Tuesday, February 6, 2018

Nature Neuroscience Contents: February 2018 Volume 21 Number 2

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February 2018 Volume 21, Issue 2


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Genomics of Brain Disorders (23-25 April 2018) 

This conference will bring together scientists and clinicians working on neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases to compare approaches and synthesise the advances and remaining challenges in the genomics of various brain disorders.

Deadlines: Early Bird: 30 Jan/ Bursaries: 13 Feb/ Abstracts: 27 Feb/ Registration: 27 Mar
Poster on: The expanding CRISPR toolbox

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Pamela Sklar 1959–2017    p151
Patrick F. Sullivan, Michael C. O'Donovan & Nick Craddock

John Lisman 1944–2017    pp152 - 153
Adam Kepecs

News & Views


Skip the salt: your brain might thank you    pp154 - 155
Mohammed A. Shaik & Elizabeth M. C. Hillman

Nuclear pores: the gate to neurodegeneration    pp156 - 158
Nan Li & Clotilde Lagier-Tourenne

Same path, different beginnings    pp159 - 160
Ben W. Dulken & Anne Brunet

Grid cells map the visual world    pp161 - 162
Nathaniel J. Killian & Elizabeth A. Buffalo

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Review Articles


Integrating new findings and examining clinical applications of pattern separation    pp163 - 173
Stephanie L. Leal & Michael A. Yassa

The authors review the latest evidence on hippocampal pattern separation, survey recent data from cognitive tasks testing pattern separation and their application to clinical studies, and evaluate the assumptions that guide studies in the area.


Studying and modifying brain function with non-invasive brain stimulation    pp174 - 187
Rafael Polanía, Michael A. Nitsche & Christian C. Ruff

Polanía, Nitsche and Ruff summarize the state of non-invasive brain stimulation research in humans, discuss some current debates about properties and limitations of these methods, and give recommendations for how these challenges may be addressed.


Brief Communications


Hexadirectional coding of visual space in human entorhinal cortex    pp188 - 190
Matthias Nau, Tobias Navarro Schröder, Jacob L. S. Bellmund & Christian F. Doeller

fMRI activity in human entorhinal cortex is modulated by eye-movement direction with 60° periodicity, implicating a grid cell-like code in mapping visual space. This suggests a role for entorhinal grid coding in cognition beyond spatial navigation.


Human entorhinal cortex represents visual space using a boundary-anchored grid    pp191 - 194
Joshua B. Julian, Alexandra T. Keinath, Giulia Frazzetta & Russell A. Epstein

The authors show that human entorhinal cortex supports a grid cell-like representation of visual space. This visual grid pattern is stably anchored to the external visual world in a fashion analogous to rodent grid representations of navigable space.


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N6-methyladenosine RNA modification regulates embryonic neural stem cell self-renewal through histone modifications    pp195 - 206
Yang Wang, Yue Li, Minghui Yue, Jun Wang, Sandeep Kumar et al.

Using a genetic approach, Wang et al. demonstrate an essential function for m6A mRNA modification in promoting neural stem cell proliferation and reveal interactions between m6A and histone modification as a novel gene regulatory mechanism.


Mutations in Vps15 perturb neuronal migration in mice and are associated with neurodevelopmental disease in humans    pp207 - 217
Thomas Gstrein, Andrew Edwards, Anna Pristoupilová, Ines Leca, Martin Breuss et al.

The brain is a complex biological machine that results from the birth, migration and differentiation of neurons. This paper reports that Vps15 enables the migration and survival of neurons, and implicates the gene in neurodevelopmental disease.


Inhibitory circuit gating of auditory critical-period plasticity    pp218 - 227
Anne E. Takesian, Luke J. Bogart, Jeff W. Lichtman & Takao K. Hensch

The authors show that inhibitory interneurons in cortical layer 1 integrate topographically organized thalamic and neuromodulatory inputs to sculpt sound frequency maps in primary auditory cortex during a developmental critical period.


TDP-43 pathology disrupts nuclear pore complexes and nucleocytoplasmic transport in ALS/FTD    pp228 - 239
Ching-Chieh Chou, Yi Zhang, Mfon E. Umoh, Spencer W. Vaughan, Ileana Lorenzini et al.

Pathological TDP-43 protein aggregates are a hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia. TDP-43 pathology alters the morphology of nuclear pore complexes and cause deficits in nucleocytoplasmic transport.


Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 response    pp240 - 249
Giuseppe Faraco, David Brea, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Gang Wang, Gianfranco Racchumi et al.

A salt-rich diet promotes cerebrovascular diseases and dementia. This study shows that high dietary salt in mice induces a TH17 response in the gut leading to cerebral endothelial dysfunction and cognitive impairment via circulating IL-17.


Simple integration of fast excitation and offset, delayed inhibition computes directional selectivity in Drosophila     pp250 - 257
Eyal Gruntman, Sandro Romani & Michael B. Reiser

In the Drosophila visual system, T4 is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. This directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs.


Dentate network activity is necessary for spatial working memory by supporting CA3 sharp-wave ripple generation and prospective firing of CA3 neurons    pp258 - 269
Takuya Sasaki, Verónica C. Piatti, Ernie Hwaun, Siavash Ahmadi, John E. Lisman et al.

Sasaki et al. reveal that the dentate gyrus not only performs pattern separation but also has a direct role in organizing memory-guided behavior by coordinating the planning of future actions.


Grid scale drives the scale and long-term stability of place maps    pp270 - 282
Caitlin S. Mallory, Kiah Hardcastle, Jason S. Bant & Lisa M. Giocomo

How entorhinal grid cells control hippocampal coding and behavior remains elusive. The authors report that increasing the spatial scale of grid cells expands the scale and reduces the stability of place fields, impairing spatial memory in mice.


Generalizable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in medial frontal cortex    pp283 - 289
Philip A. Kragel, Michiko Kano, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont et al.

Assessing person-level human brain maps across 18 fMRI studies, the authors identify separable representations of pain, cognitive control, and negative emotion in the medial frontal cortex that generalize across different studies and tasks.


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Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing    pp290 - 299
Hannah Hochgerner, Amit Zeisel, Peter Lönnerberg & Sten Linnarsson

Using single-cell RNA-seq, the authors show that early developmental neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is largely conserved in the adult, but with a perinatal transformation of stem cells to an adult type.


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