Friday, February 16, 2018

Nature Reviews Neuroscience contents March 2018 Volume 19 Number 3 pp 119-180

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Nature Reviews Neuroscience

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In this issue
Research Highlights
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Article series:
Food intake, metabolism and the brain
 Featured article:
Imaging structural and functional brain development in early childhood
John H. Gilmore, Rebecca C. Knickmeyer & Wei Gao


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Behavioural neuroscience: In hunt mode
p119 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.18
Two studies characterize inputs to the periaqueductal grey that regulate hunting behaviour in mice.


Neural development: 'Enhancing' human cognition
p120 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.11
Human-gained enhancers (regulatory elements in the human genome that are more active in the human lineage) are shown to regulate progenitor proliferation in the outer subventricular zone, an area that is substantially larger in humans compared with other primates.


Cell biology of the neuron: ARC goes viral
p120 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.9
Two recent papers reveal that the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated proteins ARC and Drosophila melanogaster dArc1 auto-assemble into mRNA-containing, virus-like capsids that are released by neurons in exosomal vesicles and that can be endocytosed at the postsynaptic compartment.


Neural repair: Tagging mRNA drives regeneration
p121 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.14
A dynamic mRNA modification promotes axon regeneration in injured peripheral sensory neurons.


Spatial processing: An 'other' kind of place cell
p122 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.12
'Social place cells' of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 region in bats and in rats encode the position of an observed conspecific.


Neuroimmunology: Dietary salt-induced deficits
p122 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.15
In mice, consumption of a high-salt diet induces accumulation of T helper 17 lymphocytes in the gut, leading to a rise in plasma interleukin-17 levels as well as neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive deficits.



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Imaging structural and functional brain development in early childhood
John H. Gilmore, Rebecca C. Knickmeyer & Wei Gao

p123 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.1
The human brain undergoes rapid development during the first 2 years of life. Here, Gilmore and colleagues give an overview of recent neuroimaging studies of the developmental trajectories of brain structure and function in the first years after birth.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Microglia in neuropathic pain: cellular and molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential
Kazuhide Inoue & Makoto Tsuda

p138 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.2
The changes in spinal cord excitability proposed to drive neuropathic pain have been linked to alterations in microglial function. Inoue and Tsuda describe our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved and consider implications for therapeutic approaches to chronic pain.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Article series: Food intake, metabolism and the brain
Leptin and brain–adipose crosstalks
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K. Elmquist & Laurent Gautron

p153 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.7
The brain regulates adipose tissue metabolism through sympathetic efferent pathways; in turn, adipose tissues relay energy-status information to the brain. This Review gives an overview of interactions between the brain and adipose tissues, with a particular focus on leptin as a regulator of these communications.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

Control of synaptic plasticity in deep cortical networks
Pieter R. Roelfsema & Anthony Holtmaat

p166 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2018.6
How are synapses optimally strengthened or weakened to improve network performance? Roelfsema and Holtmaat provide an overview of factors that influence synaptic plasticity, particularly in deep, multilayered biological networks, and present a specific framework in which neuromodulators and feedback connections may interact to selectively potentiate synapses responsible for rewarded action.
Abstract | Full Text | PDF

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