Tuesday, August 28, 2018

Science X Newsletter Tuesday, Aug 28

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for August 28, 2018:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

A new coded caching scheme to improve online video delivery

Long-sought decay of Higgs boson observed

White dwarf-main sequence binary identified in the open cluster NGC 752

Jupiter had growth disorders

Evidence found of worker naked mole rats who eat queen feces becoming more attentive to young

Study shows air pollution may be causing cognitive decline in people

Traffic noise may make birds age faster

Study shows AI can deliver specialty-level diagnosis in primary care setting

3-D liver tissue implants made from human stem cells support liver function in mice

Leading journalists join call for EU copyright reform

Nano-imaging of intersubband transitions in few-layer 2-D materials

Can microswimmers swim through gel?

Enzyme ducts in the pancreas are formed like rivers

No sweat on Brown University team trying to hack a robot

Video games designed to improve results of doctors making triage decisions

Astronomy & Space news

White dwarf-main sequence binary identified in the open cluster NGC 752

Using data provided by Gaia satellite, two American astronomers have discovered a white dwarf-main sequence binary in the open cluster NGC 752. It is the first white dwarf found in this cluster. The finding was detailed by researchers in a paper published August 17 on the arXiv pre-print repository.

Jupiter had growth disorders

Researchers of the Universities of Bern and Zürich and of ETH Zürich show how Jupiter was formed. Data collected from meteorites had indicated that the growth of the giant planet was delayed for 2 million years. Now, the researchers have found an explanation: Collisions with kilometer-sized rocks generated high energy, which meant that in this phase, hardly any accretion of gas could take place, and the planet could only grow slowly.

Particles collected by Hayabusa give absolute age of asteroid Itokawa

Understanding the origin and time evolution of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is an issue of scientific interest and practical importance because they are potentially hazardous to the Earth. However, when and how these NEAs were formed and what they experienced during their lifetime remain enigmas.

Stellar 'swarms' help astronomers understand the evolution of stars

New work from Carnegie's Jonathan Gagné and the American Museum of Natural History's Jacqueline Faherty identified nearly a thousand potential members and 31 confirmed members of stellar associations—stars of similar ages and compositions that are drifting together through space—in our own corner of the Milky Way. Their work, published in the Astrophysical Journal, could help astronomers understand the evolution of stars and the properties of future exoplanet discoveries.

Image: Time-lapse sequence of Jupiter's north

Striking atmospheric features in Jupiter's northern hemisphere are captured in this series of color-enhanced images from NASA's Juno spacecraft.

Artwork unveiled on exoplanet satellite

Two plaques etched with thousands of miniaturised drawings made by children have been unveiled in a dedicated ceremony held today in Switzerland.

Counting on NASA's ICESat-2

NASA is about to launch the agency's most advanced laser instrument of its kind into space. The Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, will provide critical observations of how ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice are changing, leading to insights into how those changes impact people where they live.

Astronaut quits halfway through training, 1st in 50 years

For the first time in 50 years, an astronaut-in-training is quitting NASA.

Ironing out the difficulties of moving fluids in space

Fluid flows downhill—at least it does on Earth. Fluid movement becomes much more complicated in space, and that creates challenges for systems that rely on pumping fluids around for thermal control, engine propellants and other functions.

Scientist develops database for stellar-exoplanet 'exploration'

A Southwest Research Institute scientist is using big data to help the scientific community characterize exoplanets, particularly alien worlds orbiting nearby stars. Of particular interest are exoplanets that could harbor life.

Technology news

A new coded caching scheme to improve online video delivery

Researchers at Imperial College London have developed a new method for coded caching that could improve the delivery of popular video content online. A research paper outlining their findings was pre-published on arXiv, outlining the technique and its performance in comparison to other caching schemes.

Leading journalists join call for EU copyright reform

Leading journalists from more than 20 countries joined a call Tuesday for European MPs to approve a controversial media reform aimed at forcing internet giants to pay for news content.

No sweat on Brown University team trying to hack a robot

As we heat up to the ideas of having assistive robots in our homes and in industry, we also feel the chill of sci-fi imaginations that obsess over robots turning rogue.

Smart sensor makes it easier for women to manage their birth control pills

Did you remember to take your birth control pill?

The electronic transistor you've been waiting for

How do you pack more power into an electric car?

Researchers 3-D print prototype for 'bionic eye'

A team of researchers at the University of Minnesota have, for the first time, fully 3-D printed an array of light receptors on a hemispherical surface. This discovery marks a significant step toward creating a "bionic eye" that could someday help blind people see or sighted people see better.

Crippling costs of war reporting and investigative journalism

The cost of war reporting and investigative journalism is becoming prohibitive for media outlets, campaigners have warned.

Brussels gripped by lobbying war over copyright law

It has been dubbed one of the most brutal lobbying wars in Brussels history, pitting media firms and Paul McCartney on one side against Big Tech and internet freedom denizens on the other.

Startup delivers groceries in self-driving cars

Startup AutoX on Monday announced the Silicon Valley debut of a service that will turn self-driving cars into mobile grocery shops summoned with a touch of a smartphone application.

Electric car makers moving into Tesla's turf with new models

While Tesla grapples with internal issues like production delays, a sometimes-erratic CEO and a recent about-face on whether to go private, its rivals are moving aggressively into the luxury electric vehicle space.

The same but different—what passengers like about Uber

Uber's dramatic rise has been accompanied by criticism, including allegations of predatory pricing and flouting of safety and employment laws.

Advertising just got micro-personal – why we don't care

With all the buzz and hysteria about how consumers are being cunningly "micro-targeted" in a bid for mind control, not only by advertisers of products but also by political parties, researchers at UniSA's Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science have discovered there is probably no reason to panic.

Sprint, T-Mobile merger means 28,000 jobs lost, including 4,500 at HQs, union claims

Organized labor officially opposed the merger between Sprint and T-Mobile on Monday, saying it would cost more than 28,000 jobs, including 4,500 at the two headquarters.

If military robot falls, it can get itself up

Scientists at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed software to ensure that if a robot falls, it can get itself back up, meaning future military robots will be less reliant on their Soldier handlers.

Renewable energy sources can take up to 1000 times more space than fossil fuels

To generate renewable energy takes more space than one might think. New research by environmental scientist Paul Behrens and master's student John van Zalk shows how much space is needed for nine specific types of energy. Biomass, hydro and wind, while vital, take up the most space. Natural gas and nuclear take least. Publication in Energy Policy.

Facebook has introduced a user trustworthiness score – here's why it should go further

Facebook has reportedly started giving users a secret trustworthiness score in its attempt to tackle fake news. According to the Washington Post, the score is partly based on users' ability to correctly flag and report inaccurate news items on the site. Facebook then takes this score into account when working out how a user's content should be spread around the network (although it doesn't tell users what their score is).

New sensor could help doctors monitor patient progress from a distance

A self-powered sensor developed at the University of Waterloo could allow doctors to remotely monitor the recovery of surgical patients.

Telegram says to cooperate in terror probes, except in Russia

The Telegram encrypted messenger app said Tuesday said it would cooperate with investigators in terror probes when ordered by courts, except in Russia where it is locked in an ongoing battle with authorities.

Tesla wins green rebate lawsuit against Canada's Ontario province

US electric automaker Tesla has won a lawsuit against Canada's most populous province of Ontario after its new government scrapped a rebate initiative for electric car purchases.

Rights groups urge Google not to bend to China censors

Human rights groups and other advocacy organizations Tuesday urged Google to abandon any plans to craft a censored version of its search engine that could pass muster with regulators in China.

Facebook move on Myanmar raises thorny political questions

Facebook's ban of Myanmar's military leaders marks a new step for the leading social network against state "actors"—and raises thorny questions on how the company deals with repressive regimes using the platform.

Google's search tool to help job-seeking veterans

A new Google search tool will allow service members transitioning to civilian life to include their military occupational specialty code to find jobs that match their skills.

Italian pilots approve deal with Ryanair

Italian pilots have approved an agreement over working conditions with Ryanair in the first such deal the strike-hit low-cost aviation giant has fully concluded.

Judge tosses suit against Southwest Airlines on fingerprints

A Chicago federal judge has tossed a proposed class-action lawsuit alleging Southwest Airlines violated the law by requiring that certain employees use fingerprints to sign into and out of work.

Semantic cache for AI-enabled image analysis

The availability of high-resolution, inexpensive sensors has exponentially increased the amount of data being produced, which could overwhelm the existing Internet. This has led to the need for computing capacity to process the data close to where it is generated, at the edges of the network, in lieu of sending it to cloud datacenters. Edge computing, as this is known, not only reduces the strain on bandwidth but also reduces latency of obtaining intelligence from raw data. However, availability of resources at the edge is limited due to the lack of economies of scale that make cloud infrastructure cost-effective to manage and offer.

Trump says Google is 'rigged' with bad news about him

President Donald Trump took aim Tuesday at Google, claiming that news search results were "rigged" against him, which prompted a White House aide to suggest the administration may look at regulating the huge internet platform.

Explainer: How Google search results work

Political leanings don't factor into Google's search algorithm. But the authoritativeness of page links that the algorithm spits out and the perception of thousands of human raters do.

Medicine & Health news

Study shows air pollution may be causing cognitive decline in people

A trio of researchers from Beijing Normal University, Yale University and Peking University has found a link between air pollution and human cognitive decline. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Xin Zhang, Xi Chen, and Xiaobo Zhang outline their study and what they found.

Study shows AI can deliver specialty-level diagnosis in primary care setting

A system designed by a University of Iowa ophthalmologist that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to detect diabetic retinopathy without a person interpreting the results earned Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorization in April, following a clinical trial in primary care offices. Results of that study were published Aug. 28 online in Nature Digital Medicine, offering the first look at data that led to FDA clearance for IDx-DR, the first medical device that uses AI for the autonomous detection of diabetic retinopathy.

3-D liver tissue implants made from human stem cells support liver function in mice

Stem cells transformed into 3-D human liver tissue by scientists from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Centre for Regenerative Medicine at the University of Edinburgh show promising support of liver function when implanted into mice with a liver disease.

Enzyme ducts in the pancreas are formed like rivers

Applying methods for analyzing road systems and rivers, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have studied the formation of the pancreatic network of ducts transporting digestive enzymes in mice. The network resembles the structure of road networks and the formation patterns of rivers. The new results can help researchers gain a better understanding of disorders like cystic fibrosis.

Video games designed to improve results of doctors making triage decisions

A team of researchers with widely diverse backgrounds from several institutions in the U.S. has developed two video games designed to help improve results by doctors making triage decisions. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes how the games were developed and how well they worked when tested by doctors.

Researchers develop 'cytological ruler' to build 3-D map of human genome

It has been almost 20 years since the human genome was first sequenced, but researchers still know little about how the genome is folded up and organized within cells. In a paper to be published August 28 in the Journal of Cell Biology, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign describe a new technique that can measure the position of every single gene in the nucleus to build a 3-D picture of the genome's organization.

Immune system prioritizes distinct immune responses in infants with flu

The immune system appears to put a premium on maintaining lung function in infants infected with the influenza virus by mounting a rapid response to repair damaged cells, according to research led by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. The findings appear today in the scientific journal Immunity.

Researchers find elusive source of most abundant immune cell

Neutrophils—short-lived, highly mobile and versatile—outnumber all other immune cells circulating through the blood stream. Yet, despite the cells' abundance, the progenitor cell that only gives rise to neutrophils had eluded all efforts to track it down. Now, researchers at La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology identified a progenitor of neutrophils in the bone marrow of mice and humans and tied it to cancer-promoting activities.

INSiGHT identifies unique retinal regulatory genes

Vision begins in the retina, a light-sensing neural network in the eye that is critical for our ability observe the world around us. Researches at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital and the Hospital for Sick Children have developed a new platform that enables them to uncover new regulators of retina neurons. This platform, named INSiGHT, was used to examine more than 100 genes, and 16 key retinal regulatory genes were identified.

Smoking and drinking can damage arteries 'very early in life'

The arteries of teenagers who drink alcohol and smoke, even very occasionally, are already beginning to stiffen by age 17, according to UCL research. Arterial stiffness indicates damage to the blood vessels, which predicts heart and blood vessel problems in later life, such as heart attacks and stroke.

Blood-borne cancer detection receives gold-plated boost

UNSW researchers have discovered a new way to detect ultralow levels of microRNA in a blood sample which could make diagnosis of cancer and other illnesses quicker and more efficient.

Scientists identify 35 genes associated with cannabis use

A large-scale genetic study found that some of the same genes associated with the use of cannabis are also associated with certain personality types and psychiatric conditions. The study, published in Nature Neuroscience, conducted by a team of scientists who are part of the International Cannabis Consortium, is the largest to date genetic study to look at the use of cannabis.

Genes that regulate how much we dream

Sleep is known to re-energize animals and consolidate their memories. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a mysterious stage of sleep in which animals dream, is known to play an important role in maintaining a healthy mental and physical life, but the molecular mechanisms behind this state are poorly understood. Now, an international research team led by researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) in Japan has identified a pair of genes that regulate how much REM and non-REM sleep an animal experiences.

Protein modifications that point to cancer

Researchers from the University of Zurich can, for the first time, precisely characterize the protein modification ADP-ribosylation for all proteins in a tissue sample. The changes, which are a typical reaction to stress, provide information about the condition of a cell. Together with the University Hospital Zurich, they are now testing the new method to diagnose and treat cancer.

Scientists find a new way to attack herpesviruses

Human cytomegalovirus is a leading cause of birth defects and transplant failures. As it's evolved over time, this virus from the herpes family has found a way to bypass the body's defense mechanisms that usually guards against viral infections. Until now, scientists couldn't understand how it manages to do so.

Study provides new insights for ways to use cell metabolism to treat cancer

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati (UC) College of Medicine have discovered that cell metabolism plays an important role in the ability of cells to start a survival program called autophagy, an unwanted side effect of some anti-cancer drugs that helps some tumor cells dodge treatment and eventually regrow into new tumors.

The link between obesity, the brain, and genetics

Clinicians should consider how the way we think can make us vulnerable to obesity, and how obesity is genetically intertwined with brain structure and mental performance, according to new research.

HIV/AIDS research yields dividends across medical fields

Since the first cases of AIDS were reported in the United States 37 years ago, the National Institutes of Health has invested more than $69 billion in the understanding, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Beyond the development of life-saving medications and innovative prevention modalities, such research has led to numerous advances outside the HIV field, according to a new commentary from experts at NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).

Researchers develop potential drugs to help curb smoking

Washington State University researchers have created more than a dozen candidate drugs with the potential to curb smokers' desire for nicotine by slowing how it is broken down in the body. The researchers hope the substances can help people reduce their consumption of tobacco, if not quit altogether.

Combination approach shows promise for beating advanced melanoma

A UCLA-led study has found that a treatment that uses a bacteria-like agent in combination with an immunotherapy drug could help some people with advanced melanoma, an aggressive form of skin cancer, live longer.

Novel imaging biomarker to help predict coronary inflammation

Researchers at Cleveland Clinic, University of Oxford and University of Erlangen have identified a novel imaging biomarker, which has been found to be able to predict all-cause and cardiac mortality by measuring inflammation of fatty tissue surrounding the coronary arteries.

Novel technique to treat endometrial cysts is safe and effective

A technique called catheter-based sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for endometrial cysts and could help preserve fertility in patients, according to a study appearing in the journal Radiology.

Cancer linked to poor prognosis in patients with broken heart syndrome

Cancer is linked to an increased risk of death and rehospitalisation in patients with broken heart syndrome, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2018.

Six countries in the Americas account for half of all firearm deaths

A new study reveals more than a quarter-million people died from firearm-related injuries in 2016, with half of those deaths occurring in only six countries in the Americas: Brazil, the United States, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala.

A non-canonical strategy may improve cancer radiotherapy

Although the success or failure of radiation therapy for cancer has long been associated with the intrinsic radio-resistance or radio-sensitivity of tumor cells, a new approach is demonstrating that radiation can take credit for an additional benefit—causing highly effective secondary immune responses that can enhance anti-tumor immunity.

Better understanding of potential regeneration after brain/spinal cord injury

Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) have uncovered new information on the pathways involved in neuronal regeneration, hopefully bringing the medical community one step closer to managing brain and spinal cord injuries.

Crowdsourcing campaigns increase HIV testing among at-risk men in China

Approximately 14 million people living with HIV worldwide have yet to be tested, impacting the effectiveness of HIV treatment and prevention programs. Testing rates are especially poor among at-risk groups in low- and middle-income countries. In China, infection rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) remain high. Pilot trials have suggested crowdsourcing could be useful for developing photo and video campaigns that promote HIV testing. Building off this theory, researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill investigated the effectiveness of crowdsourced campaigns and found an increase in HIV testing during the intervention period. Their results were published in the journal PLOS Medicine.

Study shows colorful blocks can prep preschoolers for a future in math

A 4-year-old lines up colorful blocks in a row: red-red-green-red-red-green. Her teacher encourages her to replicate the pattern using soft toys: bear-bear-monkey-bear-bear-monkey. Another child uses blocks to build a doorway, figuring out how to balance blocks on top of others. This isn't just play.

Beetroot has blood pressure link in pregnant women

A study by scientists at The University of Manchester and the Karolinska Institute in Sweden has found a link between the humble beetroot and blood pressure regulation in pregnant women.

Study finds non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a significant risk factor for liver cancer

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a very common disease, and with the incidence of liver cancer rising across the country, little has been understood about the link between NAFLD and a form of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To establish a better understanding of the link between HCC risk and NAFLD, researchers at Baylor College of Medicine conducted a large, retrospective study of patients with and without NAFLD. The results appear in Gastroenterology.

Predicting the response to immunotherapy using artificial intelligence

A study published in The Lancet Oncology establishes for the first time that artificial intelligence can process medical images to extract biological and clinical information. By designing an algorithm and developing it to analyse CT scan images, medical researchers at Gustave Roussy, CentraleSupélec, Inserm, Paris-Sud University and TheraPanacea have created a so-called radiomic signature. This signature defines the level of lymphocyte infiltration of a tumour and provides a predictive score for the efficacy of immunotherapy in the patient.

Researchers partner to prevent and treat HIV and TB

Former South African president Nelson Mandela once emphasized that the war against AIDS could not be won without confronting the country's tuberculosis epidemic. For the last 16 years, a group of Yale researchers in the Yale AIDS Program has been doing just that through their involvement in the Tugela Ferry Care and Research Collaboration (TF CARES),  an international non-governmental organization committed to improving prevention, care, and treatment for adults and children with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis through clinical care, research and capacity building in Tugela Ferry, South Africa. 

Researchers call for open and respectful debate around Stanford Prison Experiment

Some of the world's leading social psychologists, including Professor Stephen Reicher from the University of St Andrews, have called for an open and respectful debate over a controversy which has rocked the academic community.

Family's grief sparks a quest for better bladder cancer cures

"Invasive and uncomfortable' prodedures for detecting if someone has bladder cancer could be replaced by urine tests that not only screen for the presence of the disease but also help doctors choose the right course of treatment for a particular patient.

Study looks at self-reported e-cigarette use among U.S. adults

New research estimates that 4.5 percent of adults in the U.S. currently use e-cigarettes. That equates to more than 10.8 million e-cigarette users, most of them— 51.2 percent—under the age of 35 and about 60 percent are men. Those data come from an analysis of national self-reported health behaviors.

How to get children to eat a rainbow of fruit and vegetables

Worldwide, people are not eating enough fruit and vegetables. In Australia, less than 4% of us meet the Australian Dietary Guideline recommendations for vegetables by age group. Worryingly, children and teenagers are even less likely than adults to be eating enough vegetables.

Study highlights fragility of motivation for regular exercise

People who haven't found a way of making exercise a priority early in life will struggle to make it a priority by the time they're in their 30s and beyond, new University of Alberta-led research suggests.

Transgender-positive approach overdue in acute care

Fears of insensitive questioning, withdrawal from hormone treatment and the use of a patient's legal name, rather than chosen name, may drive many transgender people away from acute care facilities, including emergency departments, urgent care and inpatient treatment, according to an analysis by UC San Francisco doctors in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Device offers relief from sneezing and runny nose

A new treatment that delivers a freezing or near-freezing temperature to the back of the nose can offer relief to people suffering from chronic stuffy or runny nose, postnasal drip and cough. These symptoms result from persistently inflamed nose and sinuses, a condition known as chronic rhinitis.

Current advice to limit dairy intake should be reconsidered

The consumption of dairy products has long been thought to increase the risk of death, particularly from coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, and cancer, because of dairy's relatively high levels of saturated fat.  Yet evidence for any such link, especially among US adults, is inconsistent.  With the exception of milk, which appears to increase the risk of CHD, dairy products have been found to protect against both total mortality and mortality from cerebrovascular causes, according to research presented today at ESC Congress 2018, the annual congress of the European Society of Cardiology. Therefore, current guidelines to limit consumption of dairy products, especially cheese and yogurt, should be relaxed; at the same time, the drinking of non-fat or low-fat milk should be recommended, especially for those who consume large quantities of milk.

Take a vacation – it could prolong your life

Taking vacations could prolong life. That's the finding of a 40-year study presented today at ESC Congress and accepted for publication in The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging.

Removable balloon is as good as permanent stent implant for opening small blocked arteries

A removable balloon is as good as a permanent stent implant for opening small blocked arteries, according to late breaking results from the BASKET-SMALL 2 trial presented in a Hot Line Session today at ESC Congress 20181 and simultaneously published in The Lancet.

Optimal timing of invasive evaluation after heart attack examined in randomised trial

The optimal timing of invasive evaluation after a heart attack has been examined in a randomised trial. The late breaking results from the VERDICT trial are presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018.

NASA investment in cholera forecasts helps save lives in Yemen

For the first time ever, measurements from NASA Earth-observing research satellites are being used to help combat a potential outbreak of life-threatening cholera. Humanitarian teams in Yemen are targeting areas identified by a NASA-supported project that precisely forecasts high-risk regions based on environmental conditions observed from space.

Low-carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided

Low carbohydrate diets are unsafe and should be avoided, according to a large study presented today at ESC Congress 2018.

Components of heart healthy diet may differ from what was previously thought

The foods that make up a heart healthy diet for people worldwide may differ from what was previously thought, according to late breaking results from the observational Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018 and simultaneously published in the Lancet.

Gout drug reduces adverse events in patients with hyperuricaemia

Uric acid reduction with the gout treatment febuxostat reduces adverse events in elderly patients with hyperuricaemia, according to late breaking research presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018.

Blood pressure drug slows aortic dilatation in Marfan syndrome

Treatment with a drug to lower blood pressure slows enlargement (dilatation) of the aorta in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome, according to late breaking results from the AIMS trial presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018.

Depression may raise risk of heart attack and stroke

People with symptoms of anxiety and depression may have a greater risk of heart attack and stroke, a study has found.

Scientists sweep cellular neighborhoods where Zika hides out

Most people infected with Zika never show symptoms. But the virus sometimes causes severe disability—from microcephaly in babies to weakness or partial paralysis in adults—and there is no treatment. In a recent study in the journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, researchers report a comprehensive study of how the virus interacts with host cells. One of their findings offers insight into how Zika escapes immune signaling and proliferates inside the body.

Men and women are different: Why medical oncology needs to restate the obvious

Gender-based approaches to studying and treating disease have remained largely unexplored in medical oncology, despite the field's growing interest in precision medicine and accumulating evidence that sex is a major factor in disease risk and response to treatment. At the ESMO workshop, "Gender medicine meets oncology", to be held in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 November and 1 December 2018, a multidisciplinary faculty of experts will discuss the concepts and methods of gender medicine and their implications for clinical practice and research in oncology.

Treating inflammatory bowel disorder by delivering microRNAs

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory diseases of unknown cause, and the number of IBD patients is on the rise.

Study helps children hit the right note in supporting autistic peers

Collaborative music lessons in schools improve the attitudes of pupils towards their peers with autism, a new study in the journal Autism reports.

Nationwide quality of neurosurgical care and patient safety benchmarking programs

Many clinical quality registries have been established during the 2000s, particularly in North America where such registers are used as a criterion for health care funding. The quality of these registers and their ability to describe actual patient-reported outcomes has been largely ignored.

Amphetamines don't improve motor recovery after stroke

A pilot clinical trial exploring the benefit of d-amphetamine combined with physical therapy for stroke patients found no evidence that the regimen improved post-stroke motor recovery.

Novel gene mutation found in lymphatic disorder

Pediatric researchers have identified a gene mutation that causes a serious lymphatic condition, and used that knowledge to restore normal lymphatic vessels in model animals. The laboratory findings may lead to a new therapy for patients with this type of abnormal lymphatic circulation.

What you need to know about autism spectrum disorder

(HealthDay)—Autism spectrum disorder—or ASD—is a developmental disability now diagnosed in about one in 37 boys and one in 151 girls in the United States.

High LDL in young, healthy adults leaves them vulnerable to CVD

(HealthDay)—Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) ≥160 mg/dL are independently associated with increased relative risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in a low-risk cohort, according to a study published online Aug. 20 in Circulation.

First randomised trial tests criteria used to diagnose heart attack

Results of the first randomised trial testing the criteria used to diagnose heart attack are presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018 and published in The Lancet.

Few people at risk for heart disease understand food labels

Many consumers have difficulty using and understanding food labels, especially men and people at risk for heart disease, according to research presented at ESC Congress 2018 today.

E. coli strain from retail poultry may cause urinary tract infections in people

A strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli) found in retail chicken and turkey products may cause a wide range of infections in people, according to a study published today in the American Society for Microbiology's open access journal mBio.

Oral anticoagulants plus antiplatelets associated with poor outcome in atrial fibrillation

Combined oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy is associated with a worse prognosis than anticoagulation alone in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients without a clear indication for antiplatelets, according to late breaking results from the GARFIELD-AF registry presented today at ESC Congress 2018.

Is it safe for women with heart disease to become pregnant?

Is it safe for women with heart disease to become pregnant? Usually, according to ten-year results from the ROPAC registry reported in a late breaking science session today at ESC Congress 2018.

Cochrane Review looks at accuracy of Xpert for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

In one-fifth of people with active tuberculosis (TB), the site of disease is outside the lungs (extrapulmonary TB). Some forms of extrapulmonary TB, such as TB meningitis, are extremely dangerous, where a rapid diagnosis can make all the difference to a patient. In a new Cochrane Review, a team of authors from LSTM along with colleagues from Canada, South Africa, and Switzerland reviewed the evidence and assessed the accuracy of the widely-used rapid diagnostic test, Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) - mainly used to diagnose pulmonary TB and resistance to rifampicin, the most effective first-line anti-TB drug—for such cases.

Post-workout muscle building and repair blunted in obese adults, study finds

Obesity is associated with a host of health problems, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure. According to a new study reported in the Journal of Physiology, obesity also diminishes a person's ability to build muscle after engaging in resistance exercise.

New treatment can halve hospital stays for some patients with heart infection

A new treatment can halve hospital stays for some patients with a heart infection (endocarditis), according to late breaking results of the POET trial presented today in a Hot Line Session at ESC Congress 2018 and published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Study finds how NF-2 gene mutations make cells hyper-responsive to growth factor signaling

A team of Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center researchers has determined one way that mutations in a gene involved in a rare, hereditary cancer syndrome lead to out-of-control cellular proliferation. In their report published online in Genes & Development, the team describes finding how mutations in the NF2 (neurofibromatosis type 2) gene, which codes for the merlin protein, make cells hyper-responsive to growth factor signaling. In addition to neurofibromatosis type 2, a genetic disorder that induces the formation of numerous benign tumors throughout the nervous system, NF2 mutations have also been associated with the dangerous malignant cancer mesothelioma.

New study contradicts notion that electronic health records are driving doctors to quit

Prominent journalists including the late Pulitzer Prize-winner Charles Krauthammer, have written that doctors are leaving the practice of medicine because adopting and using electronic health records (EHRs) is frustrating and debilitating.

Chest pain drug falls short in preventing first episode of ventricular arrhythmia or death

A clinical trial of more than 1,000 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) found that the drug ranolazine (commonly used to treat chest pain; brand name Ranexa) was safe but didn't significantly decrease the likelihood of the first occurrence of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or death in this high-risk population. The study was published recently in JACC, the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.

Three factors that predict life-threatening respiratory disease in burn patients

For the first time, researchers have devised a model to predict burn patients who are most likely to develop life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Differences between combined, isolated use of cannabis, nicotine on brain networks

Researchers at the Center for BrainHealth at the University of Texas at Dallas investigated the effects on the brain of concurrent cannabis and nicotine use, versus the use of solely cannabis and solely nicotine.

Training for parents referred to CPS improves toddler's physiological regulation

A parental training program for families referred to Child Protective Services improved toddlers' unconscious reactions to mildly stressful situations, as well as improving parents' behavior, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Davis and the University of Washington. The work is published August 28 in Developmental Science.

More patients survive sudden cardiac arrest with new EMS technique that uses a breathing tube

A new study showed that a change in the type of breathing tube paramedics use to resuscitate patients with sudden cardiac arrest can significantly improve the odds of survival and save thousands of lives. More than 90 percent of Americans who experience sudden cardiac arrest die before, or soon after, reaching a hospital.

Novel brain network linked to chronic pain in Parkinson's disease

Scientists have revealed a novel brain network that links pain in Parkinson's disease (PD) to a specific region of the brain, according to a report in the journal eLife.

Diagnosis is not best predictor of avoidable hospitalizations of nursing home residents

The care of long-term nursing home patients can be fragmented by hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, which are especially burdensome for frail older adults. There is a significant likelihood of reduced functioning and overall negative impact on their health after discharge from the hospital. Preventing transfers of long-stay nursing home patients to hospitals improves continuity of care and decreases costs to the healthcare system.

Close ties with fathers help daughters overcome loneliness

Fathers play a key role in helping their young daughters overcome loneliness, a new study has found.

Toxic pesticides found at most illegal California pot farms

Nine of every 10 illegal marijuana farms raided in California this year contained traces of powerful and potentially lethal pesticides that are poisoning wildlife and could endanger water supplies, researchers and federal authorities said Tuesday.

In US, sexuallly transmitted infections hit new highs

Sexually transmitted infections like chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis soared to new record highs in the United States last year, public health officials said Tuesday.

US state is first to define what can be considered meat

What is in a name?

Bigger drop in opioid prescribing after CDC guideline release

(HealthDay)—Release of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain in March 2016 corresponded to greater increases in several opioid prescribing patterns, according to a study published online Aug. 28 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Two Ebola patients who received experimental Tx have recovered

(HealthDay)—Two of the first 10 people to receive an experimental Ebola treatment have recovered from the highly dangerous disease, Congo's health ministry says.

Going 'low-carb'? Your odds for an early death may rise

(HealthDay)—People who slash carbohydrates from their diets may shorten their lifespan, a new study suggests.

Hundreds of human, pet homeopathy products recalled

(HealthDay)—Hundreds of Dr. King's water-based homeopathic drugs for children, adults and pets may be unsafe to use because of high levels of microbial contamination, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration said Tuesday.

Poor shared decision-making for lung cancer screening

(HealthDay)—The quality of shared decision-making (SDM) about the initiation of lung cancer screening (LCS) is poor, according to a study published online Aug. 13 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Skin microbiota differ for obese, non-obese undergoing c-section

(HealthDay)—After cesarean delivery (CD), the incision site harbors a higher bacterial biomass in obese women than in non-obese women, according to a study recently published in Scientific Reports.

Artificial intelligence holds promise in medicine

(HealthDay)—Artificial intelligence (AI) in health care offers opportunities for early detection and triage, diagnostics and personalized medicine, and medical decision-making, according to an article published in Managed Healthcare Executive.

Experts address loss of the national guideline clearinghouse

(HealthDay)—The demise of the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) in July 2018 is likely to impact evidence-based health care around the world, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online Aug. 28 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Retinal abnormalities may indicate preclinical Alzheimer's

(HealthDay)—Retinal microvascular abnormalities are identified in cognitively healthy individuals who have biomarkers positive for Alzheimer's disease (AD), according to a study published online Aug. 23 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

Cannabinoid in breast milk up to six days after marijuana use

(HealthDay)—Most breast milk samples have measurable Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) up to about six days after maternal use, according to a study published online Aug. 27 in Pediatrics.

Does chemotherapy harm ability to function for older women with breast cancer?

Older women are at higher risk for developing breast cancer than younger women are—almost half of all breast cancer cases, and most breast cancer deaths, occur in women who are 65 or older. Despite this, we know very little about how breast cancer and its treatments affect older women. In particular, we don't fully understand how the disease and chemotherapy treatments affect a woman's ability to function and perform daily activities.

Teenagers have a hard time reading one another's tones of voice

Your teenage daughter gets into a shouting match with another kid at school. It turns out that it may have started over something as simple as not understanding one another's tones of voice. Recently published research in the Journal of Nonverbal Behavior shows that the ability to understand what someone is feeling based on their tone of voice can be challenging in mid-adolescence (between 13-15 years of age). While adults are able to accurately read a range of emotions in the voices of teens, and the opposite also holds true, teens are far less able to understand what is going on with their peers, particularly when it comes to tones of voice which express anger, meanness, disgust, or happiness.

Writing a 'thank you' note is more powerful than we realize, study shows

New research from The University of Texas at Austin proves writing letters of gratitude, like Jimmy Fallon's "Thank You Notes," is a pro-social experience people should commit to more often. The gesture improves well-being for not only letter writers but recipients as well.

Researchers identify potential target for treating pain during surgery

A research team lead by faculty of the University of Colorado School of Medicine have published a study that improves the understanding of the pain-sensing neurons that respond to tissue injury during surgery.

Up to eight million deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries yearly due to poor-quality health care

Recent gains against the burden of illness, injury, and disability and commitment to universal health coverage (UHC) are insufficient to close the enormous gaps that remain between what is achievable in human health and where global health stands today, says a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The report calls for urgent, comprehensive efforts led by ministries of health worldwide to transform the design of health care through systems thinking and principles of human factors, acknowledge and engage the informal care sector, focus on settings of extreme adversity, embrace digital technologies and emerging innovations, and address corruption.

Rethinking a healthy diet from a global perspective

Recommendations for a high quality diet to avoid cardiovascular disease were developed in high-income countries two to three decades ago. They don't consider other parts of the world or how diets have changed.

Clinical trials needed to study cannabinoid use in Canadian children

Canadian parents use unregulated cannabinoids for seizure control in children with neurologic conditions like epilepsy, and clinical trials are needed to inform doctors and parents on prescribing, according to a commentary in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

This single dad kicked 30-year tobacco habit for his son

John Jaramillo was a 45-year-old newly divorced single dad to 7-year-old Zeph.

Biology news

Evidence found of worker naked mole rats who eat queen feces becoming more attentive to young

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Japan has found evidence suggesting that female worker naked mole rats become more maternal after consuming their queen's feces. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their study of the unique mammals and what they found.

Traffic noise may make birds age faster

Traffic noise may be associated with an increased rate of telomere loss in Zebra finches that have left the nest, according to a study published in Frontiers in Zoology. Telomeres are caps on the ends of chromosomes that protect genes from damage. Shortening of telomeres indicates accelerated biological aging.

Misfolded proteins serve as 'inherited memory' of toxic insults

Protein aggregates have a bad reputation in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, but in bacteria, inheritance of aggregates by daughter cells may help protect against the same toxic stresses that triggered them in parental cells, according to a new study publishing 28 August in the open access journal PLOS Biology, by Sander Govers, Abram Aertsen, and colleagues at KU Leuven, Belgium. The aggregates thus serve as a kind of inherited memory, protecting offspring against the challenges experienced by their ancestors.

Study reveals the mechanism that helps malaria parasites take over human red blood cells

Researchers from UCLA and Washington University in St. Louis have discovered the previously unknown mechanism of how proteins from Plasmodium parasites—which cause malaria—are exported into human red blood cells, a process that is vital for parasites to survive in humans. The finding could pave the way for new treatments for malaria.

Remote islands harbour higher numbers of non-native species

The effects of island remoteness from the mainland on the number of species found on islands differs strongly for non-native compared to native species. Numbers of native species on islands decrease with greater remoteness, while numbers of non-native species increase. This surprising finding has been uncovered by an international research team led by Dietmar Moser, Bernd Lenzner and Franz Essl from the Department of Botany and Biodiversity Research of the University of Vienna. The study has been published in the prestigious scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A. These findings have important implications for our understanding global biodiversity.

Leaf molecules as markers for mycorrhizal associations

In nature, most plants establish mutual relationships with root fungi, so-called mycorrhiza. Mycorrhizal fungi facilitate the plants' nutrient uptake and help them thrive under extreme conditions. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, discovered that certain leaf metabolites can be used as markers for mycorrhizal associations. The discovery of foliar markers provides scientists with an easy-to-conduct tool to screen large amounts of plants for mycorrhizal associations without having to destroy them. This new tool could contribute to breeding more efficient and stress-tolerant crop varieties for sustainable agriculture.

Unearthing the secrets of cellular energy

Everything the body does—your brain thinking, your heart beating, your cells growing—requires energy. Consequently, it comes as no surprise that disruptions in energy production can contribute to a wide range of diseases. To address this common denominator, a team of scientists at the Gladstone Institutes and UC San Francisco (UCSF) led by Ken Nakamura, MD, Ph.D., turned to the molecular power-plants that produce a cell's energy, called mitochondria.

New cancer treatment uses enzymes to boost immune system and fight back

Researchers at The University of Texas at Austin have developed a new approach to treating cancer using enzyme therapy.

Migrating monarchs facing increased parasite risks

During their annual migration to wintering sites in Mexico, monarch butterflies encounter dangers ranging from cars and trucks to storms, droughts and predators. A study led by ecologists at the University of Georgia has found evidence that these iconic insects might be facing a new challenge.

Tree swallow study: Stressful events have long-term health impacts

Little is known about how brief yet acute stressors—such as war, natural disasters and terror attacks—affect those exposed to them, though human experience suggests they have long-term impacts.

Hundreds of fish die in lagoon in tony Malibu, California

California officials were trying Monday to solve a stinky mystery: A die-off has left hundreds of fish floating in a recently restored lagoon on the tony Malibu coast.

AI speeds effort to protect endangered elephants

Cornell's Elephant Listening Project tracks African forest elephants with acoustic sensors, but the forests are so remote and the sound files so huge it takes months to collect and analyze the data – too long to rescue the animals from poachers or other threats.

Transferring sorghum's weed-killing power to rice

Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists have transferred a biochemical pathway found in sorghum, which produces a weed-killing compound, into rice plants.

Tongues provide clues to identifying the breed of new-born calves

Identifying the breed of a new-born calf is not always easy, but Massey University research suggests their tongues may hold a clue.

How Eggplants became Asian – genomes and elephants tell the story

The evolutionary context of the eggplant was, until recently, very poorly known. Historical documents and genetic data have shown that the eggplant was first domesticated in Asia, but most of its wild relatives are from Africa. Researchers from the Natural History Museums of London (NHM) and Finland (University of Helsinki) managed to obtain the first well-supported hypothesis on the origin of the eggplant and its direct relatives.

The math of malaria: Drug resistance 'a numbers game' of competing parasites

A new mathematical model for malaria shows how competition between parasite strains within a human host reduces the odds of drug resistance developing in a high-transmission setting. But if a drug-resistant strain does become established, that same competition drives the spread of resistance faster, under strong selection from antimalarial drug use.

Temperature model predicts regional and seasonal virus transmission by mosquitoes

Scientists have built a model that predicts how temperature affects the spread of Ross River virus, a common mosquito-borne virus in Australia, according to a report in the journal eLife.

China's swine fever outbreak may spread in Asia: FAO

An outbreak of African swine fever in China may spread to other parts of Asia, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization warned Tuesday, as the world's largest pork producer scrambled to contain the disease.

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