Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Nature Immunology Contents: March 2017 Volume 18 pp 247 - 363

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Nature Immunology


March 2017 Volume 18, Issue 3

News and Views
Research Highlights

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News and Views


IL-1β delivers a sweet deal   pp247 - 248
Marit Hjorth and Mark A Febbraio
Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine associated with inflammation, obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Surprisingly, IL-1β is also required for maintaining steady-state glucose homeostasis by potentiating postprandial insulin secretion.

See also: Article by Dror et al.

Innate B cells cleave to the marginal zone   pp248 - 250
Anthony L DeFranco
The kinase Taok3 and protease ADAM10 mediate determination of the fate of marginal zone B cells.

See also: Article by Hammad et al.

Keeping skin inflammation local   pp250 - 251
Lucia Pattarini and Vassili Soumelis
Silencing of the chromatin remodeler Mi-2β in keratinocytes triggers local skin inflammation. Regulatory T cells activated by the cytokine TSLP control the shift from local skin inflammation to systemic lethal disease.

See also: Article by Wu et al.

TORmented macrophages spontaneously form granulomas   pp252 - 253
Antonio J Pagán and Lalita Ramakrishnan
Elevated signaling via the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 in macrophages stimulates spontaneous granuloma formation in mice and is associated with the progression of sarcoidosis in humans.

See also: Article by Linke et al.

Research Highlights


Nuanced eosinophils | Inflammasomes in human aging | Neuroimmune interactions: ILC3s | Neuroimmune interactions: astrocytes | Anti-dengue IgG1 | CyTOF analysis of anti-tumor responses



'Final common pathway' of human cancer immunotherapy: targeting random somatic mutations   pp255 - 262
Eric Tran, Paul F Robbins and Steven A Rosenberg
Rosenberg and colleagues review evidence suggesting that T cells that target tumor neoantigens arising from cancer mutations are the main mediators of many effective cancer immunotherapies in humans.

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The transcriptional regulator Aire binds to and activates super-enhancers   pp263 - 273
Kushagra Bansal, Hideyuki Yoshida, Christophe Benoist and Diane Mathis
Mathis and colleagues show that the transcriptional regulator Aire preferentially localizes in and activates super-enhancers.

Alternative pathway for the development of Vα14+ NKT cells directly from CD4-CD8- thymocytes that bypasses the CD4+CD8+ stage   pp274 - 282
Nyambayar Dashtsoodol, Tomokuni Shigeura, Minako Aihara, Ritsuko Ozawa, Satoshi Kojo et al.
Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) are thought to originate at the double-positive stage of thymopoiesis. Taniguchi and colleagues find that a subset of NKT cells also appear earlier, at the double-negative stage, and that these give rise to liver-resident NKT cells with highly potent effector function.

Postprandial macrophage-derived IL-1β stimulates insulin, and both synergistically promote glucose disposal and inflammation   pp283 - 292
Erez Dror, Elise Dalmas, Daniel T Meier, Stephan Wueest, Julien Thévenet et al.
The cytokine IL-1β has well-established harmful effects on pancreatic islet function. Donath and colleagues identify an acute wave of postprandial IL-1β release and show that this unexpectedly has a positive effect on insulin secretion and the maintenance of normal metabolic function.

See also: News and Views by Hjorth & Febbraio

Chronic signaling via the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 induces macrophage granuloma formation and marks sarcoidosis progression   pp293 - 302
Monika Linke, Ha Thi Thanh Pham, Karl Katholnig, Thomas Schnöller, Anne Miller et al.
Macrophages are critical for granuloma formation, but the cell-intrinsic mechanisms remain unknown. Weichhart and colleagues demonstrate that chronic mTOR activity leads to macrophage-dependent granuloma formation, which may have relevance to sarcoidosis.

See also: News and Views by Pagan & Ramakrishnan

Gsk3 is a metabolic checkpoint regulator in B cells   pp303 - 312
Julia Jellusova, Matthew H Cato, John R Apgar, Parham Ramezani-Rad, Charlotte R Leung et al.
Mature B cells remain in a quiescent state until activated. Rickert and colleagues identify a prominent role for the kinase Gsk3 in resting naive B cells and in activated germinal center B cells that restrains the production of Myc and reactive oxygen species and prevents metabolic collapse.

Transitional B cells commit to marginal zone B cell fate by Taok3-mediated surface expression of ADAM10   pp313 - 320
Hamida Hammad, Matthias Vanderkerken, Philippe Pouliot, Kim Deswarte, Wendy Toussaint et al.
The signaling receptor Notch is required for the generation of marginal zone B cells. Hammad and colleagues show that Notch signaling activates the kinase Taok3 and surface expression of the metalloproteinase ADAM10, which commits transitional B cells to the marginal zone B cell fate.

See also: News and Views by DeFranco

The IgM receptor FcμR limits tonic BCR signaling by regulating expression of the IgM BCR   pp321 - 333
Trang T T Nguyen, Kathrin Kläsener, Christa Z&zuml;rn, Patricia A Castillo, Ingrid Brust-Mascher et al.
FcμR serves as a receptor for soluble IgM. Baumgarth and colleagues show that intracellular FcμR constrains the surface expression of IgM. Lack of FcμR alters B cell populations and enhances autoantibody production. FcμR thereby serves as a critical regulator of B cell homeostasis.

Direct control of regulatory T cells by keratinocytes   pp334 - 343
Mariko Kashiwagi, Junichi Hosoi, Jen-Feng Lai, Janice Brissette, Steven F Ziegler et al.
Skin is constantly exposed to environmental stressors. Georgopoulos and colleagues show that regulatory T cells respond to the cytokine TSLP produced by stressed keratinocytes and that a loss of skin Treg cell expression of TSLPR leads to lethal inflammation.

The transcription factor musculin promotes the unidirectional development of peripheral Treg cells by suppressing the TH2 transcriptional program   pp344 - 353
Chuan Wu, Zuojia Chen, Valerie Dardalhon, Sheng Xiao, Theresa Thalhamer et al.
Transcription factors involved in consolidation of the induced regulatory T cell program are still being identified. Wu et al. demonstrate that the transcription factor musculin is critical for supporting the differentiation of these cells and prevents their acquisition of a T helper type 2 phenotype.

See also: News and Views by Pattarini & Soumelis

A sestrin-dependent Erk-Jnk-p38 MAPK activation complex inhibits immunity during aging   pp354 - 363
Alessio Lanna, Daniel C O Gomes, Bojana Muller-Durovic, Thomas McDonnell, David Escors et al.
Akbar, Lanna and colleagues show that sestrin proteins bind to and coordinate the simultaneous activation of Erk, Jnk and p38 MAPKs in T lymphocytes and inhibit immunity during aging.

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