Thursday, August 30, 2018

Nature contents: 30 August 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 560 Issue 7720
This Week  
Opening up peer review
Feeling the pull of gravity
World View  
Research is set up for bullies to thrive
Sherry Moss
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Foreign research funds, Australia’s science minister and gene editing in Japan
News in Focus
Massive £30-million grant will be awarded to one cardiovascular research team
Matthew Warren
Trump’s science-adviser pick hedges on climate change
Sara Reardon
India targets universities in predatory-journal crackdown
Subhra Priyadarshini
United States woefully unprepared for nuclear strike, say scientists
Sara Reardon
Physicists doubt bold superconductivity claim following social-media storm
Davide Castelvecchi
How to plant a trillion trees
Rachel Cernansky
Nature Podcast 30 August 2018
This week, an early mammal relative's babies, and new attempts to pin down the strength of gravity.
Publish peer reviews
Jessica K. Polka, Robert Kiley, Boyana Konforti et al.
Books and Arts  
Schrödinger’s cat among biology’s pigeons: 75 years of What Is Life?
Philip Ball
Thinking like a mountain, how we really make decisions, and the power of a button: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
Governments want your smart devices to have stupid security flaws
Steven Aftergood
Together scientists and journalists can spot poor preprints
James Fraser, Jessica Polka
Preprints are good for science and good for the public
Sarvenaz Sarabipour
Preprints help journalism, not hinder it
Jonathan Tennant, Laurent Gatto, Corina Logan
Consumption rebound could undermine border carbon-adjustment charges
Edward Balistreri, Daniel Kaffine, Hidemichi Yonezawa
A double-edged retirement honour
David Rickard
Burton Richter (1931–2018)
Helen Quinn
Help to shape policy with your science
Julia Rosen
Ways to promote and foster collaborative research in your lab
Katherine D. Kinzler, Kristin Shutts

Judy Helfrich
Cotranslational assembly of protein complexes in eukaryotes revealed by ribosome profiling
Cotranslational assembly is a prevalent mechanism for the formation of oligomeric complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with one subunit serving as scaffold for the translation of partner subunits.
Ayala Shiber, Kristina Döring, Ulrike Friedrich et al.
Integrating time from experience in the lateral entorhinal cortex
Temporal information that is useful for episodic memory is encoded across a wide range of timescales in the lateral entorhinal cortex, arising inherently from its representation of ongoing experience.
Albert Tsao, Jørgen Sugar, Li Lu et al.
Jurassic stem-mammal perinates and the origin of mammalian reproduction and growth
A well-preserved clutch of Kayentatherium wellesi perinates sheds light on the timing of the evolution of mammalian traits, including reduced clutch sizes and the allometric lengthening of the face during ontogeny.
Eva A. Hoffman, Timothy B. Rowe
Role of glutamine synthetase in angiogenesis beyond glutamine synthesis
The enzyme glutamine synthetase is active in endothelial cell migration during angiogenesis, through autopalmitoylation and the regulation of RHOJ signalling.
Guy Eelen, Charlotte Dubois, Anna Rita Cantelmo et al.
Acceleration of electrons in the plasma wakefield of a proton bunch
E. Adli, A. Ahuja, O. Apsimon et al.
A Brownian quasi-crystal of pre-assembled colloidal Penrose tiles
A lithographic patterning and release method is used to create a dense, fluctuating, Brownian system of mobile colloidal kite- and dart-shaped Penrose tiles over large areas that retains quasi-crystalline order.
Po-Yuan Wang, Thomas G. Mason
Required growth facilitators propel axon regeneration across complete spinal cord injury
Stimulating the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and providing growth-supportive substrate and chemoattraction can allow axon regrowth across anatomically complete spinal cord injuries in adult rodents.
Mark A. Anderson, Timothy M. O’Shea, Joshua E. Burda et al.
Structures of filaments from Pick’s disease reveal a novel tau protein fold
The structures of tau filaments from patients with the neurodegenerative disorder Pick’s disease show that the filament fold is different from that of the tau filaments found in Alzheimer’s disease.
Benjamin Falcon, Wenjuan Zhang, Alexey G. Murzin et al.
Protein complexes assemble as they are being made
An investigation finds that most protein complexes in yeast cells assemble before the subunits have fully formed. This mechanism might prevent the formation of toxic protein aggregates.
Christine Mayr
Structural mechanisms of selectivity and gating in anion channelrhodopsins
Crystal structures and molecular simulations of the designed anion-conducting channelrhodopsin iC++ provide molecular insights that enable structure-based design of channelrhodopsins with desirable properties for use as optogenetic tools.
Hideaki E. Kato, Yoon Seok Kim, Joseph M. Paggi et al.
Crystal structure of the natural anion-conducting channelrhodopsin GtACR1
The crystal structure of anion channelrhodopsin-1 (ACR1) from the algae Guillardia theta provides insights into the basis of anion conductance.
Yoon Seok Kim, Hideaki E. Kato, Keitaro Yamashita et al.
Ancient herders enriched and restructured African grasslands
Isotopic and sedimentary analyses of soils at Pastoral Neolithic archaeological sites in Kenya demonstrate the long-term influence of nutrient enrichment on savannah environments that has accompanied pastoralist settlement over the past three millennia.
Fiona Marshall, Rachel E. B. Reid, Steven Goldstein et al.
Spotlight on proteins that aid malaria
The multiprotein complex PTEX enables malaria-causing parasites to survive inside red blood cells. Studies reveal how PTEX assembles, and identify a function for one of the complex’s proteins, EXP2.
Tania F. de Koning-Ward
The NORAD lncRNA assembles a topoisomerase complex critical for genome stability
The long non-coding RNA NORAD interacts with proteins involved in DNA replication and repair, and controls the ability of RBMX to form a ribonucleoprotein complex that helps to maintain genomic stability.
Mathias Munschauer, Celina T. Nguyen, Klara Sirokman et al.
Malaria parasite translocon structure and mechanism of effector export
Cryo-electron microscopy analysis of the purified Plasmodium translocon of exported proteins (PTEX) reveals two distinct resolved states, suggesting a mechanism by which Plasmodium falciparum exports malarial effector proteins into erythrocytes.
Chi-Min Ho, Josh R. Beck, Mason Lai et al.
All-inorganic perovskite nanocrystal scintillators
All-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals containing caesium and lead provide low-cost, flexible and solution-processable scintillators that are highly sensitive to X-ray irradiation and emit radioluminescence that is colour-tunable across the visible spectrum.
Qiushui Chen, Jing Wu, Xiangyu Ou et al.
Past experience shapes sexually dimorphic neuronal wiring through monoaminergic signalling
In Caenorhabditis elegans, starvation early in life suppresses later sex-specific pruning of synapses through lasting changes in monoaminergic signalling.
Emily A. Bayer, Oliver Hobert
Widespread intronic polyadenylation inactivates tumour suppressor genes in leukaemia
The inactivation of tumour suppressor genes at the level of mRNA occurs by the generation of truncated proteins in leukaemia.
Shih-Han Lee, Irtisha Singh, Sarah Tisdale et al.
News & Views  
Machine learning improves forecasts of aftershock locations
Gregory C. Beroza
Sequence of events in prostate cancer
Kellie A. Cotter, Mark A. Rubin
Role for the longevity protein SIRT6 in primate development
Shoshana Naiman, Haim Y. Cohen

Tissue-based profiling for confident decisions in immuno-oncology
Learn how standardizing tissue profiling in drug development and trial designs in immuno-oncology will improve decision making. 
Thursday 12th September 2018
Sponsored by Definiens
Transcriptional speed bumps revealed in high resolution
Karen Adelman, Telmo Henriques
Gravity measured with record precision
Stephan Schlamminger
From the archive
Improved nutrient use gives cereal crops a boost
Fanmiao Wang, Makoto Matsuoka
Subwavelength integrated photonics
Subwavelength-grating metamaterial structures, their main operation principles and their implementation in integrated photonic devices are reviewed.
Pavel Cheben, Robert Halir, Jens H. Schmid et al.
The emergence of Zika virus and its new clinical syndromes
The rapid development of cell culture and animal models has facilitated a new understanding of ZIKV biology and made it possible to generate multiple ZIKV vaccine candidates, which are advancing through clinical trials.
Theodore C. Pierson, Michael S. Diamond
Measurements of the gravitational constant using two independent methods
The Newtonian gravitational constant is measured with two independent methods, yielding results with relative standard uncertainties of 11.6 parts per million—the lowest uncertainty reported until now.
Qing Li, Chao Xue, Jian-Ping Liu et al.
5-HT release in nucleus accumbens rescues social deficits in mouse autism model
Stimulating the release of serotonin (5-HT) in the nucleus accumbens in wild-type mice promotes sociability, and rescues deficits in social behaviours in a mouse model of autism.
Jessica J. Walsh, Daniel J. Christoffel, Boris D. Heifets et al.
Modulating plant growth–metabolism coordination for sustainable agriculture
The balance of DELLA and GRF4 proteins in plants ensures the co-regulation of growth with metabolism and tipping this balance towards GRF4 leads to higher efficiency of nitrogen use.
Shan Li, Yonghang Tian, Kun Wu et al.
Structure of paused transcription complex Pol II–DSIF–NELF
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of a paused transcription elongation complex of RNA polymerase II bound to DRB sensitivity-inducing factor and negative elongation factor is reported at 3.2 Å resolution.
Seychelle M. Vos, Lucas Farnung, Henning Urlaub et al.
Structure of activated transcription complex Pol II–DSIF–PAF–SPT6
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of an activated transcription elongation complex of RNA polymerase II bound to DRB sensitivity-inducing factor and the elongation factors PAF1 complex and SPT6 is reported at 3.1 Å resolution.
Seychelle M. Vos, Lucas Farnung, Marc Boehning et al.
The gravitationally unstable gas disk of a starburst galaxy 12 billion years ago
The molecular gas in the inner kiloparsec of a submillimetre-bright galaxy is clumpy and gravitationally unstable, collapsing to form stars at a rate that will deplete the gas in about 100 million years.
K. Tadaki, D. Iono, M. S. Yun et al.
Probing high-momentum protons and neutrons in neutron-rich nuclei
Electron-scattering experiments reveal that the fraction of high-momentum protons in medium-to-heavy nuclei increases considerably with neutron excess, whereas that of high-momentum neutrons decreases slightly, in contrast to shell-model predictions.
The CLAS Collaboration
Resonant domain-wall-enhanced tunable microwave ferroelectrics
The domain-wall structure and dynamics are found to enhance, rather than inhibit, the high-frequency performance of an intrinsically tunable material, obtaining ultralow loss and exceptional frequency selectivity.
Zongquan Gu, Shishir Pandya, Atanu Samanta et al.
Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 growth rate to observed changes in terrestrial water storage
The growth rate of global atmospheric CO2 concentration is faster in drier years, independently of temperature; this relationship is underestimated in current carbon cycle models.
Vincent Humphrey, Jakob Zscheischler, Philippe Ciais et al.
Deep learning of aftershock patterns following large earthquakes
Neural networks trained on data from about 130,000 aftershocks from around 100 large earthquakes improve predictions of the spatial distribution of aftershocks and suggest physical quantities that may control earthquake triggering.
Phoebe M. R. DeVries, Fernanda Viégas, Martin Wattenberg et al.
Fitness benefits and emergent division of labour at the onset of group living
Experimental data from, and mathematical modelling of, colonies of the clonal raider ant Ooceraea biroi demonstrate that increases in group size generate division of labour among similar individuals, increased homeostasis and higher colony fitness.
Y. Ulrich, J. Saragosti, C. K. Tokita et al.
Global land change from 1982 to 2016
Satellite data for the period 1982–2016 reveal changes in land use and land cover at global and regional scales that reflect patterns of land change indicative of a human-dominated Earth system.
Xiao-Peng Song, Matthew C. Hansen, Stephen V. Stehman et al.
A multi-cohort study of the immune factors associated with M. tuberculosis infection outcomes
Integrated analyses of multiple cohorts are used to obtain a better understanding of the immune state of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and factors that mediate and/or predict transitions from latent infection to active disease.
Roshni Roy Chowdhury, Francesco Vallania, Qiantian Yang et al.
Allergic inflammatory memory in human respiratory epithelial progenitor cells
Single-cell RNA sequencing is used to characterize cell types in nasal tissues from human patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, revealing a role for tissue stem cells in allergic inflammatory memory.
Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Daniel F. Dwyer, Sarah K. Nyquist et al.
RAP2 mediates mechanoresponses of the Hippo pathway
The Ras-related GTPase RAP2 is a key intracellular signal transducer by which extracellular matrix rigidity controls mechanosensitive cellular activities through YAP and TAZ.
Zhipeng Meng, Yunjiang Qiu, Kimberly C. Lin et al.
SIRT6 deficiency results in developmental retardation in cynomolgus monkeys
A cynomolgus monkey model deficient in SIRT6 protein exhibits severe retardation in prenatal development, in which neuronal differentiation is delayed by activation of the H19 long non-coding RNA.
Weiqi Zhang, Haifeng Wan, Guihai Feng et al.
Crystal structure of the Frizzled 4 receptor in a ligand-free state
The crystal structure of the Frizzled 4 receptor transmembrane domain is reported to a resolution of 2.4 Å in a ligand-free state.
Shifan Yang, Yiran Wu, Ting-Hai Xu et al.
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Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: Pancreas regeneration

Qiao Zhou, Douglas A. Melton
Publisher Correction: ANKRD16 prevents neuron loss caused by an editing-defective tRNA synthetase

My-Nuong Vo, Markus Terrey, Jeong Woong Lee et al.
Publisher Correction: Observation of anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect in nickel

Ken-ichi Uchida, Shunsuke Daimon, Ryo Iguchi et al.
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