Thursday, February 2, 2017

Nature Geoscience contents: February 2017 Volume 10 Number 2 pp69-156

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Nature Geoscience


February 2017 Volume 10, Issue 2

News and Views
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Cleaner urban air tomorrow?   p69
Air pollution in large cities remains a persistent public health problem. Adapting air quality forecasts for use by decision makers could help mitigate severe pollution events.

News and Views


Groundwater: Climate-induced pumping   p71
Jason J. Gurdak
Groundwater resources are directly affected by climate variability via precipitation, evapotranspiration and recharge. Analyses of US and India trends reveal that climate-induced pumping indirectly influences groundwater depletion as well.
See also: Article by Russo & Lall | Article by Asoka et al.

Moon formation: Punch combo or knock-out blow?   pp72 - 73
Gareth S. Collins
The twin isotopic signatures of the Moon and Earth are difficult to explain by a single giant impact. Impact simulations suggest that making the Moon by a combination of multiple, smaller moonlet-forming impacts may work better.
See also: Article by Rufu et al.

Marine biology: Polar merry-go-round   pp74 - 75
Marcel Babin
The dynamics of polar marine ecosystems are poorly understood. A laser-based space-borne sensor captures annual cycles of phytoplankton biomass in seasonally ice-free polar waters, and provides clues on how growth drives these cycles.
See also: Article by Behrenfeld et al.

Biogeochemistry: Early phosphorus redigested   pp75 - 76
Simon W. Poulton
Atmospheric oxygen was maintained at low levels throughout huge swathes of Earth's early history. Estimates of phosphorus availability through time suggest that scavenging from anoxic, iron-rich oceans stabilized this low-oxygen world.

Volcanology: Chronicling a medieval eruption   pp78 - 79
Francis Ludlow
The climatic response to the eruption of the Samalas Volcano in 1257 has been elusive. Medieval archives tell of a spatially variable reaction, with Europe and Japan experiencing severe cold compared to relative warmth in North America.
See also: Article by Guillet et al.

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Correction   p78
See also: News and Views by Tierney & Freeman



Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed   pp79 - 84
A. Arneth, S. Sitch, J. Pongratz, B. D. Stocker, P. Ciais et al.
The net carbon flux on land comprises emissions from land-use change and uptake by vegetation. An evaluation of vegetation models suggests that emissions from land-use change, and thus the terrestrial sink, may be substantially underestimated.

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Large stationary gravity wave in the atmosphere of Venus   pp85 - 88
Tetsuya Fukuhara, Masahiko Futaguchi, George L. Hashimoto, Takeshi Horinouchi, Takeshi Imamura et al.
The upper atmosphere of Venus rotates much faster than the planet itself. An anomalous stationary structure observed by the Akatsuki mission at the cloud tops of Venus could be an atmospheric gravity wave induced by mountain topography below.

A multiple-impact origin for the Moon   pp89 - 94
Raluca Rufu, Oded Aharonson & Hagai B. Perets
A giant impact has been proposed as being responsible for forming the Moon, but scenarios that match existing constraints are improbable. Numerical modelling now suggests that instead a series of smaller and more common impacts can explain the Earth-Moon system.
See also: News and Views by Collins

Centennial glacier retreat as categorical evidence of regional climate change   pp95 - 99
Gerard H. Roe, Marcia B. Baker & Florian Herla
Glaciers have been retreating almost globally over the past century. An analysis using signal-to-noise ratio as a metric of individual glacier change reveals that glacier retreat constitutes categorical evidence for regional climate change.

The global distribution and dynamics of surface soil moisture   pp100 - 104
Kaighin A. McColl, Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Ruzbeh Akbar, Alexandra G. Konings, Simon Yueh et al.
Soils have the capacity to store water at the land-atmosphere interface. Analysis of global satellite data suggests that significant precipitation can be retained by soils, leading to even less groundwater storage in water-starved regions.

Depletion and response of deep groundwater to climate-induced pumping variability   pp105 - 108
Tess A. Russo & Upmanu Lall
Drought affects deep groundwater through changes in natural recharge with a multi-year time lag. Rapid changes in US groundwater storage in response to climate variability reflect the human response to drought through groundwater pumping.
See also: News and Views by Gurdak | Article by Asoka et al.

Relative contribution of monsoon precipitation and pumping to changes in groundwater storage in India   pp109 - 117
Akarsh Asoka, Tom Gleeson, Yoshihide Wada & Vimal Mishra
Groundwater storage has declined in northern India and increased in southern India over the past decade. Trend analysis shows that much of this variability can be explained by changes in irrigation in response to monsoon precipitation.
See also: News and Views by Gurdak | Article by Russo & Lall

Annual boom-bust cycles of polar phytoplankton biomass revealed by space-based lidar   pp118 - 122
Michael J. Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Robert T. O/'Malley, Emmanuel S. Boss, Chris A. Hostetler et al.
Phytoplankton productivity is high in the polar oceans. Lidar observations from 2006-2015 reveal that phytoplankton biomass was characterized by annual cycles influenced by sea-ice extent in the Antarctic and ecological processes in the Arctic.
See also: News and Views by Babin

Climate response to the Samalas volcanic eruption in 1257 revealed by proxy records   pp123 - 128
Sebastien Guillet, Christophe Corona, Markus Stoffel, Myriam Khodri, Franck Lavigne et al.
The climatic response to the 1257 Samalas eruption is unclear. Analyses of proxy data and medieval archives suggest that the eruption triggered some of the coldest summers of the past millennium, but only in some Northern Hemisphere regions.
See also: News and Views by Ludlow

Carbon sequestration in an expanded lake system during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event   pp129 - 134
Weimu Xu, Micha Ruhl, Hugh C. Jenkyns, Stephen P. Hesselbo, James B. Riding et al.
The Toarcian anoxic event was linked to a massive release of carbon to the atmosphere. Geochemical data suggest that organic carbon burial in large lacustrine systems was key to the recovery of the carbon cycle.

A key role for green rust in the Precambrian oceans and the genesis of iron formations   pp135 - 139
I. Halevy, M. Alesker, E. M. Schuster, R. Popovitz-Biro & Y. Feldman
Large iron deposits formed episodically in the Archaean oceans. Experimental data and geochemical modelling suggest that green rust was an important contributor to the formation of these deposits and the Archaean iron cycle in general.

Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust   pp140 - 144
Noriaki Watanabe, Tatsuya Numakura, Kiyotoshi Sakaguchi, Hanae Saishu, Atsushi Okamoto et al.
The brittle-ductile transition is thought to control crustal permeability. Laboratory experiments and model simulations show that permeability is also stress dependent and ductile granitic rocks may have enough permeability to host geothermal resources.

Supercycle at the Ecuadorian subduction zone revealed after the 2016 Pedernales earthquake   pp145 - 149
J.-M. Nocquet, P. Jarrin, M. Vallee, P. A. Mothes, R. Grandin et al.
Large earthquakes are often assumed to reset the seismic hazard of a region. Analysis of recent and historical seismicity in Ecuador suggests that this region may experience clusters of large earthquakes and extended periods of high seismic hazard.

Fluid escape from subduction zones controlled by channel-forming reactive porosity   pp150 - 156
Oliver Plumper, Timm John, Yuri Y. Podladchikov, Johannes C. Vrijmoed & Marco Scambelluri
Pressure during subduction is thought to reduce porosity and restrict water escape from the slab. Thermodynamic modelling shows that channel networks, which grow around local chemical heterogeneities, can help drain the subducting plate.

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