Tuesday, June 5, 2018

Science X Newsletter Tuesday, Jun 5

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for June 5, 2018:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Quantum stopwatch stores time in a quantum memory

Researchers repair acute spinal cord injury in monkeys

Male guppies grow larger brains in response to predator exposure—but not females

Alien apocalypse: Can any civilization make it through climate change?

Experimental drug restores some bladder function after spinal cord injury, study finds

I saw that. Brain mechanisms create confidence about things seen

Engineered cotton uses weed-suppression chemical as nutrient

Apple touts privacy features of new operating systems

Dogs can be a potential risk for future influenza pandemic

Microbubbles delivered via gas embolotherapy could provide a vehicle for cutting off blood supply and delivering drugs

Research reveals how Tau aggregates can contribute to cell death in Alzheimer's disease

Groundwater pumping can increase arsenic levels in irrigation and drinking water

Microbiome differences between urban and rural populations start soon after birth

Researchers engineer human bone marrow tissue

The role of cohesin in genome 3-D structure helps for a better understanding of tumor cells

Astronomy & Space news

Alien apocalypse: Can any civilization make it through climate change?

In the face of climate change, deforestation and biodiversity loss, creating a sustainable version of civilization is one of humanity's most urgent tasks. But when confronting this immense challenge, we rarely ask what may be the most pressing question of all: How do we know if sustainability is even possible? Astronomers have inventoried a sizable share of the universe's stars, galaxies, comets, and black holes. But are planets with sustainable civilizations also something the universe contains? Or does every civilization that may have arisen in the cosmos last only a few centuries before it falls to the climate change it triggers?

Saturn found to have noontime auroras

An international team of researchers has found that Saturn's fast rotation speed makes it possible for the planet to experience noontime auroras. In their paper published in the journal Nature Astronomy, the group describes the factors that lead to creation of auroras and how Saturn's appear to arise.

NASA chief in talks with companies about running ISS: report

The head of the US space agency is in talks with several global companies about taking over day-to-day operations at the International Space Station in the coming years, US media said on Tuesday.

Image: Layered deposits at the south pole of Mars

The ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter captured this view of part of the south polar ice cap on Mars on 13 May 2018.

NASA's Hi-C launches to study sun's corona

NASA and its partners launched a rocket-borne camera to the edge of space at 2:54 p.m. EST May 29, 2018, on its third flight to study the sun. The clarity of images returned is unprecedented and their analysis will provide scientists around the world with clues to one of the biggest questions in heliophysics – why the sun's atmosphere, or corona, is so much hotter than its surface.

Engineers solve excessive heat removal from NASA's Webb Telescope

How will NASA's James Webb Space Telescope shed the heat generated by its science instruments and their supporting electronics? To anyone who is not an engineer or scientist, the answer might be complex and "baffling," and it turns out the process is exactly that.

Space pioneer George von Tiesenhausen dies at Alabama home

Georg von Tiesenhausen, the last of the German rocket team that launched the U.S. space program, has died at his home in Alabama. He was 104.

Technology news

Apple touts privacy features of new operating systems

Apple on Monday unveiled new operating systems for its iPhones and computers with features designed to thwart the use of secret trackers to monitor people's online activities.

Algorithm provides networks with the most current information available while avoiding data congestion

For wireless networks that share time-sensitive information on the fly, it's not enough to transmit data quickly. That data also need to be fresh. Consider the many sensors in your car. While it may take less than a second for most sensors to transmit a data packet to a central processor, the age of that data may vary, depending on how frequently a sensor is relaying readings.

Pharmaceutical material shows promise for better grid-scale batteries

An organic molecule used in dyes and antibiotics may be the key to less expensive, more efficient redox flow batteries. Scientists at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a highly reversible, water soluble material based on phenazine. The compound could serve as an alternative to vanadium, which is used in grid-scale batteries to store electricity.

Your reaction to pics of Leonardo DiCaprio, animals could unlock your next smartphone

To overcome password fatigue, many smartphones include facial recognition, fingerprint scans and other biometric systems.

Researchers use artificial intelligence to identify, count, describe wild animals

A new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) reports how a cutting-edge artificial intelligence technique called deep learning can automatically identify, count and describe animals in their natural habitats.

Inkblot tests with AI: OMG, street stabbing? No, flower and flute

Learning what people see on their Rorschach tests (that psychological test where your perception of an inkblot is analyzed to examine personality and emotional functioning) is interesting.

Facebook music feature allows lip-sync of songs

Facebook users will be able to lip-sync live to their favorite tunes as the social media behemoth on Tuesday unveiled its first personalized features as part of licensing deals with music labels.

Team uses biomimicry of bats to help drones navigate in the dark, dust or smoke

To get drones to fly around complicated obstacles in the dark by themselves, University of Cincinnati researchers are turning to the pros.

New Facebook privacy furor: What's at stake?

Facebook is at the center of another privacy furor, this one over its sharing of user data with device makers such as Apple, Amazon, Samsung and others over the past decade

Washington state sues Google, Facebook over campaign ad data

Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson on Monday sued Google and Facebook, saying the companies failed to maintain information about political advertising as required by state law.

Microsoft embraces collaboration in $7.5B deal for GitHub

Microsoft is paying $7.5 billion for the popular coder hangout GitHub as the maker of Windows further embraces the types of open-source projects it used to shun.

Malaysia says over 350,000 cars yet to change Takata airbags

Malaysia's transport minister said Tuesday that the government will take an active role in recalls to replace flawed Takata air bags after data from eight car manufacturers showed that more than 350,000 car owners have not responded.

Germany's Continental bans WhatsApp from work phones

German car parts supplier Continental on Tuesday said it was banning the use of WhatsApp and Snapchat on work-issued mobile phones "with immediate effect" because of data protection concerns.

Team invents world's first nickel-hydroxide actuating material that can be triggered by both light and electricity

Over the past 30 years, researchers have studied actuating materials that can reversibly change their volume under various stimuli in order to develop micro- and biomimetic robots, artificial muscles and medical devices.

Experts build pulsed air rig to test 3-D printed parts for low carbon engines

Researchers designed a unique facility for testing 3-D printed engine parts, to help reduce carbon emissions worldwide. The new Transient Air System Rig (TASR) was designed and built by Dr. Aaron Costall and his team from Imperial College London's Department of Mechanical Engineering.

Maker of fearsome animal robots slowly emerges from stealth

It's never been clear whether robotics company Boston Dynamics is making killing machines, household helpers, or something else entirely.

Boston Dynamics' scary robot videos: Are they for real?

If you've ever watched a YouTube video of a Boston Dynamics robot , you probably remember it. But you may not know what the videos leave out.

Switch to e-cars will cost Germany 75,000 jobs: study

The growing use of electrified vehicles is expected to cost Germany's crucial car sector some 75,000 jobs by 2030, a study found Tuesday, with smaller auto parts suppliers set to be worst hit.

Unloved Airbus A380s to be stripped for parts

Two Airbus A380 superjumbos once flown by Singapore Airlines are to become the first of the iconic doubledeckers to be stripped for parts, after a German leasing firm failed to find a new operator for them.

Sex robots are already here, but are they healthy for humans?

World, meet Harmony. Completely artificial and programmed by computer chips, the somewhat lifelike sex robot is marketed by sex doll maker Realbotix for $15,000. According to The Guardian, she's equipped for intimate relations but is also "the perfect companion," Realbotix says—able to quote Shakespeare and remember your birthday.

'Of course' top job at Qatar Airways is held by a man: CEO

Qatar Airways' chief sparked disbelief Tuesday by saying his carrier was led by a man because "it is a very challenging position"—even as airline bosses admitted more women should be in top roles.

Personalised social engineering

Anybody can become the victim of a confidence trick, in the modern parlance they might succumb to social engineering. Through such illicit tools, a third party might gain access to the contents of one's hard drive, one's bank account, or even steal one's identity for nefarious purposes. Human behaviour and deception cut to the core of the modern hacker's approach to breaching so-called cyber security.

Google honors legendary marathoner Tom Longboat

Google is using its logo Monday to celebrate one of Canada's most renowned marathon runners.

UK hands Comcast advantage in Sky takeover tussle with Fox

Britain gave the edge Tuesday to US cable giant Comcast in a multi-billion-pound takeover battle with Rupert Murdoch's entertainment titan 21st Century Fox for pan-European TV group Sky.

New method enables high quality speech separation

People have a natural knack for focusing on what a single person is saying, even when there are competing conversations in the background or other distracting sounds. For instance, people can often make out what is being said by someone at a crowded restaurant, during a noisy party, or while viewing televised debates where multiple pundits are talking over one another. To date, being able to computationally—and accurately—mimic this natural human ability to isolate speech has been a difficult task.

Medicine & Health news

Researchers repair acute spinal cord injury in monkeys

Spinal cord injuries are among the most severe and difficult-to-treat medical conditions, usually resulting in permanent disability including loss of muscle function, sensation and autonomic functions. Medical research is now on the cusp of treating severe spinal cord injuries by inducing the repair of spinal nerves, and scientists have made strides in recent years with rodents and primates.

Experimental drug restores some bladder function after spinal cord injury, study finds

An experimental drug that blocks abnormal neural communication after spinal cord injury could one day be the key to improving quality of life by improving bladder function, new research suggests.

I saw that. Brain mechanisms create confidence about things seen

There's a long way to go before neuroscience can fathom the vastness of human consciousness, but researchers pushing that envelope have uncovered a mechanism that helps create a simple visual awareness. In a new study, they describe brain functions that give you confidence that you did see what you just saw.

Dogs can be a potential risk for future influenza pandemic

Dogs are a potential reservoir for a future influenza pandemic, according to a study published in the journal mBio. The study demonstrated that influenza virus can jump from pigs into canines and that influenza is becoming increasingly diverse in canines.

Research reveals how Tau aggregates can contribute to cell death in Alzheimer's disease

New evidence suggests a mechanism by which progressive accumulation of Tau protein in brain cells may lead to Alzheimer's disease. Scientists studied more than 600 human brains and fruit fly models of Alzheimer's disease and found the first evidence of a strong link between Tau protein within neurons and the activity of particular DNA sequences called transposable elements, which might trigger neurodegeneration. The study appears in the journal Cell Reports.

Microbiome differences between urban and rural populations start soon after birth

An analysis comparing the intestinal microbiomes of both infants and adults living in rural and urban areas of Nigeria has revealed that not only are there many differences in adults living in subsistence environments versus urban ones but also that these variations begin at a very young age. The study appears June 5 in the journal Cell Reports.

Researchers engineer human bone marrow tissue

Researchers have developed an artificial tissue in which human blood stem cells remain functional for a prolonged period of time. Scientists from the University of Basel, University Hospital Basel, and ETH Zurich have reported their findings in the scientific journal PNAS.

Study shows the impact of the 2008 financial crisis on healthcare varied between countries

A team of researchers from several institutions in Europe has conducted an analysis of healthcare quality levels across Europe during the 2008 financial crisis. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they describe the differences they found in level of care over the course of the crisis.

Bacterial conversations in cystic fibrosis

"A large part of my research is thinking about how bacteria communicate," says Sophie Darch. The postdoctoral researcher works with School of Biological Sciences Professor Marvin Whiteley, studying the social lives of bacteria.

Newly identified genetic markers classify previously undetermined glioblastoma tumors

Most glioblastoma tumors are marked by one or two broad mutation patterns, but about 20 percent of the lethal brain tumors have biomarkers that cannot be identified. 

Diabetes results from a breakdown of epigenetic control

Diabetes affects more than 400 million individuals worldwide. In what is becoming a paradigm shift, researchers have begun to find that the disease may result in part through pancreatic beta cells losing their functional identity and shutting down their ability to release the blood sugar-lowering hormone, insulin. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics in Freiburg find evidence for a new model underpinning this "de-differentiation". In addition to metabolic stress, Andrew Pospisilik and his team show that breakdown of an epigenetic barrier is required, and indeed sufficient, to drive de-differentiation. Patient data suggest a central role for such impaired epigenetic control in the development of the disease in humans. The new insights, especially relevant for patients sensitive to de-differentiation diagnostically, have strong therapeutic potential.

Neurons ripple while brains rest to lock in memories

Memories resonate in the mind even when it's not aware of processing them. New research from Rice University and Michigan Medicine takes a step toward understanding why these ripples hint at the bigger picture of how brains sort and store information.

Biomaterial particles educate immune system to accept transplanted islets

By instructing key immune system cells to accept transplanted insulin-producing islets, researchers have opened a potentially new pathway for treating type 1 diabetes. If the approach is ultimately successful in humans, it could allow type 1 diabetes to be treated without the long-term complications of immune system suppression.

Stunting cell 'antennae' could make cancer drugs work again

Scientists have uncovered a completely new way to make cancers sensitive to treatment—by targeting antenna-like structures on cells.

Researchers create first artificial human prion

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researchers have synthesized the first artificial human prion, a dramatic development in efforts to combat a devastating form of brain disease that has so far eluded treatment and a cure. The new findings are published in Nature Communications.

HIV study reveals new group of men at risk of infection

A group of men who may be underestimating their HIV risk has been identified in a new study.

'Miracle treatment' long-term success for babies with diabetes

Over a decade, Emma Matthews has progressed from fearing for her son's life every night to being safe in the knowledge that his diabetes is well managed thanks to the long-term success of "miracle treatment" tablets.

Regular exercise may be more beneficial for men than post-menopausal women

The blood vessels of middle-aged men and women adapt differently to regular exercise according to new research being presented today at the British Cardiovascular Society conference in Manchester.

Heart attack blood test sensitive enough to be used in portable device

A new blood test being developed to diagnose heart attacks could one day be carried out on a simple handheld device, giving a rapid diagnosis in A&E departments without the need for samples to be sent to a lab, according to new research presented today at the British Cardiovascular Society Conference in Manchester.

Cancer fighting effects of aspirin revealed in bowel tumor study

Researchers have shed light on how taking aspirin can help to stave off bowel cancer.

Sleep health and yoga intervention delivered in low-income communities improves sleep

Pilot study results indicate that a sleep and yoga intervention has promising effects on improving sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and sleep health behaviors.

Trauma from parents' youth linked to poorer health, asthma in their own children

Trauma experienced by a parent during childhood has long-reaching consequences—maybe even to the point of negatively impacting their own children's health, a new Drexel University study found.

Lighting intervention improves sleep and mood for Alzheimer's patients

A tailored lighting intervention in nursing homes can positively impact sleep, mood and behavior for patients with Alzheimer's disease, according to preliminary findings from a new study.

Medicaid expansion produces significant health benefits, study finds

The first peer-reviewed comprehensive analysis of the effects of Medicaid expansion paints a picture of significant improvements in various health outcomes consistent with the original goals of the Affordable Care Act, also known as Obamacare.

When it comes to school recess, a quality playground experience matters

Recess periods can offer physical, cognitive, social and emotional benefits to elementary school children, but those benefits are tied closely to the quality of the playground experience.

Light exposure during sleep may increase insulin resistance

According to preliminary results from a new study, nighttime light exposure during sleep may affect metabolic function. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that light exposure at night during sleep adversely impacts metabolic outcomes.

Clinical trials in a dish: A perspective on the coming revolution in drug development

A new SLAS Discovery article available now for free ahead-of-print, offers perspective from researchers at Coyne Scientific (Atlanta, GA) about Clinical Trials in a Dish (CTiD), a novel strategy that bridges preclinical testing and clinical trials.

Why are migraine patients skipping effective behavioral treatments?

Effective behavioral treatments for migraine are being eschewed by a significant number of sufferers, according to a new study led by headache researchers at NYU School of Medicine.

Want to cure disease? Repurpose the body's cells

If one part of the body breaks, can you just replace it with cells from another organ? That's the hope of stem cell scientists who are reprogramming cells to treat major conditions such as incontinence and heart failure.

New nanoparticles help to detect serious scarring of wounds

In developed countries alone, about 100 million patients form scars annually, arising from 80 million elective and trauma surgery operations. In Singapore, an estimated 400,000 people (one in 12 people undergoing procedures) develop scars each year due to surgery. Excessive scarring can dramatically affect a patient's quality of life, both physically and psychologically, as the scars can impede movement and activity, and can be painful when stretched. Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) and Northwestern University in the United States now report a new way of detecting when heavy wound scars are forming and providing doctors the chance to intervene.

Increased follow-up does not benefit colorectal cancer patients

Logically, it would seem that more follow-up testing of cancer patients must be better—but this is not the case for patients who undergo surgery for colorectal cancer. This is an important conclusion from a study in which 2,509 patients with colorectal cancer were offered two and five follow-up tests in the form of CT scans combined with a blood test spread over the first three years after the operation. The results have just been published in the scientific journal JAMA.

The four survival strategies of tumor cells in childhood cancer

Cancer cells in children tend to develop by following four main trajectories—and two of them are linked to relapse of the disease, according to a study led by Lund University in Sweden, now published in Nature Genetics. The four strategies can occur simultaneously in a single tumour.

Combination of patients and therapist's gender has impact on psychotherapy, including erotic feelings

Gender can have an influence on psychotherapy. This is backed up by the latest analysis and long-term research carried out by the director of the Psychotherapy and Counselling Science BA-degree programme at Karl Landsteiner University of Health Sciences in Krems (KL Krems). The results show that gender identity affects the emotions of both patients and therapists. This can give rise to specific dynamics in the therapeutic relationship, for instance in terms of power, and can also lead to sexualised atmospheres. A recent publication focusing on psychotherapeutic practice describes how such developments can come about.

Combining the facial recognition decisions of humans and computers can prevent costly mistakes

After a series of bank robberies that took place in the US in 2014, police arrested Steve Talley. He was beaten during the arrest and held in maximum security detention for almost two months. His estranged ex-wife identified him as the robber in CCTV footage and an FBI facial examiner later backed up her claims.

Researchers discover how colon cancer mutates to escape the immune system

A UCLA-led study has found how colon cancer alters its genes during development in order to avoid detection by the immune system, creating a specific genetic imprint in the process.

Tests identify who would benefit from advanced prostate cancer therapies

Two blood tests can predict which subset of men with advanced prostate cancer will likely not benefit from anti-androgen therapies, providing doctors and patient added clarity on treatment options, according to a study led by Duke Cancer Institute.

Blood mutations could contaminate genetic analyses of tumors

Genetic mutations in blood cells that have made their way into tumors could be red herrings that mislead physicians looking for genetic changes in tumors that are helping to drive the cancer. This finding is significant because physicians could make misinformed treatment decisions.

Nighttime noise has damaging effects on Lausanne residents

Researchers at EPFL, the Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) and the Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) compared the geographical distribution of nearly 3,700 Lausanne residents suffering from daytime sleepiness with the noise caused by road and railway traffic in those parts of the city at night. They found a clear correlation between the amount of sleepiness reported by residents and the level of nighttime noise in their neighborhoods. These findings could be used to develop new measures for reducing urban noise pollution.

Drug to treat alcohol addiction also helps with suppression of HIV

A medication commonly prescribed to treat alcohol use disorder also appears to help maintain or improve suppression of HIV among individuals at risk for a lapse in HIV treatment, Yale researchers said.

No evidence that sexbots reduce harms to women and children

"Sexbots" – sexualised robots that have realistic human characteristics – are no longer a thing of science fiction. They can be purchased in various appearances, and are typically female adults with customisable oral, vaginal, and anal openings. Childlike robotic models – sometimes referred to as "paedobots" – are produced by at least one company.

Major pancreatic cancer breakthrough

Clinical trial results presented today at a prestigious cancer meeting in Chicago show substantial increased survival rates for pancreatic cancer patients who received a four-drug chemotherapy combination known as mFOLFIRINOX after surgery. Pancreatic cancer is typically very aggressive, with only approximately eight per cent of people surviving beyond five years after diagnosis, even after surgery and the standard chemotherapy treatment.

Emotions shape the language we use, but second languages reveal a shortcut around them

A taxi driver recently cut me up on the motorway. Without hesitation, I machine-gunned a string of vulgarity at the poor man. What struck me was that every word that came out of my mouth was in Spanish. As a native speaker of English, having learned Spanish as an adult, English should have been the more readily accessible language. Yet there I was, cussing out this stranger in Mexican-accented Spanish alongside an assortment of inappropriate hand gestures.

New theory on why more women than men develop autoimmune diseases

New findings are now being presented on possible mechanisms behind gender differences in the occurrence of rheumatism and other autoimmune diseases. The study, published in Nature Communications, can be of significance for the future treatment of diseases.

Mothers who eat oily fish could boost their child's gut health – but only if it's a boy

Mothers who eat healthy fats from oily fish may help their children form healthy guts and prevent them from gaining weight. Our study, published in Microbiome, shows that in laboratory mice, pups gain less weight on a high-fat diet if they are born to a mother who has more omega-3 fats in her body. We also found that mice gained less weight if they breastfed from a mother with more omega-3 fats. Interestingly, this only happened in male pups; the mother's fats had no effect on weight in female pups. This has been shown before in humans and may be due to the effect of female sex hormones on fat metabolism.

Traditional Aboriginal healers should work alongside doctors to help close the gap

The wellbeing of Indigenous people is based around having the freedom and resources to practise cultural ways of being. While some of these can seem removed from those in the West – such as the lack of materialism, primacy of kin and a close relationship to the natural world – including them in mainstream culture can contribute to everyone's wellbeing.

Scientists unravel brain networks of cardiac arrest survivors

Immediate CPR can double or triple the likelihood that a person will survive cardiac arrest, but survivors often face struggles, particularly with their brains.

Why we need better, smarter, panic-free education on cannabis

This week, the third reading and vote on the bill to legalize cannabis will take place in Canada's Senate.

Replication project questions outcome famous Ten Commandments study

A large-scale replication study by researchers of the University of Amsterdam (UvA) and Maastricht University (UM) throws doubt on the famous Ten Commandments study. In 2008 a landmark experiment in the U.S. found evidence to the effect that people are less likely to cheat after a moral reminder. This result formed the basis for an influential theory of cheating. The first finished project from the NWO programme Replication Studies questions important scientific research.

How perfectionism can lead to depression in students

The pressures of young adulthood coupled with the demands of university leave undergraduates at risk for depressive symptoms. In fact, nearly 30% of undergraduates suffer from depressive symptoms, which is threefold higher than the general population. As such, researchers are increasingly interested in identifying factors that contribute to depressive symptoms to help curb the ever-increasing depression epidemic. Our new study, published in Personality and Individual Differences, focused on one such factor, perfectionism, and its depressing consequences.

The flu vaccine is being oversold – it's not that effective

Winter has started, and with it, flu season. Inevitably, all of us (young, old and sick) have been implored to be immunised against influenza, with some eligible for a subsidised vaccine. And people are heeding the message, to the point that there is now a shortage of available vaccines.

Speakers store abstract information, irrespective of their language

The human brain stores not only individual words, but also all kinds of abstract information about these words. Research by Leiden linguists has shown that speakers have ready access to this information.

What effect does transcranial magnetic stimulation have on the brain?

Researchers of the Ruhr-Universität Bochum have gained new insights on the question of how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) effects functional interconnectivity of neurones. For visualisation, they employed fluorescent dyes which provide information on the activity of neurones by light. Using this technique, they showed in an animal model that TMS predisposes neuronal connections in the visual cortex of the brain for processes of reorganisation.

Chemoradiotherapy before surgery may extend lives of pancreatic cancer patients

Pancreatic cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery may live longer than those who have immediate surgery, according to unpublished clinical trial results.

Combining heartburn drugs and aspirin could prevent oesophageal cancer in people at high risk

In the famous words of Benjamin Franklin: "An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure."

1 in 3 women experience 'loss of control' eating in pregnancy

More than a third of women report feeling out of control over the amount they eat during pregnancy, according to new UCL-led research.

African-Americans still disproportionately affected by HIV

African-Americans are still much more likely to be diagnosed with HIV than white Americans. A new paper on the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the African-American community shows that despite recent drops in HIV diagnoses across every population in the U.S., there are still great disparities between ethnic groups. The study was led by Dr. Cato T. Laurencin of UConn Health and is published in Springer's Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities.

Zebrafish expose tumor pathway in childhood muscle cancer

A popular aquarium fish may hold answers to how tumors form in a childhood cancer.

Putting lungs under less stress

The numbers are grim: Of the 200,000 Americans diagnosed with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) each year, 30 to 50 percent will die. But, clinical researchers at the University of Missouri School of Medicine's division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Environmental Medicine identified a less-invasive treatment option for patients with severely impaired lung function.

Psychedelic drug use associated with reduced partner violence in men

In a new study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, researchers from UBC's Okanagan campus have discovered that men who have used psychedelic drugs in the past have a lower likelihood of engaging in violence against their intimate partners.

Ribavirin for treating Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever—latest Cochrane review

In a viral haemorrhagic disease where up to 40% of people developing it die, it is remarkable that doctors still do not agree whether the only recognised treatment, an antiviral drug called ribavirin, makes a difference. In a new Cochrane Review a team of authors at LSTM, along with colleagues in London, The Philippines and in Greece, evaluated the evidence to assess the effectiveness of treating Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF).

Women more likely to use other preventive health services after mammography

Medicare beneficiaries who undergo breast cancer screening with mammography are more likely than unscreened women to undergo other preventive health services like screening for cervical cancer and osteoporosis, according to a major new study appearing online in the journal Radiology. Researchers found that even false-positive mammography findings did not reduce the likelihood of women utilizing these other preventive services.

More breast cancers found with combined digital screening

A combination of digital mammography and tomosynthesis detects 90 percent more breast cancers than digital mammography alone, according to a study appearing online in the journal Radiology.

GI bleeding research points to need for updated Medicare policies

Penn Medicine researchers are calling for greater precision in Medicare performance reporting for patients with gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding following an evaluation of patients with the condition.

Man was awake for 90 minutes during CPR: report

(HealthDay)—It's your worst nightmare: As doctors race to save your life while performing CPR, you're actually awake and conscious of what they are doing.

Smart steps for safer international travel

(HealthDay)—Experiencing other cultures, visiting world landmarks and tasting foreign cuisines are just some of the pleasures of international travel.

Computer simulations identify chemical key to diabetes drug alternatives

Jeremy Smith, Governor's Chair for Molecular Biophysics at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and director of the Center for Molecular Biophysics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, has worked with a research team from the UT Health Science Center to discover a chemical compound that could lower sugar levels as effectively as the diabetes drug metformin but with a lower dose.

Hurricane safety series: Three-day plan to eat from a can

As the Atlantic hurricane season kicks off, residents of coastal communities are preparing for a potential severe weather emergency.

Everyday activities could yield subtle dementia warning signs

Subtle changes in driving habits, computer use and medication routines could provide early clues to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

Why antacids—not your inhaler—may be the key to treating your asthma

Asthma is a relatively common lung problem, usually caused by allergies, heavy exercise or chemical exposure in the workplace. But Dr. Alexei Gonzalez Estrada, a Mayo Clinic allergy and immunology specialist, says most people don't realize heartburn could be making their asthma worse.

Coffee helps teams work together, study suggests

Good teamwork begins with a cup of coffee for everyone, a new study suggests.

It's all in your head: Brain protein targeted for alcoholism cure

A protein in the brain that binds to alcohol could be the key to curing alcoholism, reports UH College of Pharmacy medicinal chemist Joydip Das in eNeuro, a journal of the Society for Neuroscience. The protein, called MUNC 13-1, plays a pivotal role in the development of tolerance to alcoholism according to Das.

Common diabetes drug found safe for most diabetics with kidney disease

Results of a large-scale study suggest that the oral diabetes drug metformin is safe for most diabetics who also have chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study of more than 150,000 adults by Johns Hopkins Medicine investigators found that metformin's association with the development of a life-threatening condition called lactic acidosis was seen only among patients with severely decreased kidney function.

Decades of type 1 diabetes linked to mild drop in cognition

People who live with type 1 diabetes for very long duration show signs of mild decreases in cognitive abilities, primarily in memory, compared to those who don't have the disease, Joslin Diabetes Center researchers have shown.

Throw like a girl? No, he or she just hasn't been taught

"You throw like a girl" is a sexist taunt that can instantly sour a kid on athletics and other healthy activities.

Distracted people can be 'smell blind'

'Inattentional smell blindness', or inattentional anosmia, has been proven to exist in a study from the University of Sussex. Just as it has previously been found that people can miss visual cues when they are busily engaged in a task, the same is true of smells.

Research identifies gut gas linked to diarrhea

Cedars-Sinai investigators have for the first time identified a gas produced in gut that could improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with two common intestinal illnesses—small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

One in four Americans develop insomnia each year

About 25 percent of Americans experience acute insomnia each year, but about 75 percent of these individuals recover without developing persistent poor sleep or chronic insomnia, according to a study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania which will be presented Monday at SLEEP 2018, the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Associated Professional Sleep Societies LLC (APSS).

Medical imaging technology detects vascular disorders, injuries in brain without invasive contrast agents

Purdue University researchers have developed an analytical imaging technology based on functional MRI for detecting and monitoring cerebral vascular disorders and injuries that does not require the use of contrast agents.

Rigorous study finds widely used treatment for infection fails young cancer patients

A treatment designed to reduce bloodstream infections due to central venous catheters that had worked well in lab studies and is commonly used around the world, but had not been rigorously tested, failed to protect young cancer patients from recurring or new infections and left them at higher risk for complications. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital investigators led the study, which appears online today in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Many US women don't realize they're seeking reproductive care at Catholic hospitals

More than one-third of women who go to a Catholic hospital for reproductive care aren't aware they're seeking obstetrical and gynecological care at a facility that may have limited health care options due to its religious affiliation.

Mandatory bundled-payment Medicare programs should stay, study suggests

Hospitals that receive bundled payments for joint replacements either voluntarily or through Medicare's mandatory programs, vary by size and volume, but not in spending or quality, signaling a need for both programs, according to a new study from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. The authors say the results show that voluntary programs tend to engage larger non-profit hospitals, whereas some hospitals with lower volumes and fewer resources might only participate under a mandatory program. The results are published this week in the June issue of the journal Health Affairs.

Stress contributes to high rates of heart disease among black adults

Daily stressors are associated with poor health behaviors that put African-American adults at greater risk of heart disease and stroke, a new study finds.

Mindfulness program may help increase physical activity levels

(HealthDay)—A meditation and stress reduction program may be as effective as structured exercise programs for increasing physical activity, according to a study published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise.

DDW: Psych disorders make GERD hard to Dx by symptoms alone

(HealthDay)—For patients with minor psychiatric disorders (MPD), symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are unreliable for establishing the presence of GERD, according to a study presented at the 2018 Digestive Disease Week, held from June 2 to 5 in Washington, D.C.

High schoolers on heroin abuse other drugs, too

(HealthDay)—High school seniors hooked on heroin are likely to misuse a multitude of other drugs, a new study finds.

Direct supervision by attendings doesn't reduce medical errors

(HealthDay)—Direct supervision in which attending physicians join work rounds does not reduce the rate of medical errors, according to a study published online June 4 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

ASCO: ovarian suppression + tamoxifen ups breast CA survival

(HealthDay)—The addition of ovarian suppression to tamoxifen is associated with increased survival versus tamoxifen alone among premenopausal women with breast cancer, according to a study published online June 4 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, held from June 1 to 5 in Chicago.

DDW: Bowel sounds may identify irritable bowel syndrome

(HealthDay)—A noninvasive method for diagnosing irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), based on use of bowel sounds, has high sensitivity and specificity, according to a study presented at the 2018 Digestive Disease Week, held from June 2 to 5 in Washington, D.C.

Maternal depressive emotion associated with children's sleep problems

Maternal depressive mood during the prenatal and postnatal periods is related to child sleep disturbances, according to recent pilot data from a longitudinal cohort study in kindergarten children.

A great majority of Mozambican adolescent girls are willing to be vaccinated against HPV

A study in Mozambique reveals that a majority of adolescent girls interviewed would be willing to be vaccinated against the human papilloma virus (HPV) if the vaccine were available in the country. These results are encouraging with regard to vaccine introduction and reducing mortality associated with cervical cancer in Mozambique. The investigation was led by the Manhiça Health Research Center (CISM) and ISGlobal, an institution supported by "la Caixa" Foundation

Research finds divide in dental health accessibility between city and regional areas

A University of Western Australia study has found that although the number of dentists in rural and remote areas increased in recent years, it is still not keeping apace with the growth in demand and there is still a divide between access to dental treatment in cities compared to regional areas.

Closing the loop for brain imaging in depression

Depression can have a profound impact on affected individuals and those around them. It is one of the most common mental health conditions, and its symptoms include sustained feeling of sadness, hopelessness, and guilt. In severe cases, these symptoms may be aggravated by suicidal thoughts, or even attempts. The odds of experiencing a depressive episode are relatively high: at least one in six individuals will experience an episode in their lifetime.

A focused intervention—the provider's role in firearm violence prevention

Rocco Pallin and Garen Wintemute of the UC Davis Violence Prevention Research Program discuss the physician's responsibility to discuss firearm safety with patients and introduce the What You Can Do initiative website to guide health providers in risk identification and counseling.

Older adults with asthma are happier when they have more say in their care

It's clear an increasing number of people want a say in their medical care. A new study shows older people with asthma are among those no longer content to say, "Up to you, Doc" and then wait to be told how to move forward with their care.

Demand for stool donors grows as benefits of fecal microbiota transplant are recognized

Appealing to a concern for others is the best way to recruit most people to donate their stool for medicine, while cash rewards may be an additional motivator for some potential donors, according to research scheduled for presentation at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2018.

Listening to gut noises could improve diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome

Utilizing newly adapted artificial intelligence, researchers have developed an acoustic belt that offers a new way to diagnose irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) by listening to the noises in a patient's gut, according to research presented at Digestive Disease Week (DDW) 2018.

Sleep disturbances more common for immigrants than non-immigrants

Preliminary data from a recent study show high levels of emotional distress could be causing immigrants to have more sleep disorder symptoms than non-immigrants.

Detroit-area couple in court over control of frozen embryos

A Detroit-area woman seeking custody of as many as 10 frozen embryos is asking a judge to appoint a guardian over them while she clashes with her former partner for control.

Trustees warn Medicare finances worsening

Medicare's financial problems have gotten worse, and Social Security's can't be ignored forever, the government said Tuesday in an annual assessment that amounts to a sobering checkup on programs vital to the middle class.

Biology news

Male guppies grow larger brains in response to predator exposure—but not females

Male guppies exposed to predators in the wild or in captivity have heavier brains than those living in relatively predator-free conditions, according to new research published in the journal Functional Ecology.

Engineered cotton uses weed-suppression chemical as nutrient

A newly developed fertilizer system will provide nutrition to engineered cotton crops worldwide and a deadly dose to weeds that are increasingly herbicide resistant, according to a Texas A&M AgriLife Research study.

The role of cohesin in genome 3-D structure helps for a better understanding of tumor cells

In recent years, it has become evident that the spatial organisation of the genome is key for its function. This depends on a number of factors, including the cohesin protein complex. This essential complex is present in the cells in two versions that contain either the SA1 or SA2 subunit. Scientists at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), the Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), and the Centro Nacional de Análisis Genómico (CNAG-CRG) have addressed the functional specificity of these two variant cohesin complexes. The study, published in Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, analyzes in-depth the functions of both variants in the 3-D genome architecture and shows how the alteration of SA2 influences gene expression and may favour the loss of differentiation in tumour cells.

Grainyhead, a master regulator that controls DNA access

A team led by Prof. Stein Aerts (VIB-KU Leuven) has reported how access to relevant DNA regions is orchestrated in epithelial cells. These findings shed new light on the biological mechanisms of gene regulation and open up potential new avenues for cellular reprogramming.

New study provides information on the secret life of an enigmatic Antarctic apex predator

Scientists from British Antarctic Survey (BAS) have, for the first time, tracked the lives of leopard seals as they migrate around Antarctica. The team followed these formidable predators as they move from the frozen Antarctic sea-ice to the more northerly sub-Antarctic islands where they prey on penguins, seals and krill. The study is published this week in the journal PLOS ONE.

Research shows dogs prefer to eat fat, and cats surprisingly tend toward carbs

Dogs gravitate toward high-fat food, but cats pounce on carbohydrates with even greater enthusiasm, according to research into the dietary habits of America's two most popular pets.

Thousands of turtles netted off South America

Tens of thousands of sea turtles are caught each year by small-scale fishers off South America's Pacific coast, new research shows.

Novel gene in red blood cells may help adult newts regenerate limbs

Newts are the only four-legged vertebrates that can regenerate their body parts, even as adults. When a newt loses a limb, a mass of cells called a blastema is generated at the stump, from which a new, fully functional limb is eventually regenerated. Can this remarkable ability be explained by genes shared by vertebrates, including humans, or by unique genes that the newt may have evolved?

Using fungi to produce renewable energy

Ebru Alazi 'hacked' an enzyme-producing system in the fungus Aspergillus niger in order to produce renewable energy more easily. She manipulated the fungus, making it produce more pectinases: enzymes mainly used in the food industry and in the production of renewable energy, such as biofuels.

A little water could make a big difference for endangered salmon

Even small amounts of running water—less than a gallon per second—could mean the difference between life or death for juvenile coho salmon in coastal California streams, according to a new study published in the journal Transactions of the American Fisheries Society.

These fish are at the heart of California's water debate. But extinction could be close

As a young biologist in the 1970s, Peter Moyle remembers towing nets behind boats in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and catching 50 to 100 translucent, finger-length smelt in a matter of minutes.

Rare Sulawesi bear cuscus born in captivity for first time

The first Sulawesi bear cuscus to have been born in captivity is thriving at a zoo in Poland, but staff said they only realised the rare tiny marsupial had arrived when its mother's pouch began to move.

Florida: Oriental fruit flies found in farmlands near Miami

An invasive and destructive pest has been identified in the farmlands near Miami, Florida agriculture officials said Tuesday.

Sage grouse DNA study maps crucial mating grounds in US West

Sage grouse have a vast network of mating grounds in the U.S. West akin to interconnected regional airport hubs that the imperiled species is using to maintain genetic diversity across its entire range, a DNA study has revealed.

Turtles can make great pets, but do your homework first

While turtles might seem like the perfect pet—less work than dogs and cats, more interactive than fish—there are a few things to keep in mind before buying one.

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