Tuesday, July 24, 2018

Science X Newsletter Tuesday, Jul 24

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for July 24, 2018:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Using machine learning to detect software vulnerabilities

Scientists develop new materials that move in response to light

Bats harbor a gene swiped from an ancient Ebola-like virus—here's how they may use it

Radiation maps of Jupiter's moon Europa—key to future missions

Team lands new efficiency breakthrough for emerging solar cell material

A mathematical view on cell packing

Researchers find quantum 'Maxwell's demon' may give up information to extract work

Researchers find new way to target flu virus

Generation of random numbers by measuring phase fluctuations from a laser diode with a silicon-on-in

Liquid microscopy technique reveals new problem with lithium-oxygen batteries

Abnormal gene copying seen in tauopathy fruit fly models

Carboxylic acids behave as superacids on the surface of water

New study suggests Shroud of Turin a fake, supporting study retracted

A new 'periodic table' for nanomaterials

Computing power solves molecular mystery

Astronomy & Space news

Radiation maps of Jupiter's moon Europa—key to future missions

New comprehensive mapping of the radiation pummeling Jupiter's icy moon Europa reveals where scientists should look—and how deep they'll have to go—when searching for signs of habitability and biosignatures.

Twenty years of planetary defense

On March 11, 1998, asteroid astronomers around the world received an ominous message: new observational data on the recently discovered asteroid 1997 XF11 suggested there was a chance that the half-mile-wide (nearly one kilometer) object could hit Earth in 2028.

Scientists revise the Rio Scale for reported alien encounters

A team of international researchers, led by scientists from the University of St Andrews and the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, redefines alien detection scale.

Is Mars' soil too dry to sustain life?

Life as we know it needs water to thrive. Even so, we see life persist in the driest environments on Earth. But how dry is too dry? At what point is an environment too extreme for even microorganisms, the smallest and often most resilient of lifeforms, to survive? These questions are important to scientists searching for life beyond Earth, including on the planet Mars. To help answer this question, a research team from NASA's Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley traveled to the driest place on Earth: the Atacama Desert in Chile, a 1000 kilometer strip of land on South America's west coast.

Where Martian dust comes from

The dust that coats much of the surface of Mars originates largely from a single thousand-kilometer-long geological formation near the Red Planet's equator, scientists have found.

Mars making closest approach to Earth in 15 years

Now's the time to catch Mars in the night sky.

Young galaxy's halo offers clues to its growth and evolution

A team of astronomers has discovered a new way to unlock the mysteries of how the first galaxies formed and evolved.

What's your idea to 3-D print on the moon – to make it feel like home?

A new ESA-led project is investigating the ways that 3-D printing could be used to create and run a habitat on the Moon. Everything from building materials to solar panels, equipment and tools to clothes, even nutrients and food ingredients can potentially be 3-D printed. But if you were headed to the Moon, what would you want to 3-D print, to turn a lunar base into a place that feels like home? Tell us your idea, to win a chance of actually getting it printed.

NASA's 'space botanist' gathers first data

Just days after its successful installation on the International Space Station, NASA's newest Earth-observing mission, the ECOsystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS), has collected its first science data on Earth's surface temperature.

NASA launches X-ray telescope on sounding rocket to study star wreckage

NASA launched a prototype telescope and instrument to observe the X-rays emitted by Cassiopeia A, the expanding debris of an exploded star. The High-Resolution Microcalorimeter X-ray Imaging Rocket (Micro-X) launched July 22 aboard a sub-orbital launch vehicle called a sounding rocket and successfully tested its detector technology.

FACT CHECK: Trump's made-in-US (and Europe) spacecraft

One of the star products of President Donald Trump's Made in America showcase this year, NASA's Orion crew capsule, will ride through space thanks to Europe.

Technology news

Using machine learning to detect software vulnerabilities

A team of researchers from R&D company Draper and Boston University developed a new large-scale vulnerability detection system using machine learning algorithms, which could help to discover software vulnerabilities faster and more efficiently.

Team lands new efficiency breakthrough for emerging solar cell material

UNSW solar energy researcher and Scientia Fellow Dr. Xiaojing Hao and her team have achieved two energy efficiency world records for the solar cell material of the future, sulfide kesterite.

Liquid microscopy technique reveals new problem with lithium-oxygen batteries

Using an advanced, new microscopy technique that can visualize chemical reactions occurring in liquid environments, researchers have discovered a new reason lithium-oxygen batteries—which promise up to five times more energy than the lithium-ion batteries that power electric vehicles and cell phones—tend to slow down and die after just a few charge/discharge cycles. They report their findings in the journal Nano Energy.

Apps make it easy for domestic abusers to spy

Thousands of apps that allow domestic abusers to secretly spy on their partners are simple to install, difficult to detect, and marketed through a murky web of online advertising, blogs and videos explaining how to use them for illegal purposes, according to a study led by Cornell researchers.

New video game teaches teens about electricity

A new video game, designed by researchers at the University of Cambridge, gives teenagers an understanding of electricity by solving a series of puzzles in a bid to encourage more of them to study engineering at university.

Qualcomm is packaging up 5G phones with antenna modules announcement

Qualcomm Technologies on Monday unveiled "the world's first fully-integrated 5G NR millimeter wave (mmWave) and sub-6 GHz RF modules for smartphones and other mobile devices." Translation: The 5G party is for real and will get started sooner than later. Superfast smartphones are making real moves with the news on Monday that Qualcomm developed antenna technologies to power the 5G phones.

Google parent Alphabet sees record highs despite EU fine

Google parent Alphabet shares lifted Monday on a stronger-than-expected earnings report for the past quarter, as the tech giant's results eased concerns over huge fines imposed by the European Union for antitrust actions.

Printable solar cells a step closer with new design principles

Researchers have found out why new kinds of solar materials are so good at harvesting light – and have provided design rules for making them better.

A clever way to recover weather balloon radiosondes

The meteorological sensors carried into the upper atmosphere by weather balloons are often lost as they return to earth. As part of their Bachelor's project, five EPFL students worked on a system to recover this equipment.

Research team optimizing radiation detection by drone networks

Drones are increasingly important tools for law enforcement agencies. Among other uses, drones can be equipped with sensors to detect radioactive material that is illicitly transported.

This solar greenhouse could change the way we eat

Greenhouses have a long list of benefits: higher food production, less water use, potentially less pesticide use, a year-round growing season. There's a problem: they're expensive, both to install and to operate. But thanks to solar technology developed at UC Santa Cruz, greenhouses are enjoying a new moment in the sun.

A vicious online propaganda war that includes fake news is being waged in Zimbabwe

Fake news is on the upsurge as Zimbabwe gears up for its watershed elections on 30 July. Mobile internet and social media have become vehicles for spreading a mix of fake news, rumour, hatred, disinformation and misinformation. This has happened because there are no explicit official rules on the use of social media in an election.

Why does my phone battery die so fast?

Why do batteries die? And, why can they only be recharged so many times before they won't hold a useful amount of charge? My young son asked me about that years ago when his battery-powered toy car stopped moving, wondering about what he called an "everlasting battery." And this same question has probably crossed the mind of every cellphone user trying to send one last text before the screen blinks off.

Singapore may use drones to deliver medicine, for security

Drones could be used across hi-tech Singapore to deliver life-saving medical supplies to a patient during an emergency or to respond to a security breach under a new system in development, a private consortium said Tuesday.

Netflix effect: Cord-cutting accelerates in US market

US households are dropping their traditional pay TV packages at a faster rate than in the past amid a rise in streaming video services like Netflix, a survey showed Tuesday.

GM launches peer-to-peer car sharing service on rental platform

General Motors said Tuesday it was launching a peer-to-peer car rental service to allow owners to make money by listing them as shared vehicles.

Facebook sets up China subsidiary

Facebook has opened a subsidiary in mainland China, records show, a long-awaited step for the social networking giant and its Mandarin-speaking founder Mark Zuckerberg.

Netflix to open in Spain its first European production hub

Netflix says it's establishing in Spain its first content production hub on European soil as the online video entertainment platform tries to expand in different languages.

Uber resumes testing for autonomous cars in 'manual mode'

Uber said Tuesday it was taking the first step toward restarting its autonomous ridesharing program, putting its self-driving cars back on the road in "manual mode," with a driver at the wheel at all times.

UK Guardian group's digital revenues surpass print

The British newspaper group that owns The Guardian said Tuesday that its digital revenues had outstripped print for the first time.

Cord-cutting accelerates with millions more expected to leave pay TV for Netflix, Hulu, Amazon

More bad news for pay-TV providers: there's another sign that cord cutting—consumers departure from pay TV for broadband-delivered video—is accelerating.

Twitter curbs access for 143,000 apps in new crackdown

Twitter said Tuesday it had removed more than 143,000 apps from the messaging service since April in a fresh crackdown on "malicious" activity from automated accounts.

Chinese mobile phone tower operator plans $8.7B IPO

The state-owned monopoly that operates China's vast network of mobile phone towers plans to raise up to $8.7 billion in the biggest global stock offering in four years.

Harley-Davidson: no US sales hit from offshoring dustup

Harley-Davidson executives said Tuesday they had seen no US sales hit so far over its decision to relocate some American manufacturing overseas as it navigates amid trade conflicts.

Yelp expands efforts to add health inspection scores for restaurant reviews nationwide

Yelp is planning to bring more than just user-generated reviews to your screen.

Medicine & Health news

Abnormal gene copying seen in tauopathy fruit fly models

It sounds like science fiction: Nefarious genes clone themselves and settle their rogue copies in distant outposts of the galaxy (namely, our DNA), causing disease.

Host antibodies shape gut microbiome by changing bacteria gene expression

Researchers at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Science in Japan have discovered how antibodies secreted in the gut promote the growth of beneficial bacteria. Their study, which will be published July 24 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies can alter the expression of bacterial genes, allowing different bacterial species to cooperate with each other and form a community that can protect the body from disease.

Enzyme AEP's importance to immunity discovered

The importance of the enzyme AEP as a key regulatory of the immune system has been discovered in new research from Newcastle University, UK.

Diabetic-level glucose spikes seen in healthy people, study finds

A device that keeps extra-close tabs on the ups and downs of blood glucose levels reveals that most people see only a partial picture of the sugar circulating in their blood, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Study supports blood test to help diagnose brain injury

For the first time in the U.S., a blood test will be available to help doctors determine if people who've experienced a blow to the head could have a traumatic brain injury such as brain bleeding or bruising.

Decline in heat-related deaths in Spain despite rising summer temperatures

Summer temperatures in Spain have risen by more than 1ºC since 1980 due to climate change. Despite this increase, and contrary to expectations, deaths related to heat have declined rather than increased. This trend suggests that the Spanish population has been adapting to the change, reducing its vulnerability to summer temperatures.

Are neurological disorders the result of brain evolution mistakes?

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Australia has proposed that some neurological disorders might have their roots in evolutionary mistakes. In their paper published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, the group describes their ideas and possible paths of research moving forward.

Meditation affects brain networks differently in long-term meditators and novices

Mental training such as mindfulness meditation – an accepting awareness of the present moment – has been shown to alter networks in the brain and improve emotional and physical well-being. But researchers are still discovering how such practices change the brain and what differences exist between people who meditate regularly and those who do not.

Derivative of turmeric eye drops could treat glaucoma

A derivative of turmeric could be used in eye drops to treat the early stages of glaucoma, finds a new study led by UCL and Imperial College London researchers.

Link found between resilience to dyslexia and gray matter in the frontal brain

Dyslexia, a reading disorder, is characterized by a difficulty in "decoding"—navigating between the visual form and sounds of a written language. But a subset of dyslexic people, dubbed "resilient dyslexics," exhibit remarkably high levels of reading comprehension despite difficulties decoding. What is the precise mechanism that allows certain individuals with dyslexia to overcome their low decoding abilities and ultimately extract meaning from text?

Widespread connections among neurons help the brain distinguish smells

Can you tell the smell of a rose from the scent of a lilac? If so, you have your brain's piriform cortex to thank. Compared to many parts of the brain, the piriform cortex—which lets animals and humans process information about smells—looks like a messy jumble of connections between cells called neurons. Now, Salk Institute researchers have illuminated how the randomness of the piriform cortex is actually critical to how the brain distinguishes between similar odors.

Blood test can predict optimal treatment for advanced prostate cancer, study finds

An international collaborative study between Lawson Health Research Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, the Royal Marsden and Epic Sciences is one of the first to demonstrate that a blood test can predict how patients with advanced prostate cancer will respond to specific treatments, leading to improved survival.

Researchers characterize 'mutational burden' of human induced pluripotent stem cells

The therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are capable of becoming almost any type of cell in the human body, is well-recognized and broadly pursued, but their mutational burden has not been fully characterized yet.

Unless we spot changes, most life experiences are fabricated from memories

We may not be able to change recent events in our lives, but how well we remember them plays a key role in how our brains model what's happening in the present and predict what is likely to occur in the future, finds new research in the Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.

Amateur weight-lifter develops heart disease after using powerful combination steroid

An amateur weight-lifter developed a serious heart condition after using a powerful combination (anabolic-androgenic) steroid, reveal doctors, writing in the journal BMJ Case Reports.

Standardized stroke protocol can ensure ELVO stroke patients are treated within 60 minutes

A new study shows that developing a standardized stroke protocol of having neurointerventional teams meet suspected emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) stroke patients upon their arrival at the hospital achieves a median door-to-recanalization time of less than 60 minutes. The study was presented at the Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery's (SNIS) 15th Annual Meeting.

Research shows a promising new class of antibodies protects against HIV-1 infection

A group of scientists at Texas Biomedical Research Institute have zeroed in on a new defense against HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS. Led by Ruth Ruprecht, M.D., Ph.D., the team used an animal model to show for the first time that an antibody called Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was effective in preventing infection after mucosal AIDS virus exposure. Worldwide, an estimated 90% of new cases of HIV-1 are caused through exposure in the mucosal cavities like the inside lining of the rectum or vagina.

Flare-up of Ebola infection in a case a year after initial infection highlights need for continued surveillance

Ebola virus may have re-emerged in a woman a year after she survived an acute Ebola virus infection, potentially leading to the infection of her husband and two of their sons, according to an outbreak report of the last known cluster of infections from a source within Liberia (occurring in November 2015), published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases journal.

Few young women with PID screened for HIV or syphilis in emergency departments

WASHINGTON-Although women who have pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are at heightened risk for also being infected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), few adolescent females diagnosed with PID in the nation's pediatric emergency departments (ED) undergo laboratory tests for HIV or syphilis, according to a retrospective cohort study published online July 24, 2018, in Pediatrics.

High-throughput flow cytometry in drug discovery

A new special issue of SLAS Discovery reflects examples of the recent groundswell of creative new applications for high-throughput flow cytometry (HTFC) in drug discovery.

Accredited bariatric center reduces postop complications while increasing surgical volume

An academic medical center's weight-loss surgery program greatly lowered its rates of several postoperative complications, including rehospitalization in the first month, surgical site and urinary tract infections, and bleeding, despite almost doubling its surgical volume over five years. Results of this multiyear quality improvement project were presented today at the American College of Surgeons (ACS) 2018 Quality and Safety Conference.

Two quality improvement programs lead to fewer postoperative complications

Two presurgery checklists from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) Strong for Surgery (S4S) program that incorporate best practices for engaging patients in preparing for their upcoming operations significantly improved lifestyle factors that pose an increased risk for postoperative complications or help support healing and postoperative recovery.

Hip fracture patients recover from operations faster with enhanced care recovery program

The use of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) approach for hip fracture operations allows patients to return home faster and get back to normal activities sooner, according to new findings presented today by researchers at the American College of Surgeons 2018 Quality and Safety Conference.

First randomised trial of 'kick and kill' approach to HIV cure leaves puzzles to be solved

Researchers have reported the results of the first randomised clinical trial to test a novel strategy involving waking up and then killing the 'sleeping' HIV that is hiding in the body using an experimental approach known as 'kick and kill'.

New research focuses on treating non-cognitive symptoms of people with dementia

New research presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2018 in Chicago focuses on the recent successes and ongoing challenges of drug and non-drug treatments for the non-cognitive symptoms experienced by people living with Alzheimer's dementia.

Opioid pills for a simple sprained ankle? It's a thing in some states, researchers find

Opioid prescribing for minor injuries—for which such powerful pain medications may not even be necessary—remains high and varies widely by state, despite an overall downward trend in prescribing, according to new research by the University of Pennsylvania.

New guidelines for treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults

The International Antiviral Society-USA Panel has released updated recommendations for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection in adults, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Michael Saag, M.D., director of the University of Alabama at Birmingham's Center for AIDS Research, served as the article's lead author.

Sepsis kills. Prompt care saves kids' lives

More than one in 10 children hospitalized with sepsis die, but when a series of clinical treatments and tests is completed within an hour of its detection, the chances of survival increase considerably, according to a new analysis led by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Estimated prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders is nearly 1 in 8 among children in India

Almost one in eight children aged 2-9 years living in India may have at least one neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), according to prevalence estimates published this week in PLOS Medicine. The study, conducted by Narendra K Arora of the INCLEN Trust International, New Delhi, India, and colleagues, partially addresses the lack of robust evidence regarding burden and risk factors for NDD in India.

Living systematic review describes the epidemiology of sexual transmission of Zika virus

Zika virus (ZIKV) may be sexually transmissible for a shorter period than previously estimated, according to a systematic review published this week in PLOS Medicine by Michel Counotte and Nicola Low of the University of Bern in Switzerland, and colleagues. The review included analysis of data from both human and animal studies and was conducted to describe the epidemiology of sexual transmission of ZIKV.

Researchers team up to fight common viral infection in kidney transplant recipients

Stanford researchers have joined forces to learn how immune cells in some kidney transplant patients fight a common virus. The work could lead to a test to predict who is at risk, and possibly develop new treatments.

Antipsychotics may prove effective in killing drug-resistant cancer cells

Two current drugs used to treat psychosis and depression showed anti-cancer activity in mice by blocking the movement of cholesterol within drug-resistant cancer cells, according to Penn State Cancer Institute researchers.

New study finds short- and long-term depressive symptoms associated with cardiovascular disease

Short- and long-term depressive symptoms can predict the occurrence of cardiovascular events, according to a new study by University of Maine researchers. In addition, short-term or baseline depressive symptoms increase risk for cardiovascular events for up to 15 years, and chronic depressive symptoms for up to 10 years.

Learning arithmetic refines the primal brain system for representing quantity

A wildebeest knows when it is outnumbered by a pack of hungry hyenas, thanks to an imprecise, primal brain function called the Approximate Number System, or ANS. Animals have it and human babies are born with it. Scientists have long believed that human's ability to solve symbolic math problems such as 3+2=5 depended on the precision of one's ANS.

Diabetes risk higher among LGBQ teens than heterosexual teens, study finds

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and questioning youth are more likely to develop Type 2 diabetes, be obese and engage in less physical activity and more sedentary activities than heterosexual youth, a new Northwestern Medicine study has found.

Heritable genome editing could become 'morally permissible'

An independent inquiry led by Nuffield Council on Bioethics, involving UCL, has concluded that editing the DNA of a human embryo, sperm, or egg to influence the characteristics of a future person ('heritable genome editing') could be "morally permissible".

4 in 5 adolescent girls have a mental health disorder following sexual assault

Eighty percent of young women were found to have a mental health disorder and 55 percent had two or more mental health disorders four to five months after sexual assault, according to a study led by UCL and The Havens, London's specialist sexual assault referral centres (SARCs) hosted by King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Brexit food security risks assessed in new report

Leading food policy specialists have assessed the food security risks of Brexit in a new report.

New database launches in a bid to develop new drugs in the fight against antimicrobial resistance

A new and first of its kind database has been launched listing compounds that could be used to develop new antibiotics in a bid to tackle the global issue of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

How digital tools are revolutionising patient care

Imagine you've recently had a heart attack.

Study finds 56 suspect chemicals in average pregnant woman

Each year, tens of thousands of chemicals are manufactured in or imported into the United States—more than 30,000 pounds of industrial chemicals for every American—yet experts know very little about which chemicals may enter people's bodies, or how these substances affect human health.

Early detection vital in minimising gastroenteritis outbreaks

Research from Massey University suggests the timely identification, notification, and rapid implementation of control measures to combat gastroenteritis outbreaks will limit its impact and duration, especially in aged care facilities among those most vulnerable.

Urban food pantries – an unreliable resource for the food insecure

In 2016, over 15.6 million U.S. households experienced food insecurity at some point, meaning at least one member of the household had limited access to adequate food due to lack of money or other resources. For those who are food insecure, food pantries can be a vital resource for accessing food and meeting basic nutritional requirements. Pantries usually receive food and drink from food banks – large non-profit organizations that purchase, collect, and store foods from a variety of sources such as manufacturers, wholesalers, and government agencies, which they then distribute to families in need. While food banks may provide some central organization for pantries, the pantries themselves operate individually. Each pantry can set their own standards about who they serve, how they serve, and what they make available to their food-insecure clients. This variability in operational standards can lead to differences in access to food across pantries.

U.S. support of formula over breastfeeding is a race issue

When the United States threatened Ecuador with trade and aid restrictions if it did not withdraw a World Health Assembly breastfeeding promotion resolution that most people considered benign, if not banal, reactions ranged from shocked to amused.

New technology will fight infectious diseases by outing fake diagnostic tests

Some shady people are profiting from making fake tests to diagnose disease like malaria or HIV. Now new technology is providing a level of protection.

How media coverage of Trump's cognitive exam may have compromised test itself

University of Toronto researchers are warning the medical community that a popular cognitive test may be compromised due to the extensive publicity it received after U.S. President Donald Trump took it.

Emergency medicine professor offers tips for dealing with hogweed exposure

While the presence of giant hogweed has been confirmed in multiple Virginia locations, experts at Virginia Tech say there is no evidence the dangerous weed with toxic sap is spreading widely.

Broken brains and network structures

Sometimes a disease is the handiwork of a clear culprit: the invasion of a bacterium, or the mutation of a gene. Conventionally, scientists have assumed the same for neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, and zoom in on the brain to look for potential localized causes, such as particular molecules or genes. For example, they've found that the brains of Alzheimer's patients contain proteins that have folded in the wrong way.

Recent antibiotic use linked to thicker arteries in early childhood

Recent antibiotic use in young children may be linked to increased cardiovascular risk, according to a joint study between Utrecht Academic Medical Centre in The Netherlands and Murdoch Children's Research Institute (MCRI) in Melbourne.

Why we should call time on airport drinking

As the alcohol industry continues to make healthy profits, Britain is left counting the increasing cost of its unhealthy relationship with booze. From overstretched accident and emergency departments to a steady incidence of alcohol-related disease, the cost is massive. The most recent figures reveal that alcohol-related harms cost the NHS around £3.5 billion annually.

Summer norovirus outbreak could lead to a winter crisis

Apparently there is a bug going around. Local and national press are reporting unusually high numbers of people suffering with diarrhoea and vomiting in Britain this summer. The reports suggest that this is a short-lived illness, with a sudden onset, but nonetheless very unpleasant.

Medical cannabis users could still be criminalised in UK despite government accepting its benefits

Cannabis is high on the agenda at the moment. Not only have California and Canada passed new laws to legalise marijuana, but in the UK, two recent high profile medical cases have forced the issue of medical cannabis right up to government level.

Could a mobile app help postnatal depression patients stay in treatment?

A University of Portsmouth researcher has designed an app to help women with postnatal depression stay on track with their treatment and access support from friends and family.

Common painkillers triple harmful side effects in dementia

Researchers from the University of Exeter, King's College London and the University of Bergen are presenting two studies at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference 2018 (AAIC) highlighting a significant increase in harmful side effects related to the use of commonly prescribed opioid painkillers in people with dementia, compared to those on a placebo. Researchers also identified a mechanism that may be causing the problem.

Protein discovery may explain why patients develop resistance to new anti-cancer drugs

A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has identified a protein complex that might explain why some cancer patients treated with the revolutionary new anti-cancer drugs known as PARP inhibitors develop resistance to their medication.

FDA approves tibsovo for acute myeloid leukemia

(HealthDay)—Tibsovo (ivosidenib) tablets have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among people with a defective IDH1 gene.

Salmonella spurs recall of Ritz crackers

(HealthDay)—A number of Ritz Crackers products are being recalled due to possible Salmonella risk, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Walmart generic drug discounts often offer more patient savings

(HealthDay)—Walmart's Generic Drug Discount Program (GDDP), which sells many commonly used generic medications for $4 per 30-day supply, offers savings over Medicare for some generic cardiovascular medications, according to a research letter published online July 24 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

Monthly vitamin D supplement may not cut cancer risk

(HealthDay)—Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation may not prevent the risk of cancer among adults aged 50 to 84 years, according to a study published online July 19 in JAMA Oncology.

Medical organizations must address sexual harassment

(HealthDay)—Medical institutions and organizations need to ensure there are proactive interventions to transform the workplace in order to address sexual harassment and discrimination, according to an article published in the American Medical Association's AMA Wire.

The right lighting can calm Alzheimer's patients

(HealthDay)—Lighting that mimics natural night-day patterns might improve sleep and mood problems for Alzheimer's patients living in nursing homes, new research suggests.

For dieters, more protein equals more satisfaction

(HealthDay)—If you feel less than satisfied on a restricted-calorie diet, a protein boost just might be the answer.

Scientists report setbacks in quest for AIDS cure

Scientists reported setbacks Tuesday in the quest for an AIDS cure, and highlighted concerns about inconclusive evidence linking a promising new HIV drug to birth defects.

Doctors: Woman likely spread Ebola a year after infection

A Liberian woman who probably caught Ebola in 2014 may have infected three relatives a year after she first fell sick, doctors reported in a study published Monday.

Changes in bacterial mix linked to antibiotics increase risk for type 1 diabetes

A single course of antibiotics early in childhood may increase risk for Type 1 diabetes. This is the finding of a study in mice led by researchers from NYU Medical School and published online July 24 in the journal eLife.

Depression and antidepressants are associated with an increased risk of VTE

In the first review of its kind, new research has found that depression and the use of antidepressants are each associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The study led by academics from the Musculoskeletal Research Unit at the University of Bristol has also shown that each of the various classes of antidepressant medications are associated with an increased risk of VTE.

Study explores risk factors linked to chikungunya and dengue outbreaks

In one of the largest studies of its kind, researchers analyzed chikungunya and dengue outbreak data from 76 countries over a period of 50 years, focusing on regions across the Indian Ocean that are hard hit by these and other mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

Could pot-linked drug help ease agitation in Alzheimer's?

(HealthDay)—The active ingredient in pot that gets you high can calm agitation in people with advanced Alzheimer's disease, a small new study suggests.

FDA warns against risks of contaminated synthetic cannabis

(HealthDay)—Users of synthetic marijuana products and health care providers should be aware of the risk of bleeding associated with contamination of synthetic cannabinoid products with brodifacoum, according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Few HIV tests given to black men who have sex with men in south

(HealthDay)—Few HIV tests in the southern United States are provided for black men who have sex with men (MSM) even though they account for a substantial percentage of new diagnoses, according to research published in the July 20 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Details of Montreal Cognitive Assessment widely publicized

(HealthDay)—Many published news articles included details of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in association with President Trump, some of which invited readers to self-administer the test, according to a research letter published online July 16 in JAMA Neurology.

Poor outcomes for prefrail/frail at risk of malnutrition

(HealthDay)—Prefrail/frail seniors at risk of malnutrition have poor health outcomes and increased mortality, according to a study published online July 13 in JAMA Network Open.

Embezzlement not uncommon in medical practices

(HealthDay)—Embezzlement occurs frequently in medical practices and steps should be taken to prevent it, according to an article published in Medical Economics.

Guidelines conflict for long-term opioid therapy in cancer survivors

(HealthDay)—Evidence is lacking about the need for and outcomes of long-term opioid therapy in cancer survivors, and contemporary guidelines offer conflicting recommendations, according to a viewpoint article recently published online in JAMA Oncology.

CDC: More people with high cholesterol taking medications

(HealthDay)—There has been a substantial increase in the percentage of patients with high cholesterol over age 60 years taking lipid-lowering medications from 2005 to 2016, but such increases have not been seen among younger patients with high cholesterol, according to a QuickStats report published in the July 13 issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Portable sleep monitoring accurate in heart failure patients

(HealthDay)—For patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure, portable sleep monitoring with respiratory polygraphy can accurately diagnose sleep apnea, according to a study published in the July issue of CHEST.

Having more kids tied to lower odds of Alzheimer's in women

(HealthDay)—A woman's fertility might help predict how likely she is to develop dementia later in life, two new studies suggest.

Surge for kids' vaccines in Hong Kong after China scandal

Hong Kong clinics said they have seen a surge in demand for children's vaccines Tuesday after a safety scandal rocked mainland China.

AIDS drugs show more promise for preventing new infections

New research shows more promise for using AIDS treatment drugs as a prevention tool, to help keep uninfected people from catching HIV during sex with a partner who has the virus.

4 types of Goldfish Crackers recalled, salmonella fears

Pepperidge Farm is voluntarily recalling four varieties of Goldfish Crackers because of fears they could potentially have salmonella.

FDA approves new pill to reduce pain from endometriosis

A new treatment for pain caused by endometriosis was approved Tuesday by U.S. regulators.

Ebola contained by 'complex' rapid response, not just vaccine: WHO

The World Health Organization has a message for those trying to understand how the latest Ebola outbreak was contained so quickly: don't give the new vaccine all the credit.

Alcohol, tobacco consumption tied to cancer mortality

(HealthDay)—Alcohol consumption per capita is positively associated with overall cancer mortality among older men and women over a 20-year period, according to a study published online July 13 in JAMA Network Open.

Reproductive, hormonal factors tied to knee OA in women

(HealthDay)—Female reproductive and hormonal factors are associated with incidence of knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to a study published in the July issue of Arthritis & Rheumatology.

Infection prevention staffing needs may be underestimated

(HealthDay)—A comprehensive assessment of health care organization composition and structure is necessary before determining infection preventionist (IP) staffing needs, according to a study published recently in the American Journal of Infection Control.

Child health concerns related to use of food additives

(HealthDay)—Regulatory changes are needed to address child health concerns related to the use of food additives, according to a policy statement published online July 23 in Pediatrics.

HPV vaccine eliminates advanced skin cancer in 97-year-old

(HealthDay)—The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine could be a therapeutic option for patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma when surgical management is not an option, according to a case report published online July 3 in JAMA Dermatology.

VA MISSION act may up costs, lower vet health care quality

(HealthDay)—The Veterans Affairs Maintaining Internal Systems and Strengthening Integrated Outside Networks (VA MISSION) Act may increase costs and reduce quality of health care for veterans, according to an Ideas and Opinions piece published online July 24 in the Annals of Internal Medicine.

FDA grants first approval for CA drug under new pilot programs

(HealthDay)—The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved ribociclib (Kisqali) in combination with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) as an initial endocrine-based therapy for the treatment of pre/perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

Sulfonylureas as 2nd-line T2DM therapy tied to higher event risk

(HealthDay)—Sulfonylureas as second-line drugs for type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and hypoglycemic events compared with remaining on metformin monotherapy or adding to metformin therapy, according to a study published online July 18 in The BMJ.

Skin's immune 'alarm' may explain light-induced rashes in lupus patients

Imagine being so sensitive to the sun's rays that you're forced to either slather yourself in sunscreen or risk a rash so severe it could leave permanent scars.

Intestinal virus study shows major changes associated with inflammatory bowel disease

Unexpected patterns emerged in the microbial and viral communities of mice with intestinal inflammation during a study that examined the intestinal tracts of diseased and healthy mice. Spearheaded by researchers at North Carolina State University, the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and the University of Colorado, the study could lead to better understanding of potential causes and markers of inflammatory bowel disease.

Omega-3s help keep kids out of trouble, study says

Something as simple as a dietary supplement could reduce disruptive, even abusive behavior, according to newly released research by a team led by a UMass Lowell criminal justice professor.

New study finds police-related fatalities may occur twice as often as reported

According to a new study led by a Cornell University researchers, an average of nearly three men in the United States are killed by police use of deadly force every day. This accounts for 8 percent of all homicides with adult male victims—twice as many as identified in official statistics.

Dutch halt Viagra in pregnancy trial after 11 babies die

Dutch doctors and scientists have halted a ground-breaking study into using Viagra to help pregnant women whose babies were not growing properly in the womb after 11 infants died.

Advances along the gut-liver-brain axis in Alzheimer's disease

Four new studies reported at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2018 in Chicago investigated how the digestive system, including gut and liver functions, may be related to changes in the brain, and to brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and other dementias.

Alzheimer's disease risk impacted by the liver, diet

CHICAGO -Reduced levels of plasmalogens—a class of lipids created in the liver that are integral to cell membranes in the brain—are associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's Disease, according to new research presented this week at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference (AAIC) 2018 by Mitchel A. Kling, MD, an associate professor of Psychiatry in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

Fitness trackers prove helpful in monitoring cancer patients

Fitness trackers can be valuable tools for assessing the quality of life and daily functioning of cancer patients during treatment, a new study has found. The trackers, also known as wearable activity monitors, include commercial devices worn on the wrist that log a wearer's step counts, stairs climbed, calories, heart rate and sleep.

Intractable hiccups may be more common than we think

Everyone gets hiccups, but some people suffer intractable hiccups that last longer than a month, according to two Loyola Medicine neurologists.

Q&A: Over-the-counter remedies usually can control teen acne

Q: My teenage daughter's hair has become oily over the past couple of months, and it's causing a lot of small pimples in her hairline and on her forehead. What could cause this change in her hair—it was always on the dry side until recently—and what's the best way to treat acne on the scalp?

Florida company hunts cure for Alzheimer's disease

More than three decades ago, when Dr. Kiminobu Sugaya was a young scientist in Japan, he made a calculation: If he became a neurosurgeon, treated as many as 200 patients each year and practiced for 20 years, he would improve the lives of about 4,000 people. Only 4,000 people, he thought.

Media devices do not cause ADHD, researcher says

Florida International University Psychologist Margaret Sibley says there is no evidence media devices cause ADHD, despite a recent study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association that says otherwise.

Treating depression may prevent repeat heart attack

(HealthDay)—It's common for heart attack survivors to develop depression. Now a new trial has found that antidepressant treatment may help those patients avoid a second heart attack.

A new model to estimate lifetime risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality and also contributes to huge health care expenditures in China. Therefore, accurate and early identification of high-risk individuals is important for CVD prevention. The China-PAR (Prediction for atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) Risk in China) project generated equations with excellent capacity to predict lifetime risk for ASCVD by incorporating four large and ongoing cohorts followed up until 2015 with 106,281 Chinese participants, according to a new study published by Science Bulletin.

Three new Guinea worm cases found in setback for South Sudan

Three new cases of Guinea worm have been discovered in South Sudan, setting the country back in its efforts to eradicate the debilitating disease.

Congo confirms end of latest deadly Ebola outbreak

Congo's latest outbreak of the deadly Ebola virus is over, the health ministry announced Tuesday, after a speedy response to limit its spread in remote rural areas and a city of more than 1 million people.

Drugmaker Lilly plans IPO for part of animal health business

Eli Lilly is planning an initial public offering for part of an animal health business that brought in about 13 percent of all company revenue last year.

Viral post inflames public anger in China vaccine scandal

China's newest product safety scare burst onto the public consciousness when an obscure essay alleging corruption in the pharmaceutical industry become an internet sensation, exposing widespread anger and distrust after a string of scandals.

China's persistent food and drug safety problem

Chinese authorities are scrambling to defuse public outrage over a safety scandal involving rabies vaccines, just one of a string of food and drug scares to hit the country in recent years.

Biology news

Bats harbor a gene swiped from an ancient Ebola-like virus—here's how they may use it

Some 18 million years ago, an ancestor of mouse-eared bats "stole" genetic material from an ancient virus related to Ebola.

Scientists warn that proposed US-Mexico border wall threatens biodiversity, conservation

Borderlands are synonymous with desolation, but the Mexico-U.S. divide is something altogether different. The nearly 2,000-mile-long border traverses some of the continent's most biologically diverse regions, including forests, grasslands and salt marshes—home to more than 1,500 native animal and plant species, according to an analysis published in BioScience on July 24.

Antibiotic resistance in a leech's gut: Even trace amounts of antibiotics boost resistant bacteria

Plastic surgery patients were getting infections with antibiotic resistant bacteria, and no one knew why. UConn microbiologists found the answer in a leech's gut. Their research, published today in mBio, provides proof that tiny levels of antibiotics found in the environment can encourage bacterial resistance.

Possible breakthrough in understanding how antibiotics treat bacteria

Scientists from Newcastle University and the UK's ISIS Neutron and Muon research facility have worked together on a new project that is increasing our understanding of how antibiotics treat bacteria.

Unwrapping the brewing secrets of barley

University of Adelaide researchers have uncovered fundamental new information about the malting characteristics of barley grains. They say their finding could pave the way to more stable brewing processes or new malts for craft brewers.

Bacteria 'translator' allows bugs to talk to each other for first time

Scientists have designed a type of translator that allows different types of bacteria to 'talk' to each other.

Population declines of mammals and birds linked to rapid warming of climate

The rate at which our planet is warming has been found to be a critical factor in explaining the decline of bird and mammal species, reveals new research by UCL and ZSL (Zoological Society of London). 

Study of genetic relationships in grasshopper family Acrididae points to South American origin

Grasshoppers are one of the most ubiquitous groups of insects in the world, found everywhere from grasslands to tropical rainforests to isolated mountain ranges to sandy deserts. And now, thanks to a decade-long analysis of grasshoppers' genetic relationships, scientists have the clearest picture yet of the evolutionary pathways grasshoppers have followed to attain such diversity—and the findings put the birthplace of the broadest lineage of grasshoppers in South America, not Africa, as previously thought.

What would your dog do to help if you were upset? Quite a bit, study finds

Dogs are thought to be very aware of people's emotions, but if a pup's owner was really upset, would it actually go out of its way to offer help and comfort?

Satellite tracking reveals Philippine waters are important for endangered whale sharks

A new scientific study published in PeerJ—the Journal of Life and Environmental Sciences has tracked juvenile whale sharks across the Philippines emphasising the importance of the archipelago for the species. The study is the most complete tracking study of whale sharks in the country, with satellite tags deployed on different individuals in multiple sites.

Environment key battle ground in fight to tackle antibiotic resistance

The environment could be as important a battle ground as the clinic in the global fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance, new research has shown.

Study shows fin trade still trafficking in threatened sharks

Genetic analysis of 9,200 shark fin by-products in Hong Kong reveals that several threatened shark species are still common in the fin trade after being listed on the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Hong Kong is one of the world's largest importers of shark fins, which are used to make the delicacy shark fin soup. The study, published in Conservation Letters , is the first assessment of the species composition of the fin trade after CITES regulations were put in place for commercially important shark species. The paper's lead author is Diego Cardeñosa, a Ph.D. student in the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (SoMAS) at Stony Brook University.

Could anti-speciesism and veganism form the basis for a rational society?

Anti-speciesism and veganism are presented today as projects for society as a whole. Several political parties have even recently structured themselves under this banner, such as DierAnimal in Belgium and Rassemblement des écologistes pour le vivant in France. For an ethical system to become more than just a simple mind game and instead a social project, it must at the very least not be built on a manifest denial of reality. It must be concretely applicable.

Western Australia researcher discovers a new species of sunfish

How social media and books about mythical creatures helped a WA researcher track the world's heaviest bony fish.

Designer molecule kills malarial parasites

A research team from ANU and The University of Queensland has designed and made a molecule derived from a human protein that kills the parasite which causes malaria.

Understanding insects

Salt may play a key role in thriving grasshopper, locust and other bug populations that can cause close to a billion dollars in damage to crops annually when left unchecked, according to new research led by University of Dayton ecologist Chelse Prather.

Redefining 'small-scale' fishing to support English fisheries

Researchers at the University of York are calling for a re-evaluation of the definition of 'small-scale' fishing vessels, following a study that shows the impact of these vessels are underestimated.

Bin the bug spray: Study shows EU pesticide ban failing to protect suburban bees

Bees living in suburban habitats are still being exposed to significant levels of pesticides despite the EU ban on the use of neonicotinoid pesticides on flowering crops, new research from University of Sussex scientists shows.

New research collection targets insect pests of pulse crops

Around the world, pulse crops—such as beans, peas, chickpeas, and lentils—are an important staple in the modern food supply, and their cultivation is growing in the United States and many other Western countries. As in any agricultural system, though, pulse crops can fall victim to a wide range of insect pests.

Bad dogs die young, many from euthanasia, British study says

Bad dogs tend to die young, according to a British study that says aggression, excessive barking and disobedience are among behaviors that can doom canine pets to an early demise.

Endangered whale seen off Iceland, 3rd there in 30 years

A New England ocean science center says whale watchers off Iceland caught an extremely rare glimpse of an endangered right whale near their country.

'Killer' wasps, giant spiders critters that won't kill you but look like they might

They are the stuff of nightmares—huge, creepy, crawling (and flying) bugs—and this is the time of year when you'll find them in large numbers.

This email is a free service of Science X Network
You received this email because you subscribed to our list.
If you do not wish to receive such emails in the future, please unsubscribe here.
You are subscribed as jmabs1@gmail.com. You may manage your subscription options from your Science X profile


No comments: