Thursday, August 16, 2018

Nature contents: 16 August 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 560 Issue 7718
This Week  
The spectre of smallpox lingers
Reading between the lines

Scientific Reports Top 100 in Ecology This collection presents the top 100 most highly accessed ecology articles published in Scientific Reports in 2017. Access the collection >>>
World View  
Funders must be wary of industry alliances
Linda Bauld
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Plagiarism rules, discrimination settlements and asteroid close-up
News in Focus
War zone complicates roll-out of Ebola vaccine in latest outbreak
Amy Maxmen
How Unpaywall is transforming open science
Holly Else
Gene-silencing technology gets first drug approval after 20-year wait
Heidi Ledford
Industry trumps peer-reviewed science at US environment agency
Jeff Tollefson
LHC physicists embrace brute-force approach to particle hunt
Davide Castelvecchi
How digital drug users could help to halt the US opioid epidemic
Sara Reardon
Nature Podcast 16 August 2018
This week, more worries for bees, modelling the opioid crisis, and rough weather for seas.
Biologists ignore ocean weather at their peril
Amanda E. Bates, Brian Helmuth, Michael T. Burrows et al.
Books and Arts  
Arctic odysseys: science among sea bears and musk oxen
Huw Lewis-Jones
The ancient seeds of the opioid crisis, a love letter to physics, and a ticket to the termite circus: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
Sex, religion and a towering treatise on anatomy
Dániel Margócsy, Mark Somos, Stephen N. Joffe
Are women the losers in team cosmology prize?
Olivier Berné
Speed up global ban on industrial trans fats in food
Igor Pravst
Bring training forward for undergraduate researchers
John Trant
Dilemma over AI and drug patenting already under debate
Ross D. King, Patrick Courtney
Engage more early-career scientists as peer reviewers
Mathieu Casado
Paul Delos Boyer (1918-2018)
Richard L. Cross
Top tips for building and maintaining international collaborations
Virginia Gewin
The preprint
J. W. Armstrong
Modulating plant growth–metabolism coordination for sustainable agriculture
The balance of DELLA and GRF4 proteins in plants ensures the co-regulation of growth with metabolism and tipping this balance towards GRF4 leads to higher efficiency of nitrogen use.
Shan Li, Yonghang Tian, Kun Wu et al.
An immune response with a sweet tooth
A previously unknown pathway that enables mammalian cells to recognize infection and trigger an immune response requires a kinase enzyme in the host cell to bind a sugar molecule produced by infecting bacteria.
John-Demian Sauer
Restoration of vision after de novo genesis of rod photoreceptors in mammalian retinas
Müller glia in mature mouse retina can be stimulated to produce rod cells; this treatment restores visual responses in a model of congenital blindness.
Kai Yao, Suo Qiu, Yanbin V. Wang et al.
Cryo-EM structure of the insect olfactory receptor Orco
A cryo-electron microscopy structure of the insect Orco subunit, which forms ion channels with diverse olfactory receptors, reveals a tetrameric cation channel and sheds light on insect olfaction.
Joel A. Butterwick, Josefina del Mármol, Kelly H. Kim et al.
Improved nutrient use gives cereal crops a boost
Manipulation of the transcription factor OsGRF4 can improve the efficiency with which some high-yielding cereal crops use nitrogen. This discovery has implications for sustainable agriculture.
Fanmiao Wang, Makoto Matsuoka
Autism-like phenotype and risk gene mRNA deadenylation by CPEB4 mis-splicing
CPEB4 binds the mRNA of genes known to be associated with autism and shows an isoform imbalance in individuals with autism, and an equivalent imbalance in mice induces an autism-like phenotype.
Alberto Parras, Héctor Anta, María Santos-Galindo et al.
Sulfoxaflor exposure reduces bumblebee reproductive success
Chronic exposure to sulfoxaflor (a sulfoximine-based insecticide) has severe sub-lethal effects on bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies; exposed colonies produced fewer workers and fewer reproductive offspring than unexposed control colonies.
Harry Siviter, Mark J. F. Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater
An alternative to controversial pesticides still harms bumblebees
Exposure to a sulfoximine-based pesticide has substantial adverse effects on bumblebee colonies. This finding suggests that concerns over the risks of exposing bees to insecticides should not be limited to neonicotinoids.
Nigel E. Raine
Alpha-kinase 1 is a cytosolic innate immune receptor for bacterial ADP-heptose
The bacterial metabolite ADP-heptose activates NF-κB in host cells via alpha-kinase 1 and the TIFA–TRAF signalling pathway.
Ping Zhou, Yang She, Na Dong et al.
Atomic iron and titanium in the atmosphere of the exoplanet KELT-9b
Cross-correlation analysis of high-resolution spectra obtained as the exoplanet KELT-9b transited its host star reveals neutral and singly ionized atomic iron and singly ionized atomic titanium in the exoplanet’s atmosphere.
H. Jens Hoeijmakers, David Ehrenreich, Kevin Heng et al.
Probing high-momentum protons and neutrons in neutron-rich nuclei
Electron-scattering experiments reveal that the fraction of high-momentum protons in medium-to-heavy nuclei increases considerably with neutron excess, whereas that of high-momentum neutrons decreases slightly, in contrast to shell-model predictions.
The CLAS Collaboration
News & Views  
Enzymes team up with light-activated catalysts
Nicholas J. Turner
Birds perceive colours in categories
Almut Kelber
Profile of an unknown airway cell
Kyle J. Travaglini, Mark A. Krasnow

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Reaction combination opens up 3D molecular diversity for drug discovery
Wenbo Ye, Ang Li
From the archive
Special relativity validated by neutrinos
Matthew Mewes
Yeast chromosome numbers minimized using genome editing
Gianni Liti
A revised airway epithelial hierarchy includes CFTR-expressing ionocytes
Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis identifies cell types and lineages in airway epithelium, including the pulmonary ionocyte, a new cell type predominantly expressing the cystic fibrosis gene CFTR.
Daniel T. Montoro, Adam L. Haber, Moshe Biton et al.
Genetic and transcriptional evolution alters cancer cell line drug response
The extent, origins and consequences of genetic variation within human cell lines are studied, providing a framework for researchers to measure such variation in efforts to support maximally reproducible cancer research.
Uri Ben-David, Benjamin Siranosian, Gavin Ha et al.
Creating a functional single-chromosome yeast
Successive fusion of yeast chromosomes is used to produce a single-chromosome strain that is viable, albeit with slightly reduced fitness.
Yangyang Shao, Ning Lu, Zhenfang Wu et al.
Ferroelectric switching of a two-dimensional metal
Two- and three-layer WTe2 exhibits spontaneous out-of-plane electric polarization that can be switched electrically at room temperature and is sufficiently robust for use in applications with other two-dimensional materials.
Zaiyao Fei, Wenjin Zhao, Tauno A. Palomaki et al.
Room-temperature electrical control of exciton flux in a van der Waals heterostructure
Heterobilayer excitonic devices consisting of two different van der Waals materials, in which excitons are shared between the layers, exhibit electrically controlled switching actions at room temperature.
Dmitrii Unuchek, Alberto Ciarrocchi, Ahmet Avsar et al.
Cryo-STEM mapping of solid–liquid interfaces and dendrites in lithium-metal batteries
Direct observation of the anode–electrolyte interface in a lithium-metal battery, without removing the liquid electrolyte, reveals two types of dendrites, one of which may contribute disproportionately to capacity fade.
Michael J. Zachman, Zhengyuan Tu, Snehashis Choudhury et al.
Building C(sp3)-rich complexity by combining cycloaddition and C–C cross-coupling reactions
Combining cycloaddition and carbon–carbon cross-coupling offers a way of simplifying the enantioselective preparation of chemical building blocks, natural products and medicines such as the antipsychotic asenapine.
Tie–Gen Chen, Lisa M. Barton, Yutong Lin et al.
Cooperative asymmetric reactions combining photocatalysis and enzymatic catalysis
A cooperative chemoenzymatic reaction combines photocatalytic alkene isomerization with enzymatic reduction to generate enantioenriched products in a stereoconvergent manner.
Zachary C. Litman, Yajie Wang, Huimin Zhao et al.
Marine heatwaves under global warming
Satellite observations and Earth system model simulations reveal that marine heatwaves have increased in recent decades and will increase further in terms of frequency, intensity, duration and spatial extent.
Thomas L. Frölicher, Erich M. Fischer, Nicolas Gruber
Categorical perception of colour signals in a songbird
Female zebra finches exhibited categorical perception of colour signals, as they categorized colour stimuli that varied along a continuous scale and showed increased discrimination between colours from opposite sides of the category boundary compared to equally different colours from within a category.
Eleanor M. Caves, Patrick A. Green, Matthew N. Zipple et al.
Ecosystem warming extends vegetation activity but heightens vulnerability to cold temperatures
Experimental whole-ecosystem warming treatments of a PiceaSphagnum peat bog reveal the likely phenological consequences of future temperature increases that exceed those of historical climate regimes.
Andrew D. Richardson, Koen Hufkens, Thomas Milliman et al.
Accumulation of 8,9-unsaturated sterols drives oligodendrocyte formation and remyelination
Many small molecules that stimulate oligodendrocyte formation act not through their canonical pathways but by inhibiting enzymes within the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway and thereby inducing the accumulation of 8,9-unsaturated sterols.
Zita Hubler, Dharmaraja Allimuthu, Ilya Bederman et al.
A single-cell atlas of the airway epithelium reveals the CFTR-rich pulmonary ionocyte
Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis is used to identify cell types in the tracheal epithelium, including previously unidentified ionocytes, which express high levels of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR.
Lindsey W. Plasschaert, Rapolas Žilionis, Rayman Choo-Wing et al.
Exosomal PD-L1 contributes to immunosuppression and is associated with anti-PD-1 response
Melanoma cells release programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the surface of circulating exosomes, suggesting a mechanism by which tumours could evade the immunesystem, and the potential application of exosomal PD-L1 to monitor patient responses to checkpoint therapies.
Gang Chen, Alexander C. Huang, Wei Zhang et al.
A multiprotein supercomplex controlling oncogenic signalling in lymphoma
A pro-survival multiprotein signalling supercomplex consisting of the B cell receptor, MYD88, TLR9 and mTOR is discovered that coordinates NF-κB activation in diffuse large B cell lymphoma, and provides mechanistic insight into the efficacy of drug combinations.
James D. Phelan, Ryan M. Young, Daniel E. Webster et al.
Karyotype engineering by chromosome fusion leads to reproductive isolation in yeast
Yeast chromosomes have been fused to produce viable strains with only two chromosomes that are reproductively isolated from the sixteen-chromosome wild type, but otherwise show high fitness in mitosis and meiosis.
Jingchuan Luo, Xiaoji Sun, Brendan P. Cormack et al.
Gamete fusion triggers bipartite transcription factor assembly to block re-fertilization
During sexual reproduction in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the rapid reconstitution of a bipartite Mi–Pi transcription complex after fusion blocks re-fertilization and induces meiosis, which ensures that the genome is maintained.
Aleksandar Vještica, Laura Merlini, Pedro Junior Nkosi et al.
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Amendments & Corrections
Author Correction: BCAT1 restricts αKG levels in AML stem cells leading to IDHmut-like DNA hypermethylation
Simon Raffel, Mattia Falcone, Niclas Kneisel et al.
Author Correction: Subepithelial telocytes are an important source of Wnts that supports intestinal crypts
Michal Shoshkes-Carmel, Yue J. Wang, Kirk J. Wangensteen et al.
Author Correction: Genome-wide changes in lncRNA, splicing, and regional gene expression patterns in autism
Neelroop N. Parikshak, Vivek Swarup, T. Grant Belgard et al.
Publisher Correction: Chromatin analysis in human early development reveals epigenetic transition during ZGA
Jingyi Wu, Jiawei Xu, Bofeng Liu et al.
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