Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Nature Neuroscience Contents: August 2011 Volume 14 Number 8, pp 941 - 1093

Nature Neuroscience

August 2011 Volume 14, Issue 8

News and Views
Brief Communications
Technical Reports

recommend to your libraryRecommend to your library
live newsfeedsWeb feed
Content is available online onlyAvailable online only

Progranulin EIAs
Measure in human or mouse serum, plasma, or
cell culture supernatants

• TRNF agonist involved in neuroinflammation
• Double-antibody "sandwich" assay format
• Straightforward, highly sensitive readout in just a few hours
Progranulin (human) EIA Kit Limit of detection: 32 pg/ml
Progranulin (mouse) EIA Kit Limit of detection: 60 pg/ml

Nature Outlook: Alzheimer’s Disease

From dancing to drugs, research on Alzheimer’s disease is moving apace. Our improved understanding of the role that amyloid-ß plays is uncovering new ways to treat and perhaps prevent the disease.

Access the Outlook free online for six months.

Produced with support from:
Eli Lilly and Company



Crafting a revision p941
Responding to referee comments constructively improves the quality of published papers.
Full Text | PDF

News and Views


Prior and prejudice pp943 - 945
Emilio Salinas
To best interpret new sensory information, populations of sensory neurons must represent the lessons of past experience. How do they do this? The same solution to this problem is now reported in two very different sensory systems, providing a classic example of computational convergence.
Full Text | PDF
See also: Article by Fischer & Peña

Anti-TANKyrase weapons promote myelination pp945 - 947
Patrizia Casaccia
A study identifies mechanisms responsible for the inability to form new myelin after neonatal hypoxia. It identifies Axin2 as a potential therapeutic target for reversing the 'differentiation block' of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells.
Full Text | PDF
See also: Article by Fancy et al.

What birds have to say about language pp947 - 948
Tiffany C Bloomfield, Timothy Q Gentner and Daniel Margoliash
Controversy surrounds the suggestion that recursion is a uniquely human computational ability that enables language. A study now finds this ability in a songbird and takes steps toward a model system for syntactic competence.
Full Text | PDF
See also: Article by Abe & Watanabe

An overlooked neurotoxic species in Alzheimer's disease pp949 - 950
Iryna Benilova and Bart De Strooper
A study now finds early memory impairment in a mouse model of amyloid β43 (Aβ43)-overproducing familial Alzheimer's disease and suggests that this overlooked amyloidogenic Aβ species contributes to pathology.
Full Text | PDF
See also: Article by Saito et al.

Reward and autoreceptors p950
Brigitta Gundersen
Full Text | PDF
See also: Article by Bello et al.

JOBS of the week
W3-Professor (f / m) for Experimental Neurophysiology
Koln, Germany
The Luc Hoffmann Institute
Gland, Switzerland
Postdoc Position (M / F) in Medical Systems Biology
DKFZ, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum
Heidelberg, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany
EMBL Interdisciplinary Postdocs Fellowship (EIPOD)
EMBL, European Molecular Biology Laboratory
Hamburg and Heidelberg, Germany
Technology Platform Managers
Regional Centre for Biotechnology
Gurgaon, India
More Science jobs from
Champalimaud Neuroscience Symposium
18 - 21 September 2011
Lisbon, Portugal
More science events from

Brief Communications


In vivo evidence that retinal bipolar cells generate spikes modulated by light pp951 - 952
Elena Dreosti, Federico Esposti, Tom Baden and Leon Lagnado
It is thought that retinal bipolar cells do not fire action potentials, but calcium imaging in live zebrafish now reveals that in bipolar cells there are 'all or none' calcium transients that are modulated by visual stimulation.
First paragraph | Full Text | PDF

Preventing interference between different memory tasks pp953 - 955
Daniel A Cohen and Edwin M Robertson
Learning both a word list and a motor memory task in a short interval usually leads to interference between the two tasks, resulting in poorer performance. Depending on the order of the tasks, the authors were able to directly prevent interference by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation to disrupt processing in either the prefrontal or the motor cortex, which suggests that distinct mechanisms underlie memory interference.
First paragraph | Full Text | PDF



Mammalian Gcm genes induce Hes5 expression by active DNA demethylation and induce neural stem cells pp957 - 964
Seiji Hitoshi, Yugo Ishino, Akhilesh Kumar, Salma Jasmine, Kenji F Tanaka, Takeshi Kondo, Shigeaki Kato, Toshihiko Hosoya, Yoshiki Hotta and Kazuhiro Ikenaka
The authors report that Hes5, a Notch effector gene, is serially activated by mammalian glial cells missing (Gcm) and later by the canonical Notch pathway. Loss of both Gcm1 and Gcm2 and subsequent lack of Hes5 upregulation in the neuroepithelium leads to impaired induction of neural stem cells.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Neurod6 expression defines new retinal amacrine cell subtypes and regulates their fate pp965 - 972
Jeremy N Kay, P Emanuela Voinescu, Monica W Chu and Joshua R Sanes
This study demonstrates the existence of a novel retinal narrow-field amacrine cell subtype that is neither GABAergic nor glycinergic. These cells arise from a late-born glycinergic population and are specified by expression of the transcription factor Neurod6.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

A CaMKIIβ signaling pathway at the centrosome regulates dendrite patterning in the brain pp973 - 983
Sidharth V Puram, Albert H Kim, Yoshiho Ikeuchi, Joshua T Wilson-Grady, Andreas Merdes, Steven P Gygi and Azad Bonni
This study reports that CaMKIIβ is recruited to the centrosome by PCM1, where it promotes dendrite retraction and pruning via the phosphorylation and inhibition of Cdc20-APC. This effect is independent of its association with CaMKIIα.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Regulation of behavioral plasticity by systemic temperature signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans  pp984 - 992
Takuma Sugi, Yukuo Nishida and Ikue Mori
C. elegans uses a thermotactic neural circuit to sense, move and remember temperature gradients in its surroundings. Here, Sugi and colleagues show that these responses are regulated by the heat-shock transcription factor HSF-1 and subsequent transcriptional programming in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Laminin-332 coordinates mechanotransduction and growth cone bifurcation in sensory neurons pp993 - 1000
Li-Yang Chiang, Kate Poole, Beatriz E Oliveira, Neuza Duarte, Yinth Andrea Bernal Sierra, Leena Bruckner-Tuderman, Manuel Koch, Jing Hu and Gary R Lewin
Laminin-332 is a major component of the dermo-epidermal skin basement membrane and maintains skin integrity. Here the authors find that it also suppresses a mechanosensitive current by preventing the formation of protein tethers required for current activation and exerts local control of over sensory axon branching behavior.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Loss of activity-induced phosphorylation of MeCP2 enhances synaptogenesis, LTP and spatial memory pp1001 - 1008
Hongda Li, Xiaofen Zhong, Kevin Fongching Chau, Emily Cunningham Williams and Qiang Chang
The authors generated a knock-in mouse line in which the MeCP2 protein cannot be phosphorylated by neuronal activity, and found that the mice exhibit superior hippocampus-dependent memory performance and enhanced synaptic plasticity by upregulating MeCP2 target genes, including BDNF, and have higher levels of excitatory synaptogenesis.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Axin2 as regulatory and therapeutic target in newborn brain injury and remyelination pp1009 - 1016
Stephen P J Fancy, Emily P Harrington, Tracy J Yuen, John C Silbereis, Chao Zhao, Sergio E Baranzini, Charlotte C Bruce, Jose J Otero, Eric J Huang, Roel Nusse, Robin J M Franklin and David H Rowitch
Premyelinating oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to hypoxic injuries, especially during the neonatal period. Here, Fancy et al. find that the Wnt scaffolding molecule Axin2 is crucial for normal remyelination after hypoxic injuries and demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of tankyrase, which stabilizes Axin2 levels, can promote oligodendrocyte differentiation and recovery after hypoxic and demyelinating injuries.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
See also: News and Views by Casaccia

Zinc alleviates pain through high-affinity binding to the NMDA receptor NR2A subunit pp1017 - 1022
Chihiro Nozaki, Angela Maria Vergnano, Dominique Filliol, Abdel-Mouttalib Ouagazzal, Anne Le Goff, Stéphanie Carvalho, David Reiss, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff, Jacques Neyton, Pierre Paoletti and Brigitte L Kieffer
The authors use transgenic mice to show that zinc modulates NMDA receptors containing the NR2A subunit, and that this interaction influences pain control in vivo.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Potent amyloidogenicity and pathogenicity of Aβ43 pp1023 - 1032
Takashi Saito, Takahiro Suemoto, Nathalie Brouwers, Kristel Sleegers, Satoru Funamoto, Naomi Mihira, Yukio Matsuba, Kazuyuki Yamada, Per Nilsson, Jiro Takano, Masaki Nishimura, Nobuhisa Iwata, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Yasuo Ihara and Takaomi C Saido
In addition to neurotoxic Aβ42, the Aβ43 variant is also abundant in Aβ plaques in the brains of individuals with sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease. As the functional difference between the two species of Aβ fragments are not known, Saido et al. used a presenilin-1 (PS1) mutation that increases Aβ43 production over other Aβ fragments and generated a knock-in mouse line mimicking the human PS1 mutation. They report that Aβ43 is highly amyloidogenic in this line of mice and leads to behavioral deficits.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
See also: News and Views by Benilova & De Strooper

Cocaine supersensitivity and enhanced motivation for reward in mice lacking dopamine D2 autoreceptors pp1033 - 1038
Estefanía P Bello, Yolanda Mateo, Diego M Gelman, Daniela Noaín, Jung H Shin, Malcolm J Low, Veronica A Alvarez, David M Lovinger and Marcelo Rubinstein
The authors provide definitive evidence for the in vivo contribution of D2 autoreceptors to dopamine-mediated behavior by studying mice deficient in D2 autoreceptors. These mice lack dopamine-mediated somatodendritic responses and inhibition of dopamine release, and show supersensitivity to the psychomotor effects of cocaine.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Precise olfactory responses tile the sniff cycle pp1039 - 1044
Roman Shusterman, Matthew C Smear, Alexei A Koulakov and Dmitry Rinberg
Sniffing controls the exposure of receptors to odors. Here the authors show that mitral/tufted cells in the olfactory bulb provide precise temporal information with regard to sniff phase that can facilitate coding of odors.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Differential connectivity and response dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in visual cortex pp1045 - 1052
Sonja B Hofer, Ho Ko, Bruno Pichler, Joshua Vogelstein, Hana Ros, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein, Nicholas A Lesica and Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel
Using two-photon calcium imaging in vivo and intracellular recordings in vitro, the authors find that visual stimulation only weakly modifies coactivation patterns of inhibitory neurons, whereas excitatory neuron correlations are largely stimulus dependent.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Adaptation of the simple or complex nature of V1 receptive fields to visual statistics pp1053 - 1060
Julien Fournier, Cyril Monier, Marc Pananceau and Yves Frégnac
This study uses a combination of electrophysiological recordings and computational modeling to show that the properties of visual simple and complex cells (defined by the differing properties of their receptive fields) are modulated by the properties of the stimulus received by these cells. This modulation appears to serve a normalization function.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Owl's behavior and neural representation predicted by Bayesian inference pp1061 - 1066
Brian J Fischer and José Luis Peña
Owls accurately localize sound sources near the center of gaze, but systematically underestimate peripheral source directions. Here the authors demonstrate that this behavior is predicted by statistical inference and show that the owl's map of auditory space decoded by a population vector is consistent with the behavioral model.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
See also: News and Views by Salinas

Songbirds possess the spontaneous ability to discriminate syntactic rules pp1067 - 1074
Kentaro Abe and Dai Watanabe
The human capacity for language is unique, but other animals may have abilities in some of the domains that are required for processing language. Abe and Watanabe find that songbirds have the capacity to learn an artificial grammar and to process hierarchical structures, an ability thought to be unique to humans.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF
See also: News and Views by Bloomfield et al.

Generalized associative representations in parietal cortex pp1075 - 1079
Jamie K Fitzgerald, David J Freedman and John A Assad
Previous work suggests that individual neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) can reflect specific learned associations. Here the authors find that individual LIP neurons can encode two completely different learned associations in two separate tasks. This suggests that LIP neurons can represent generic categorical outcomes.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Technical Reports


High-accuracy neurite reconstruction for high-throughput neuroanatomy pp1081 - 1088
Moritz Helmstaedter, Kevin L Briggman and Winfried Denk
This Technical Report describes an automated algorithm to trace densely labeled neurons and reconstruct their structure, thus providing a new tool in functional connectome analysis.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Two-photon calcium imaging of evoked activity from L5 somatosensory neurons in vivo  pp1089 - 1093
Wolfgang Mittmann, Damian J Wallace, Uwe Czubayko, Jan T Herb, Andreas T Schaefer, Loren L Looger, Winfried Denk and Jason N D Kerr
Two-photon calcium imaging has previously only been useful for imaging ongoing neuronal activity in the superficial cortical layers in vivo. Here the authors describe technology that enables imaging of sensory-evoked neuronal activity in layer 5 of adult mouse somatosensory cortex.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

The Fundación Reina Sofía, the Fundación Pasquall Maragall, and Nature Medicine present:
Present and Future Alzheimer's Research
September 22- 23, 2011 • Madrid, Spain
Attendance at the conference is by application only. For more information and to apply, visit: www.nature.com/natureconferences/alz11
nature events
Natureevents is a fully searchable, multi-disciplinary database designed to maximise exposure for events organisers. The contents of the Natureevents Directory are now live. The digital version is available here.
Find the latest scientific conferences, courses, meetings and symposia on natureevents.com. For event advertising opportunities across the Nature Publishing Group portfolio please contact natureevents@nature.com
More Nature Events

You have been sent this Table of Contents Alert because you have opted in to receive it. You can change or discontinue your e-mail alerts at any time, by modifying your preferences on your nature.com account at: www.nature.com/myaccount
(You will need to log in to be recognised as a nature.com registrant)

For further technical assistance, please contact our registration department

For print subscription enquiries, please contact our subscription department

For other enquiries, please contact our customer feedback department

Nature Publishing Group | 75 Varick Street, 9th Floor | New York | NY 10013-1917 | USA

Nature Publishing Group's worldwide offices:
London - Paris - Munich - New Delhi - Tokyo - Melbourne
San Diego - San Francisco - Washington - New York - Boston

Macmillan Publishers Limited is a company incorporated in England and Wales under company number 785998 and whose registered office is located at Brunel Road, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 6XS.

© 2011 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

nature publishing group

No comments: