wonwoo Nam
Terminal CoIV-oxo species are key intermediates in various cobalt-mediated oxidation reactions, but little is known about their chemical properties. Here the authors generate and isolate a mononuclear non-haem CoIV-O complex and analyse its structure and reactivity towards a range of catalytic transformations.
F. Pelayo García de Arquer, Xiwen Gong, Randy P. Sabatini, Min Liu, Gi-Hwan Kim, Brandon R. Sutherland, Oleksandr Voznyy, Jixian Xu, Yuangjie Pang, Sjoerd Hoogland, David Sinton and Edward Sargent
Efficient implementation of quantum dot and well architectures are restricted to costly vacuum-epitaxially-grown semiconductors. The authors use quantum dots in perovskite to build field-emission photodiodes that are sensitive across the visible and into the short-wavelength infrared.
Zhaoyun Duan, Xianfeng Tang, Zhanliang Wang, Yabin Zhang, Xiaodong Chen, Min Chen and Yubin Gong
Reversed Cherenkov radiation has not been observed due to the absence of suitable all-metal left-handed materials for beam transport and suitable couplers for extracting the signal. Here, Duan et al. develop a metamaterial to observe reversed Cherenkov radiation using real charged particles.
Kevin Lepot, Ahmed Addad, Andrew H. Knoll, Jian Wang, David Troadec, Armand Béché and Emmanuelle J. Javaux
Fossil microorganisms older than 1.7 billion years are challenging to interpret due to their size, simple shapes, and alteration. Here, in 1.88 billion year old microfossils, the authors show a pattern of cellular preservation and internal iron nanominerals consistent with oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria.
Xu Yi, Qi-Fan Yang, Xueyue Zhang, Ki Youl Yang, Xinbai Li and Kerry Vahala
Dissipative Kerr solitons in microresonators have recently been shown to generate frequency combs via Cherenkov radiation. Here, Yi et al. demonstrate hysteresis behaviour and a single-mode dispersive wave that can improve the stability of microcombs.
Björn Drews, Markus Deiß, Krzysztof Jachymski, Zbigniew Idziaszek and Johannes Hecker Denschlag
Investigating the collisional behaviour of molecules on the quantum level is the key in understanding and controlling chemical reactions. Here the authors measure inelastic collision rates for ultracold Rb2 dimers in precisely defined quantum states and show that the rates can be tuned via external parameters.
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, Michelle Trenkmann, Kerstin Klein, Emmanuel Karouzakis, Hubert Rehrauer, Anna Bratus, Christoph Kolling, Maria Armaka, Andrew Filer, Beat A. Michel, Renate E. Gay, Christopher D. Buckley, George Kollias, Steffen Gay and Caroline Ospelt
Arthritis affects different joints variably despite systemic inflammatory cues. Here the authors show anatomical differences in the transcriptome, epigenome and function of synovial fibroblasts that might affect susceptibility to site-specific joint diseases.
Jin-Shun Lin, Fu-Li Wang, Xiao-Yang Dong, Wei-Wei He, Yue Yuan, Su Chen and Xin-Yuan Liu
Methods for the asymmetric introduction of organofluorine groups are often limited by the lack of variability in the starting materials. Here the authors report an asymmetric radical process for the introduction of fluoroalkyl groups using readily available fluoroalkylated sulfonyl chlorides.
P. Guichard, V. Hamel, M. Le Guennec, N. Banterle, I. Iacovache, V. Nemčíková, I. Flückiger, K. N. Goldie, H. Stahlberg, D. Lévy, B. Zuber and P. Gönczy
The centriole is an organelle composed of rings of SAS-6 proteins that form a cartwheel structure. Here the authors develop a cell-free system to examine core cartwheel assembly of C. reinhardtii proteins and discover that CrSAS-6 has autonomous properties that facilitates self-organized stacking of pairs of rings.
Joy G. Ghosh, Andrew A. Nguyen, Chad E. Bigelow, Stephen Poor, Yubin Qiu, Nalini Rangaswamy, Richard Ornberg, Brittany Jackson, Howard Mak, Tucker Ezell, Vania Kenanova, Elisa de la Cruz, Ana Carrion, Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson, Roxana Garcia Caro, Kan Zhu, Vinney George, Jirong Bai, Radhika Sharma-Nahar, Siyuan Shen et al.
Retinal vascular disease treatments involve frequent pharmacological intraocular administrations. Here the authors present a method to increase the half-life of injected drugs by fusing these to a hyaluronan-binding peptide, which might lead to less frequent retinal disease treatments.
Low temperature is a major factor limiting productivity in rice. Here the authors show that the CTB4a gene confers cold tolerance to japonica varieties adapted to cold habitats at the booting stage of development, and propose that CTB4a acts via an interaction with the beta subunit of ATP synthase.
Gernot Walko, Samuel Woodhouse, Angela Oliveira Pisco, Emanuel Rognoni, Kifayathullah Liakath-Ali, Beate M. Lichtenberger, Ajay Mishra, Stephanie B. Telerman, Priyalakshmi Viswanathan, Meike Logtenberg, Lisa M. Renz, Giacomo Donati, Sven R. Quist and Fiona M. Watt
Individual human epidermal cells differ in their self-renewal ability. Here the authors perform genome-wide pooled RNAi screens to uncover the molecular basis for this heterogeneity, and identify genes conferring a clonal growth advantage on normal and neoplastic human epidermal cells.
Hui Liang, Xi Chen, Qi Yin, Danhui Ruan, Xuyang Zhao, Cong Zhang, Michael A. McNutt and Yuxin Yin
PTEN is a potent tumour suppressor involved in cell growth, proliferation and survival. Here the authors identify an N-terminal extended isoform of PTEN, termed PTENβ that negatively regulates ribosomal DNA transcription and cell proliferation, expanding the pleiotropic functions of the PTEN family.
Mark D. White, Maria Klecker, Richard J. Hopkinson, Daan A. Weits, Carolin Mueller, Christin Naumann, Rebecca O’Neill, James Wickens, Jiayu Yang, Jonathan C. Brooks-Bartlett, Elspeth F. Garman, Tom N. Grossmann, Nico Dissmeyer and Emily Flashman
The N-end rule pathway targets substrate proteins for proteasomal degradation. Here, White et al. show that Arabidopsis PLANT CYSTEINE OXIDASEs show dioxygenase activity producing Cys-sulfinic acid at the N-terminus of target proteins, which then act as direct substrates for arginyl transferase.
Elly Sinkala, Elodie Sollier-Christen, Corinne Renier, Elisabet Rosàs-Canyelles, James Che, Kyra Heirich, Todd A. Duncombe, Julea Vlassakis, Kevin A. Yamauchi, Haiyan Huang, Stefanie S. Jeffrey and Amy E. Herr
Circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are rare cells found in the blood of certain cancer patients. Here, the authors develop a cytometry tool that appends a microfluidic western blot to a CTC isolation workflow and apply it to profile a panel of proteins in single CTCs isolated from ER+ breast cancer patients.
Jared L. Zitnay, Yang Li, Zhao Qin, Boi Hoa San, Baptiste Depalle, Shawn P. Reese, Markus J. Buehler, S. Michael Yu and Jeffrey A. Weiss
Collagen denaturation is thought to occur during tissue mechanical damage, but its role in damage initiation is still unclear. Here, the authors use a collagen hybridizing peptide to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms leading to collagen unfolding during tendon mechanical stretch.
Martina Schweiger, Matthias Romauch, Renate Schreiber, Gernot F. Grabner, Sabrina Hütter, Petra Kotzbeck, Pia Benedikt, Thomas O. Eichmann, Sohsuke Yamada, Oskar Knittelfelder, Clemens Diwoky, Carina Doler, Nicole Mayer, Werner De Cecco, Rolf Breinbauer, Robert Zimmermann and Rudolf Zechner
The enzyme Atgl participates in the breakdown of lipids in adipose tissue. Here the authors show that pharmacological inhibition of Atgl reduces weight gain and improves metabolic health in mice fed a high-fat diet, without causing adverse effects in cardiac muscle associated with genetic depletion of Atgl.
Yi-Tong Li, Cong Yi, Chen-Chen Chen, Huan Lan, Man Pan, Shao-Jin Zhang, Yi-Chao Huang, Chao-Jian Guan, Yi-Ming Li, Li Yu and Lei Liu
Acetylation of Atg3 regulates lipidation of Atg8 and therefore autophagy, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, Li et al. semi-synthesize diacetylated Atg3, allowing them to show that acetylated Atg3 enhances Atg8 lipidation by promoting interaction of Atg3 with liposomes containing physiological levels of phosphatidylethanolamine.
Charalambos Kallepitis, Mads S. Bergholt, Manuel M. Mazo, Vincent Leonardo, Stacey C. Skaalure, Stephanie A. Maynard and Molly M. Stevens
Advances in chemical imaging capability can add to our understanding of complex cellular systems. Here the authors develop a framework for label-free quantitative volumetric Raman spectroscopic imaging and use it to visualize and quantify biomolecules in various 3D cellular systems.
Frieda Kage, Moritz Winterhoff, Vanessa Dimchev, Jan Mueller, Tobias Thalheim, Anika Freise, Stefan Brühmann, Jana Kollasser, Jennifer Block, Georgi Dimchev, Matthias Geyer, Hans-Joachim Schnittler, Cord Brakebusch, Theresia E. B. Stradal, Marie-France Carlier, Michael Sixt, Josef Käs, Jan Faix and Klemens Rottner
Actin polymerization in lamellipodia of cells is regulated by the Arp2/3 complex and FMNL family formins. Here the authors show that both FMNL2 and FMNL3 contribute to lamellipodium protrusion and structure, and abolishing FMNL2/3 reduces protrusion force generation and migration, without affecting Arp2/3 incorporation.
Sabine Richert, Jonathan Cremers, Ilya Kuprov, Martin D. Peeks, Harry L. Anderson and Christiane R. Timmel
Quantum interference in charge transport is attracting interest with applications in nanoelectronics and quantum computing. Here, the authors present a method for quantifying electronic transmission through molecules, and demonstrate constructive quantum interference in a molecule with two identical, parallel coupling paths.
Gan Liu, Luting Zhou, Hai Zhang, Rong Chen, Ye Zhang, Ling Li, Jun-Yu Lu, Hui Jiang, Dong Liu, Shasha Qi, Ying-Ming Jiang, Kai Yin, Zhifang Xie, Yuguang Shi, Yong Liu, Xuetao Cao, Yu-Xia Chen, Dajin Zou and Weiping J. Zhang
De novo lipogenesis is tightly controlled by hormonal and nutritional signals and plays an important role in energy homoeostasis. Here, Liu et al. show that zinc finger protein ZBTB20 regulates the expression of key glycolytic and lipogenic genes by modulating ChREBP expression and transcriptional activity.
Baoyu Jiang, Tao Zhao, Sophie Regnault, Nicholas P. Edwards, Simon C. Kohn, Zhiheng Li, Roy A. Wogelius, Michael J. Benton and John R. Hutchinson
Birds have a more crouched posture compared to their theropod dinosaur ancestors. Here, Jiang and colleagues describe a lower hindlimb of the Early Cretaceous bird Confuciusornis with soft tissues apparently preserved even as molecules, indicating a somewhat more modern posture in ancient birds.
Bryony L. Winters, Gabrielle C. Gregoriou, Sarah A. Kissiwaa, Oliver A. Wells, Danashi I. Medagoda, Sam M. Hermes, Neil T. Burford, Andrew Alt, Sue A. Aicher and Elena E. Bagley
The endogenous opioid system regulates fear and anxiety, but the underlying cellular mechanism is unclear. Winters et al. shows that in the intercalated cells (ITC) of the amygdala, endogenous opioids suppress glutamatergic inputs via the δ-opioid receptor presynaptically, and reduce the excitability of ITCs via the μ-opioid receptor postsynaptically.
Benjamin J. Carey, Jian Zhen Ou, Rhiannon M. Clark, Kyle J. Berean, Ali Zavabeti, Anthony S. R. Chesman, Salvy P. Russo, Desmond W. M. Lao, Zai-Quan Xu, Qiaoliang Bao, Omid Kavehei, Brant C. Gibson, Michael D. Dickey, Richard B. Kaner, Torben Daeneke and Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
22 March 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15116
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