Thursday, June 14, 2018

Nature contents: 14 June 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 558 Issue 7709
This Week  
Reform the Antarctic Treaty
China sets a strong example on how to address scientific fraud
The phrase ‘necessary and sufficient’ blamed for flawed neuroscience
World View  
Polar collaborations are key to successful policies
Steven L. Chown
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Wild-horse spat, astronaut minister and record flooding
News in Focus
FARC and the forest: Peace is destroying Colombia’s jungle — and opening it to science
Sara Reardon
China introduces sweeping reforms to crack down on academic misconduct
David Cyranoski
Speedy Ebola tests help contain Africa’s latest outbreak
Declan Butler
Sucking carbon dioxide from air is cheaper than scientists thought
Jeff Tollefson
Faecal transplants could help preserve vulnerable species
Sara Reardon
The battle behind the periodic table’s latest additions
Edwin Cartlidge
Nature Podcast 14 June 2018
This week, the mysterious death of African baobab trees, Antarctica's past, present, and future, and how zebrafish protect their stem cells.
Antarctic fisheries: factor climate change into their management
Cassandra M. Brooks, David G. Ainley, Peter A. Abrams et al.
Pandemics: spend on surveillance, not prediction
Edward C. Holmes, Andrew Rambaut, Kristian G. Andersen
Books and Arts  
Sea changes: whales, krill and human exploitation
Sascha Hooker
How the belief in beauty has triggered a crisis in physics
Anil Ananthaswamy
A new science of emotions, the trouble with polio eradication, and history writ large: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
Broaden human-rights focus for health data under GDPR
Bartha Knoppers
Exorcise citations to the ‘living dead’ from the literature
Sandra A. Binning, Fredrik Jutfelt, Josefin Sundin
Hurdles to international review scupper science in Romania
Mihai Miclăuș, Octavian Micu
Research hotspots in Côte d’Ivoire
Bassirou Bonfoh, Jasmina Saric, Jürg Utzinger
Pioneering women in energy physics
Richard Rhodes
Stanley Falkow (1934-2018)
Manuel R. Amieva
Technology Feature  
Stem-cell culture moves to the third dimension
C. Y. Tachibana
The lives of female scientists in India are being chronicled online
Harini Barath
Why a new lab can be a valuable destination for postdocs and graduate students
Chris Woolston
Further laws of robotics

Josh Pearce
Structural basis of mitochondrial receptor binding and constriction by DRP1
Cryo-electron microscopy is used to resolve the structure of human dynamin-related protein 1 co-assembled with its receptor mitochondrial dynamics protein of 49 kDa, along with an analysis of structure- and disease-based mutations.
Raghav Kalia, Ray Yu-Ruei Wang, Ali Yusuf et al.
Targeted therapy in patients with PIK3CA-related overgrowth syndrome
A PI3KCA inhibitor reverses symptoms in a mouse model of PROS/CLOVES syndrome, which results from gain-of-function mutations in PI3KCA, and produces improvements in patients with PROS/CLOVES syndrome.
Quitterie Venot, Thomas Blanc, Smail Hadj Rabia et al.
Novel soil bacteria possess diverse genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis
Metagenomic and soil microcosm analyses identify abundant biosynthetic gene clusters in genomes of microorganisms from a northern Californian grassland ecosystem that provide a potential source for the future development of bacterial natural products.
Alexander Crits-Christoph, Spencer Diamond, Cristina N. Butterfield et al.
A Cdk9–PP1 switch regulates the elongation–termination transition of RNA polymerase II
The kinase Cdk9 and the phosphatase Dis2 regulate the termination of transcription in fission yeast in part by controlling the phosphorylation state of the elongation factor Spt5.
Pabitra K. Parua, Gregory T. Booth, Miriam Sansó et al.
Antarctic ice shelf disintegration triggered by sea ice loss and ocean swell
Less sea ice allowed ocean swells to flex weakened ice shelves in Antarctica, contributing to their collapse.
Robert A. Massom, Theodore A. Scambos, Luke G. Bennetts et al.
Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of the molecular substrates of sleep need
A subset of synaptic proteins are cumulatively phosphorylated during wakefulness and dephosphorylated during sleep, in accordance with sleep need; this may represent a common mechanism underlying regulation of both synaptic homeostasis and sleep–wake homeostasis.
Zhiqiang Wang, Jing Ma, Chika Miyoshi et al.
Coral reefs could drown as sea levels rise
An assessment of the capacity of coral reefs to grow fast enough to keep up with projected rises in sea level finds that most reefs will fall behind if nothing is done to restore them.
Ilsa B. Kuffner
Lessons for cancer drug treatment from tackling a non-cancerous overgrowth syndrome
Abnormal activity of the enzyme PI3K can drive cancer growth, and mutations in a PI3K subunit can sometimes lead to non-cancerous overgrowth. A cancer drug that inhibits PI3K dramatically reduces such overgrowth.
Robert K. Semple, Bart Vanhaesebroeck
Structural basis of G-quadruplex unfolding by the DEAH/RHA helicase DHX36
A mechanism for the unfolding of guanine-rich DNA ‘quadruplexes’ by helicases is suggested, based on the structure of a DNA-bound helicase.
Michael C. Chen, Ramreddy Tippana, Natalia A. Demeshkina et al.
Extensive retreat and re-advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during the Holocene
Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores and ice-penetrating radar observations are used to demonstrate that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has not retreated progressively during the Holocene epoch, but has instead showed periods of retreat and re-advance.
J. Kingslake, R. P. Scherer, T. Albrecht et al.
An Early Cretaceous eutherian and the placental–marsupial dichotomy
Morphological studies and phylogenetic analyses based on the newly discovered Early Cretaceous eutherian mammal Ambolestes zhoui show that the oldest purported metatherian Sinodelphys is instead a eutherian.
Shundong Bi, Xiaoting Zheng, Xiaoli Wang et al.
Cryo-EM structure of human rhodopsin bound to an inhibitory G protein
The cryo-electron microscopy structure of human rhodopsin bound to the inhibitory Gi protein-coupled receptor provides insights into ligand–receptor–G-protein interactions.
Yanyong Kang, Oleg Kuybeda, Parker W. de Waal et al.
Protection from UV light is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the haematopoietic niche
Melanocytes above the haematopoietic niche protect haematopoietic stem cells from ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage in aquatic vertebrates throughout evolution; this niche moved to the bone marrow during the transition to terrestrial life.
Friedrich G. Kapp, Julie R. Perlin, Elliott J. Hagedorn et al.
Structure of the µ-opioid receptor–Gi protein complex
A cryo-electron structure of the µ-opioid receptor in complex with the peptide agonist DAMGO and the inhibitory G protein Gi reveals structural determinants of its G protein-binding specificity.
Antoine Koehl, Hongli Hu, Shoji Maeda et al.
Structural basis for regulation of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase
Cryo-electron microscopy studies of distinct, catalytically active and inactive filaments of human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 reveal the structural basis of its regulation.
Moritz Hunkeler, Anna Hagmann, Edward Stuttfeld et al.
Induction and transcriptional regulation of the co-inhibitory gene module in T cells
A module of co-inhibitory T cell receptors, driven by the cytokine IL-27, is identified in mice that is regulated by the transcription factors PRDM1 and c-MAF.
Norio Chihara, Asaf Madi, Takaaki Kondo et al.
Cell umbrella protects stem cells from DNA damage
Adult stem cells reside in niches that maintain, regulate and protect them. Fresh light has now been shed on how the need for protection has driven changes in the locations of these niches during evolution.
Isabel Beerman
New windows open for immunotherapy in lung cancer
Activating immune cells to destroy tumours is an effective strategy for treating an advanced lung cancer — but only for some people. Evidence that this approach has potential in early disease and as a combination therapy has now emerged.
Lizza Hendriks, Benjamin Besse
Gate-tunable frequency combs in graphene–nitride microresonators
Coupling graphene sheets with a silicon nitride ring microresonator allows the nonlinear cavity dynamics to be altered by a gate voltage, resulting in tunable, chip-scale, optical frequency combs.
Baicheng Yao, Shu-Wei Huang, Yuan Liu et al.
News & Views  
On-demand entanglement could lead to scalable quantum networks
Julien Laurat
Tumour tamed by transfer of one T cell
Marcela V. Maus
Enzymes can adapt to cold by wiggling regions far from their active site
Ashok A. Deniz
How humans and rising seas affect each other
Aimée Slangen
Transcription regulation enters a new phase
James Goodrich, Dylan Taatjes
Michael White
Choosing the future of Antarctica
The future of Antarctica and the Southern Ocean by 2070 is described under two scenarios, one in which action is taken to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and one in which no action is taken.
S. R. Rintoul, S. L. Chown, R. M. DeConto et al.
Antarctic and global climate history viewed from ice cores
A discussion of past Antarctic and global climate history as seen from Antarctic ice cores, with an outlook on future goals and drilling priorities.
Edward J. Brook, Christo Buizert
The global influence of localized dynamics in the Southern Ocean
Stephen R. Rintoul
Trends and connections across the Antarctic cryosphere
This paper discusses how Antarctic ice has changed over recent decades, and how these changes have been recorded in satellite observations.
Andrew Shepherd, Helen Amanda Fricker, Sinead Louise Farrell
Mass balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017
The IMBIE team
Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi
Analyses of data from 137 forest plots across 20 European countries show that ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity is strongly influenced by environmental and host species factors and provide thresholds to inform ecosystem assessment tools
Sietse van der Linde, Laura M. Suz, C. David L. Orme et al.
Visualizing late states of human 40S ribosomal subunit maturation
Cryo-EM structures of late intermediates in the assembly of human 40S ribosomal subunits help to define the principles by which immature rRNA conformations and ribosomal biogenesis factors shape the 40S maturation process.
Michael Ameismeier, Jingdong Cheng, Otto Berninghausen et al.
Structure of a volume-regulated anion channel of the LRRC8 family
The structure of a homomeric channel of subunit A of leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 8 (LRRC8) determined by cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography reveals the basis for anion selectivity.
Dawid Deneka, Marta Sawicka, Andy K. M. Lam et al.
Stellar populations dominated by massive stars in dusty starburst galaxies across cosmic time
Observations of 13CO and C18O emission from four dusty starburst galaxies at redshifts of approximately two to three reveal that massive stars are more numerous in starburst events than in ordinary star-forming spiral galaxies.
Zhi-Yu Zhang, D. Romano, R. J. Ivison et al.
Deterministic quantum state transfer and remote entanglement using microwave photons
Deterministic quantum state transfer and entanglement generation is demonstrated between superconducting qubits on distant chips using single photons.
P. Kurpiers, P. Magnard, T. Walter et al.
Deterministic delivery of remote entanglement on a quantum network
Remote deterministic spin–spin entanglement is achieved using nitrogen–vacancy centres in diamonds and a single-photon entangling protocol, with much improved entangling rates compared to previously used two-photon protocols.
Peter C. Humphreys, Norbert Kalb, Jaco P. J. Morits et al.
Printing ferromagnetic domains for untethered fast-transforming soft materials
Programmed ferromagnetic domains are 3D-printed into soft materials capable of fast transformations between complex three-dimensional shapes via magnetic actuation.
Yoonho Kim, Hyunwoo Yuk, Ruike Zhao et al.
Velocity-resolved kinetics of site-specific carbon monoxide oxidation on platinum surfaces
The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over platinum proceeds through two distinct channels: it is dominated at low temperatures by the more active step sites and at high temperatures by the more abundant terrace sites of the platinum surface.
Jannis Neugebohren, Dmitriy Borodin, Hinrich W. Hahn et al.
Minimal East Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat onto land during the past eight million years
Analysis of cosmogenic isotopes from a marine sediment core shows that much of the land-based East Antarctic Ice Sheet has remained stable for the past eight million years, including during the warm Pliocene epoch.
Jeremy D. Shakun, Lee B. Corbett, Paul R. Bierman et al.
Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
Micro- and nannofossil, trace fossil and geochemical evidence from the Chicxulub impact crater demonstrates that proximity to the asteroid impact site did not determine rates of recovery of marine ecosystems after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.
Christopher M. Lowery, Timothy J. Bralower, Jeremy D. Owens et al.
Parallel emergence of stable and dynamic memory engrams in the hippocampus
Imaging of hippocampal neuron activity in mice performing a memory task across several days identifies both stable and dynamic memory engrams.
Thomas Hainmueller, Marlene Bartos
A molecular rheostat adjusts auxin flux to promote root protophloem differentiation
The coordinated action of BREVIS RADIX (BRX) and PROTEIN KINASE ASSOCIATED WITH BRX (PAX) regulates auxin flux during the development of protophloem sieve elements in the root meristem of Arabidopsis.
P. Marhava, A. E. L. Bassukas, M. Zourelidou et al.
Oxidized phospholipids are proinflammatory and proatherogenic in hypercholesterolaemic mice
A single-chain variable fragment of the antibody E06, which binds to the phosphocholine headgroup of oxidized phospholipids, blocks the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein by macrophages, and reduces inflammation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic mice.
Xuchu Que, Ming-Yow Hung, Calvin Yeang et al.
Disruption of TET2 promotes the therapeutic efficacy of CD19-targeted T cells
Genetically engineered T cells that induced remission in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were found to have disruption of the TET2 gene, which caused T cell changes that potentiated their anti-tumour effects.
Joseph A. Fraietta, Christopher L. Nobles, Morgan A. Sammons et al.
EMI1 switches from being a substrate to an inhibitor of APC/CCDH1 to start the cell cycle
The transition between early mitotic inhibitor 1 acting as a substrate of the APC/C and as an inhibitor of the same complex results in an irreversible switch that mediates human cell-cycle commitment.
Steven D. Cappell, Kevin G. Mark, Damien Garbett et al.
Phase-separation mechanism for C-terminal hyperphosphorylation of RNA polymerase II
The histidine-rich domain of cyclin T1 promotes phase separation into liquid droplets, which facilitates the hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain repeats of RNA polymerase II.
Huasong Lu, Dan Yu, Anders S. Hansen et al.
Dynamic allostery can drive cold adaptation in enzymes
By engineering entropy-tuning changes into distal sites of a bacterial adenylate kinase, an allosteric tuning mechanism based on protein dynamics is revealed.
Harry G. Saavedra, James O. Wrabl, Jeremy A. Anderson et al.
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