Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Nature contents: 16 February 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 542 Issue 7641
This Week  
Steps to help Turkey build a future on research
The Turkish government must stop university dismissals and commit itself to creating a welcoming research environment if its grand plans for science are to succeed.
US Republican idea for tax on carbon makes climate sense
A conservative solution to global warming.
The dark side of social media
Psychologists find that Internet trolls seem impervious to any efforts to change their behaviour.
World View  
Shout about the European Union's success
As people in other nations watch the UK prepare to sever ties, Herman Goossens urges more scientists to stress what the EU does for them.
Seven Days  
Human gene editing, a letter to President Trump and a no to homeopathy
The week in science: 10–16 February 2017.
Research Highlights  
Microbiology: Gut bacteria boost bee immunity | Chemistry: Helium succumbs to pressure | Materials: Hybrid film cools in the Sun | Ecology: Toxic build-up in deep-sea life | Conservation: Penguins caught in ecological trap | Transportation: Superconductors drive trains | Infection: How malaria boosts its spread | Climate change: The high cost of keeping cool | Physiology: Cells remember high altitude
News in Focus
'Riskiest ideas' win $50 million from Chan Zuckerberg Biohub
Initiative's first grants will fund a medley of wild ideas from top San Francisco Bay Area biologists, engineers and programmers.
Amy Maxmen
Three sites where NASA might retrieve its first Mars rock
Agency narrows possible targets for the first-ever sample return from the red planet.
Alexandra Witze
Long-awaited mathematics proof could help scan Earth's innards
Proposed solution to geometry puzzle allows an object's structure to be determined from limited information.
Davide Castelvecchi
  World's largest wind-mapping project spins up in Portugal
International team seeks better picture of wind as it moves over rugged terrain.
Alexandra Witze
Heavyweight funders back central site for life-sciences preprints
Coalition of scientists and research agencies argue for a one-stop shop server.
Ewen Callaway
  Elusive triangulene created by moving atoms one at a time
Unstable molecule couldn't be made through conventional synthesis, so IBM researchers carried out molecular surgery using a microscope tip.
Philip Ball
The Turkish paradox: Can scientists thrive in a state of emergency?
Political upheaval threatens Turkey's ambitious plans for research and development.
Alison Abbott
Nature Podcast: 16 February 2017
This week, Winston Churchill's thoughts on alien life, how cells build walls, and paradoxical materials.

Nature Outlook: Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer has long flown under the radar despite being one of the top-ten cancer killers worldwide. It remains hard to detect, difficult to treat and poorly understood. But that is starting to change as researchers dig into the mysteries surrounding the disease.
Produced with support from:
Winston Churchill's essay on alien life found
A newly unearthed article by the great politician reveals that he reasoned like a scientist about the likelihood of extraterrestrials, writes Mario Livio.
Mario Livio
Books and Arts  
Physics: Six decades of science advising
Ann Finkbeiner scrutinizes a biography of supremely inventive particle physicist Richard Garwin.
Ann Finkbeiner
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Medicine: Discovery through doing
Roger Kneebone explores how lacemakers, glass artists and percussionists are sharing skills with researchers.
Roger Kneebone
United States: Restore public files on animal welfare
Delcianna J. Winders
  Trump: a confluence of tipping points?
Robert Costanza
Corporate culture: threat to researchers
Gang Liu, Juan Tan
  Corporate culture: research can benefit
Rudi G. J. Westendorp, Ulla Wewer
Brazil: Biodiversity at risk from austerity law
André Lincoln Barroso Magalhães
George Klein (1925–2016)
A pioneering cancer biologist and Renaissance man.
Ingemar Ernberg, Klas Kärre, Hans Wigzell
Cell biology: Stretched divisions
Many organ surfaces are covered by a protective epithelial-cell layer. It emerges that such layers are maintained by cell stretching that triggers cell division mediated by the force-sensitive ion-channel protein Piezo1.
Materials science: Organic analogues of graphene
Chemists have long aspired to synthesize two-dimensional polymers that are fully conjugated — an attribute that imparts potentially useful properties. Just such a material has been prepared using a solid-state polymerization reaction.
Cancer: A targeted treatment with off-target risks
It emerges that blood-cancer-targeting drugs that block a tumour-survival pathway also activate a mutation-causing enzyme in mice and in human cells. This might have implications for the clinical use of these drugs.
Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours
The genomes of 102 primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been sequenced, revealing mutations in genes with functions such as chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, mTOR activation and telomere maintenance, and a greater-than-expected contribution from germ line mutations.
Adipose-derived circulating miRNAs regulate gene expression in other tissues
Adipose tissue is a major source of circulating exosomal miRNAs, which contribute to the regulation of gene expression in distant tissues and organs.
Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials
Suitably engineered mechanical metamaterials show static non-reciprocity—that is, the transmission of motion from one side to the other depends on the direction of that motion.
Arrays of horizontal carbon nanotubes of controlled chirality grown using designed catalysts
Horizontal arrays of metallic or semiconducting carbon nanotubes with controlled chirality are grown from specially designed solid carbide catalysts.
Sterile protection against human malaria by chemoattenuated PfSPZ vaccine
Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites under chemoprophylaxis can protect against controlled human malaria infection with the same strain for at least 10 weeks, and protection correlates with polyfunctional T-cell memory.
m6A-dependent maternal mRNA clearance facilitates zebrafish maternal-to-zygotic transition
The N 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification facilitates maternally driven clearance of zebrafish maternal mRNAs through the m6A-binding protein Ythdf2, ensuring proper and timely embryonic development.
Untimely expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells causes uniparental disomy
Uniparental disomy in fission yeast is triggered by aberrant expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells, and is associated with the activation of meiotic cohesin Rec8 in cells with defects in the RNA interference machinery.
SZT2 dictates GATOR control of mTORC1 signalling
SZT2 recruits GATOR1 and GATOR2 to form a SZT2-orchestrated GATOR (SOG) complex at the lysosome that is essential for GATOR- and SESN-dependent nutrient sensing and mTORC1 regulation.
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase δ blockade increases genomic instability in B cells
PI3Kδ controls the expression of the recombinogenic enzyme AID; excessive AID activity caused by PI3Kδ inhibition can induce genomic instability in leukaemia and lymphoma cells, as well as in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with PI3Kδ inhibitors.
Mechanical stretch triggers rapid epithelial cell division through Piezo1
The stretch-activated channel Piezo1 controls homeostatic epithelial cell numbers by activating cells to divide rapidly when under stretch strain from low density, and by activating cells to extrude and die when cells are under crowding strain.
KICSTOR recruits GATOR1 to the lysosome and is necessary for nutrients to regulate mTORC1
A protein complex composed of KPTN, ITFG2, C12orf66 and SZT2, named KICSTOR, is necessary for lysosomal localization of GATOR1, interaction of GATOR1 with the Rag GTPases and GATOR2, and nutrient-dependent mTORC1 modulation.
Metabolic gatekeeper function of B-lymphoid transcription factors
The B-lymphoid transcription factors PAX5 and IKZF1 restrict the supply of glucose and energy to B cells to levels that are not enough to fuel a driver-oncogene, thereby acting as tumour suppressors and sensitizing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia B cells to glucocorticoid therapy.
Corrigendum: Interaction between RasV12 and scribbled clones induces tumour growth and invasion
Corrigendum: Upward revision of global fossil fuel methane emissions based on isotope database
News and Views  
Genomics: Keen insights from quinoa
Andrew H. Paterson, Alan L. Kolata
Physiology: An atypical switch for metabolism and ageing
Colin Selman, Dominic J. Withers
Physiology: Gut feeling for food choice
Darleen A. Sandoval, Randy J. Seeley

Seeking truth and pursuing innovation
Publishing Date: Feb 16th, 2016
Evolution: Catastrophe triggers diversification
Bhart-Anjan S. Bhullar
Palaeoclimate science: Pulsating ice sheet
Andreas Vieli
Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen
Denis Gilbert
The genome of Chenopodium quinoa OPEN
Constructing a reference genome for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) allows for genetic diversity during the evolution of sub-genomes in quinoa to be characterized and markers that may be used to develop sweet commercial varieties are identified.
David E. Jarvis, Yung Shwen Ho, Damien J. Lightfoot et al.
Identity and dynamics of mammary stem cells during branching morphogenesis
The formation of the branched epithelial network of the mouse mammary gland during puberty is driven by a heterogeneous population of stem cells at the terminal end buds of the epithelium.
Colinda L. G. J. Scheele, Edouard Hannezo, Mauro J. Muraro et al.
Cryo-EM structure of a human spliceosome activated for step 2 of splicing
The cryo-EM structure of the splicing intermediate known as the C* complex from human.
Karl Bertram, Dmitry E. Agafonov, Wen-Ti Liu et al.
Mega-evolutionary dynamics of the adaptive radiation of birds
A study of more than 2,000 bird species shows that diversity in bill shape expands towards extreme morphologies early in avian evolution in a series of major jumps, before switching to a second phase in which bills repeatedly evolve similar shapes by subdividing increasingly tight regions of already occupied niche space.
Christopher R. Cooney, Jen A. Bright, Elliot J. R. Capp et al.
Photovoltage field-effect transistors
A photovoltage field-effect transistor is demonstrated that is very sensitive to infrared light and has high gain.
Valerio Adinolfi, Edward H. Sargent
Single-cell spatial reconstruction reveals global division of labour in the mammalian liver
Single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization is performed to identify several landmark genes in the liver and their level of expression in single-cell RNA sequencing is used to spatially reconstruct the zonation of all liver genes.
Keren Bahar Halpern, Rom Shenhav, Orit Matcovitch-Natan et al.
Synthetic vulnerabilities of mesenchymal subpopulations in pancreatic cancer
Depletion of Smarcb1 activates the Myc network of signalling cascades, increasing protein metabolism and activation of survival pathways allowing highly aggressive Kras-independent pancreatic cancer cells to develop.
Giannicola Genovese, Alessandro Carugo, James Tepper et al.
Heinrich events triggered by ocean forcing and modulated by isostatic adjustment
Heinrich events — episodes of massive iceberg discharge from the Laurentide Ice Sheet into the North Atlantic Ocean — are triggered by the incursion of warm ocean waters destabilizing the calving front.
Jeremy N. Bassis, Sierra V. Petersen, L. Mac Cathles
Primordial helium entrained by the hottest mantle plumes
Analysis of helium isotope ratios in volcanic hotspot lavas suggests that hotter, more buoyant plumes upwelling from the deep mantle entrain high-3He/4He material, unlike cooler, less buoyant plumes, implying the existence of a dense, relatively undisturbed primordial reservoir in the deep mantle.
M. G. Jackson, J. G. Konter, T.W. Becker
Stable colloids in molten inorganic salts
A class of colloids is reported in which inorganic solute particles—such as metals and semiconductors—are dispersed in molten inorganic salts.
Hao Zhang, Kinjal Dasbiswas, Nicholas B. Ludwig et al.
Decline in global oceanic oxygen content during the past five decades
The oxygen content of the global ocean has decreased by more than two per cent over the past five decades, with large variations found in different ocean basins and at different ocean depths.
Sunke Schmidtko, Lothar Stramma, Martin Visbeck
Early brain development in infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder
Surface area expansion from 6–12 months precedes brain overgrowth in high risk infants diagnosed with autism at 24 months and cortical features in the first year predict individual diagnostic outcomes.
Heather Cody Hazlett, Hongbin Gu, Brent C. Munsell et al.
EPRS is a critical mTORC1–S6K1 effector that influences adiposity in mice
Glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase (EPRS) is a downstream effector of the mTORC1–S6K1 signalling axis and contributes to adiposity and ageing in mice.
Abul Arif, Fulvia Terenzi, Alka A. Potdar et al.
C. elegans neurons jettison protein aggregates and mitochondria under neurotoxic stress
Adult neurons from Caenorhabditis elegans can extrude large membrane-surrounded vesicles, known as exophers, containing protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles that threaten neuronal homeostasis.
Ilija Melentijevic, Marton L. Toth, Meghan L. Arnold et al.
MFN1 structures reveal nucleotide-triggered dimerization critical for mitochondrial fusion
Crystal structures of engineered human MFN1 in different stages of GTP hydrolysis provide insights into the GTP-induced conformational changes that promote MFN1 dimerization to bring about mitochondrial fusion.
Yu-Lu Cao, Shuxia Meng, Yang Chen et al.
Structure of a spliceosome remodelled for exon ligation
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a yeast spliceosome stalled before mature RNA formation provides insight into the mechanism of exon ligation.
Sebastian M. Fica, Chris Oubridge, Wojciech P. Galej et al.
Careers & Jobs
Culture: Cultivate the muse
Susan Moran
Trade talk: Support system
Jack Leeming
In cygnus and in hell
A ticket to ride.
S. R. Algernon
  Science jobs of the week


Junior Research Group Leader (f / m)


German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) . 


Postdoctoral Position in Developmental Genetics : Institut Curie, Paris, France


ERC advanced grant 


Postdoctoral Research Fellow (m / f)




Taiwan International Graduate Program


Academia Sinica 


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