Thursday, May 31, 2018

Nature contents: 31 May 2018

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 557 Issue 7707
This Week  
Brexit uncertainty threatens fusion-energy research
Stem-cell tests must show success
Police use a computer to expose false testimony
World View  
Before reproducibility must come preproducibility
Philip B. Stark
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
Seven Days  
Bear hunt, right-to-try law and dark-matter disappointment
News in Focus
‘Reprogrammed’ stem cells approved to mend human hearts for the first time
David Cyranoski
Muons: the little-known particles helping to probe the impenetrable
Elizabeth Gibney
Share of African American men going into medicine hits historic low
Giorgia Guglielmi
Innovative zero-emissions power plant begins battery of tests
Jeff Tollefson
Rush to protect lucrative antibody patents kicks into gear
Heidi Ledford
Money for nothing: the truth about universal basic income
Carrie Arnold
Nature Podcast 31 May 2018
This week, boosting diversity in physics graduate programs, and life's recovery after a massive asteroid impact.
Making physics more inclusive
Books and Arts  
Depression: the radical theory linking it to inflammation
Alison Abbott
Aldous Huxley’s nuclear dystopia at 70: Ape and Essence
Richard Rhodes
The triumph of random testing, a quest for ancient wine, and a history of mirages: Books in brief
Barbara Kiser
History lesson: double the prize for women
Richard P. Elinson
Tackle all forms of under-representation in science
Ricardo Rocha, Fangyuan Hua
India forges ahead with solar-geoengineering studies
Govindasamy Bala, Akhilesh Gupta
Cooperate to stop misconduct
Lauran Qualkenbush
Microbes set to alter the economy
Carlos G. Acevedo-Rocha
Peter Grünberg (1939-2018)
Albert Fert
Technology and satellite companies open up a world of data
Gabriel Popkin
Career Briefs  
Gender inequality in authorship set to persist for decades
Thousands urge US science academy to revoke membership for sexual harassers

Mike Adamson
Molecular tuning of electroreception in sharks and skates
Shark and skate electrosensory cells use specific potassium channels to support either indiscriminate detection of electrical stimuli or selective frequency tuning, respectively, demonstrating adaptation of sensory systems through discrete molecular modifications.
Rapid recovery of life at ground zero of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction
Micro- and nannofossil, trace fossil and geochemical evidence from the Chicxulub impact crater demonstrates that proximity to the asteroid impact site did not determine rates of recovery of marine ecosystems after the end-Cretaceous mass extinction.
Euryhaline ecology of early tetrapods revealed by stable isotopes
An approach using multiple stable isotopes reveals that early tetrapods of the Devonian period were euryhaline animals that inhabited aquatic environments of highly variable salinity.
Pairwise and higher-order genetic interactions during the evolution of a tRNA
Mutagenesis of a yeast tRNA shows that the effects of mutations and how they interact varies both in magnitude and sign between genotypes.
Disruption of TET2 promotes the therapeutic efficacy of CD19-targeted T cells
Genetically engineered T cells that induced remission in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were found to have disruption of the TET2 gene, which caused T cell changes that potentiated their anti-tumour effects.
A per-cent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from quantum chromodynamics
Lattice quantum chromodynamics and a method inspired by the Feynman–Hellmann theorem are used to make a theoretical determination of the nucleon axial coupling with a precision of one per cent, giving the value 1.271 ± 0.013.
Potential enthalpic energy of water in oils exploited to control supramolecular structure
Less than 0.01 per cent by weight of water in an alkane solvent is sufficient to interact with co-dissolved supramolecular polymeric chains by hydrogen bonding and modulate the structure of the assembly.
Phase-separation mechanism for C-terminal hyperphosphorylation of RNA polymerase II
The histidine-rich domain of cyclin T1 promotes phase separation into liquid droplets, which facilitates the hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain repeats of RNA polymerase II.
Disruption of the beclin 1–BCL2 autophagy regulatory complex promotes longevity in mice
A knock-in mutation in beclin 1 that increases autophagy in mice extends animal lifespan, improves healthspan, and also rescues early lethality in mice deficient in the anti-ageing protein klotho.
Hippo/Mst signalling couples metabolic state and immune function of CD8α+ dendritic cells
A data-driven analysis helps to identify specific roles of the Hippo signalling kinases Mst1 and Mst2 in integrating metabolic activity and cytokine signalling in dendritic cells, and thereby orchestrating immune cell function.
The coding of valence and identity in the mammalian taste system
The identity and hedonic value of tastes are encoded in distinct neural substrates; in mice, the amygdala is necessary and sufficient to drive valence-specific behaviours in response to bitter or sweet taste stimuli, and the cortex can independently represent taste identity.
News & Views  
HP1 proteins safeguard embryonic stem cells
Kristoffer N. Jensen, Matthew C. Lorincz
Molecular dynamics simulated by photons
Fabien Gatti
Brain inflammatory cascade controlled by gut-derived molecules
Hartmut Wekerle
Deciphering the catalytic mechanism of bacterial ubiquitination
Kathy Wong, Kalle Gehring
Spinning on the edge of graphene
Fernando Luis, Eugenio Coronado
50 & 100 years ago
Synthetic yeast genome reveals its versatility
Jee Loon Foo, Matthew Wook Chang
Fifty years since DNA repair was linked to cancer
Richard D. Wood
Emerging trends in global freshwater availability
Analysis of 2002–2016 GRACE satellite observations of terrestrial water storage reveals substantial changes in freshwater resources globally, which are driven by natural and anthropogenic climate variability and human activities.
M. Rodell, J. S. Famiglietti, D. N. Wiese et al.
Simulating the vibrational quantum dynamics of molecules using photonics
By mapping vibrations in molecules to photons in waveguides, the vibrational quantum dynamics of various molecules are simulated using a photonic chip.
Chris Sparrow, Enrique Martín-López, Nicola Maraviglia et al.
Pyramidal cell regulation of interneuron survival sculpts cortical networks
Excitatory input onto inhibitory interneurons in the developing mouse cortex acts through PTEN to protect interneurons from cell death and thus regulate the balance between excitation and inhibition.
Fong Kuan Wong, Kinga Bercsenyi, Varun Sreenivasan et al.
Structural basis of ubiquitin modification by the Legionella effector SdeA
Crystal structures of the Legionella effector SdeA in a ligand-free state and in complex with ubiquitin and NADH provide insight into SdeA-mediated phosphoribosyl-linked ubiquitination.
Yanan Dong, Yajuan Mu, Yongchao Xie et al.
Spatiotemporal regulation of liquid-like condensates in epigenetic inheritance
ZNFX-1 and WAGO-4 localize to germ granules in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis and later separate to form independent liquid-like droplets, and the temporal and spatial ordering of these droplets may help cells to organize complex RNA processing pathways.
Gang Wan, Brandon D. Fields, George Spracklin et al.
A small amount of mini-charged dark matter could cool the baryons in the early Universe
Calculations show that if some dark-matter particles—less than one per cent—have a tiny charge, their coupling to baryons could cool the baryons enough to explain puzzling astrophysical observations.
Julian B. Muñoz, Abraham Loeb
An increase in the 12C + 12C fusion rate from resonances at astrophysical energies
The rate of carbon burning—12C + 12C fusion—in stars is boosted by resonant behaviour at astrophysical energies.
A. Tumino, C. Spitaleri, M. La Cognata et al.
Magnetic edge states and coherent manipulation of graphene nanoribbons
By functionalizing molecular graphene nanoribbons with stable spin-bearing nitronyl nitroxide radical groups, delocalized magnetic edge states are observed, with microsecond-scale spin coherence times.
Michael Slota, Ashok Keerthi, William K. Myers et al.
Approaching the Schottky–Mott limit in van der Waals metal–semiconductor junctions
In metal–semiconductor junctions, interfacial bonding and disorder cause deviations from theoretical predictions for the energy barrier, but delicately transferring pre-fabricated metal films onto two-dimensional semiconductors can overcome this challenge.
Yuan Liu, Jian Guo, Enbo Zhu et al.
The effect of hydration number on the interfacial transport of sodium ions
A sodium ion hydrated with three (rather than one, two, four or five) water molecules diffuses orders of magnitude more quickly than the other ion hydrates owing to the interfacial symmetry mismatch.
Jinbo Peng, Duanyun Cao, Zhili He et al.
The origin of squamates revealed by a Middle Triassic lizard from the Italian Alps
Computed tomography scanning of the Triassic fossil Megachirella wachtleri combined with a broad morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis of reptile relationships confirm it as the most primitive stem squamate.
Tiago R. Simões, Michael W. Caldwell, Mateusz Tałanda et al.
Long-term effects of species loss on community properties across contrasting ecosystems
A long-term biodiversity manipulation experiment using plant communities on thirty Swedish lake islands reveals the importance of environmental context for determining the consequences of species loss at the ecosystem level.
Paul Kardol, Nicolas Fanin, David A. Wardle
Reciprocal signalling by Notch–Collagen V–CALCR retains muscle stem cells in their niche
Muscle stem cell quiescence in mice is maintained by a Notch–Collagen V–CALCR signalling pathway that is activated and sustained in a cell-autonomous fashion.
Meryem B. Baghdadi, David Castel, Léo Machado et al.
Reconstruction of antibody dynamics and infection histories to evaluate dengue risk
Analyses of antibody dynamics and subclinical infections show that across the population, variability in the infection strength of dengue viruses results in large-scale temporal changes in infection and disease risk that correlate poorly with age.
Henrik Salje, Derek A. T. Cummings, Isabel Rodriguez-Barraquer et al.
Microglial control of astrocytes in response to microbial metabolites
TGFα and VEGF-B produced by microglia regulate astrocyte function in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of multiple sclerosis.
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M. Borucki, Emily C. Tjon et al.
Mechanism of phosphoribosyl-ubiquitination mediated by a single Legionella effector
Crystal structures of the Legionella effectors SdeA and SdeD uncover the mechanism of a unique phosphoribosyl-ubiquitination reaction.
Anil Akturk, David J. Wasilko, Xiaochun Wu et al.
Insights into catalysis and function of phosphoribosyl-linked serine ubiquitination
Structural and functional investigations demonstrate how bacterial enzymes ubiquitinate host proteins.
Sissy Kalayil, Sagar Bhogaraju, Florian Bonn et al.
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein recruits HP1 and CHD4 to control lineage-specifying genes
ADNP interacts with the chromatin remodeller CHD4 and the heterochromatin protein HP1 to form a complex termed ChAHP that represses gene expression independently of the histone H3K9me3 modification.
Veronika Ostapcuk, Fabio Mohn, Sarah H. Carl et al.
Spotlight on Biopharmaceuticals
Nic Fleming
Nature Outlook  
Huntington’s disease
Spotlight on Zhejiang
Sarah O'Meara
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Astex Pharmaceuticals 


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