Wednesday, August 2, 2017

Nature contents: 03 August 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 548 Issue 7665
This Week  
Seek climate advice through established routes
If the Trump administration has questions on global warming, it should direct them to the national academy rather than setting up a spurious 'red team–blue team' debate.
Why antimatter might be the answer to life, the Universe and everything
Experiments that reveal the behaviour of antihydrogen could tell physicists more about the rules that hold the Universe together.
The 5th Helmholtz-Nature Medicine

September 17-19, 2017 | Munich, Germany

Presented by: Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen | Nature Medicine

World View  
Capitalize on African biodiversity
Under-exploited plants offer untold medical and economic promise that should be pursued, urges Ameenah Gurib-Fakim.
Seven Days  
Exomoon candidate, fake peer review and a telescope problem
The week in science: 28 July–3 August 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.

KAUST Discovery: Research into sustainable agriculture


Plant Scientist Mark Tester’s research into growing crops on poor-quality soils or on otherwise barren land is discovering some ground-breaking findings.


Find out more on how Tester’s research could one day help feed the world.


Read more here >> 
News in Focus
CRISPR fixes disease gene in viable human embryos
Gene-editing experiment pushes scientific and ethical boundaries.
Heidi Ledford
  Jordan stakes its future on science
The country wants to use a focus on research to solve its problems and build diplomatic ties in the Middle East.
Amy Maxmen
Fears rise for US climate report as Trump officials take reins
Officials at the US Environmental Protection Agency are consulting global-warming sceptics as they weigh up a technical review.
Jeff Tollefson
  Big names in statistics want to shake up much-maligned P value
One of scientists' favourite statistics — the P value — should face tougher standards, say leading researchers.
Dalmeet Singh Chawla
Bacteria could be key to freeing South Pacific of mosquitoes
Islands in the region could be rid of the biting insects within a decade.
Emma Marris
The race to reveal antimatter's secrets
In the shadow of the Large Hadron Collider, six teams are competing to answer one of the Universe's deepest existential questions.
Elizabeth Gibney
Nature: 3 August 2017
This week, the first flower, gene editing human embryos, and the antimatter quest.
Prove Paris was more than paper promises
All major industrialized countries are failing to meet the pledges they made to cut greenhouse-gas emissions, warn David G. Victor and colleagues.
David G. Victor, Keigo Akimoto, Yoichi Kaya et al.
Summer Books  
Summer books
Head up to the heights of summer reading — picked by our regular reviewers — as labs and lecture halls empty.
Sharon Weinberger, Louise Humphrey, Anne-Emanuelle Birn et al.
Ethics: More research won't crack misconduct
Donald S. Kornfeld, Sandra L. Titus
  GM-food regulations: engage the public
Paul Enríquez
GM-food regulations: US agencies respond
Jason Dietz, Laura Epstein, Sidney W. Abel
  Particle physics: BaBar Collaboration first to see anomaly
Tom Browder, Giovanni Passaleva, Michael Roney
Hall devices: Improve contactless sensing technology
Ramesh G. Mani, Annika Kriisa
Angela M. Hartley Brodie (1934–2017)
Discoverer of selective aromatase inhibitors for breast-cancer treatment.
Balkees Abderrahman, V. Craig Jordan
Cybersecurity for the travelling scientist
Virtual private networks, tracking apps and 'burner' laptops: how to protect sensitive data when you take your research on the road.
Brian Owens
Microbiology: The case of the mysterious messenger
Bacteria and archaea use an innate immune system called CRISPR–Cas to combat viral infection. The identification of a family of molecules that play a key part in this system deepens our understanding of such immunity.
Biotechnology: At the heart of gene edits in human embryos
The gene-editing technology CRISPR–Cas has been used in human embryos grown in vitro to correct a disease-associated mutation. The introduction of editing components at fertilization aided repair efficiency.
Cell biology: Healthy skin rejects cancer
Live imaging shows that healthy skin cells surround and expel neighbours that have cancer-promoting mutations, revealing that tissues can recognize and eliminate mutant cells to prevent tumour initiation.
Cancer genomics: Human metastases under scrutiny
Sequences of the DNA and RNA of 500 human cancers that have spread from their primary site in the body take us a step closer to the convergence of basic science and patient benefit.
Correction of a pathogenic gene mutation in human embryos
CRISPR–Cas9 genome editing is used to induce a DNA repair response and correct a disease-causing heterozygous mutation in human embryos with reduced mosaicism and preferential repair using the wild-type copy of the gene.
Integrative clinical genomics of metastatic cancer
Clinical exome and transcriptome sequencing of 500 adult patients with metastatic solid tumours of diverse lineage and biopsy site, as part of the Michigan Oncology Sequencing (MI-ONCOSEQ) Program.
Artificial light at night as a new threat to pollination
The pollination service provided by nocturnal flower visitors is disrupted near streetlamps, which leads to a reduced reproductive output of the plant that cannot be compensated for by daytime pollinators; in addition, the structure of combined nocturnal and diurnal pollination networks facilitates the spread of the consequences of disrupted night-time pollination to daytime pollinators.
Tumours with class 3 BRAF mutants are sensitive to the inhibition of activated RAS
Hypoactive BRAF mutants bind more tightly than wild type to the upstream regulator RAS, thus amplifying ERK signalling; tumours expressing these mutants require coexistent mechanisms for RAS activation to grow and are sensitive to their inhibition.
A Braf kinase-inactive mutant induces lung adenocarcinoma
Kinase-inactive Braf mutants can initiate the development of lung adenocarcinoma in mice; co-expression of activated Kras enhances tumour initiation and progression, and wild-type Braf is required to sustain tumorigenesis.
Correction of aberrant growth preserves tissue homeostasis
Intravital imaging reveals unanticipated plasticity of adult skin epithelium in mice when faced with mutational or non-mutational insults, and elucidates the dynamic cellular behaviours used for its return to a homeostatic state.
High-temperature crystallization of nanocrystals into three-dimensional superlattices
A bottom-up process to achieve rapid growth of micrometre-sized three-dimensional nanocrystal superlattices during colloidal synthesis at high temperatures is revealed by in situ small-angle X-ray scattering; the process is applicable to several colloidal materials.
Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans
New genome-wide data for ancient, Bronze Age individuals, including Minoans, Mycenaeans, and southwestern Anatolians, show that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically very similar yet distinct, supporting the idea of continuity but not isolation in the history of populations of the Aegean.
Proteins evolve on the edge of supramolecular self-assembly
Introducing a single 'sticky' (hydrophobic) amino acid by point mutation into symmetric protein complexes frequently triggers their association into higher-order assemblies, without affecting their native fold and structure.
Mitotic progression following DNA damage enables pattern recognition within micronuclei
The authors report a link between mitosis, the formation of micronuclei and DNA-damage-induced cGAS-dependent inflammation.
Metabolic control of TH17 and induced Treg cell balance by an epigenetic mechanism
Metabolic changes in T cells can affect the genomic methylation status of key transcription factors and regulate the fate decision between induced regulatory T cells and T helper 17 cells.
ISWI chromatin remodellers sense nucleosome modifications to determine substrate preference
Brief Communications Arising  
On the role of H3.3 in retroviral silencing
Gernot Wolf, Rita Rebollo, Mohammad M. Karimi et al.
Elsässer et al. reply
Simon J. Elsässer, Kyung-Min Noh, Nichole Diaz et al.
News and Views  
Astronomy: Ozone-like layer in an exoplanet atmosphere
Kevin Heng
Cancer: A precision approach to tumour treatment
Rodrigo Dienstmann, Josep Tabernero
Nuclear physics: The fastest-rotating fluid
Hannah Petersen
Cognition: Neurons couple up to make decisions
Stephen V. David
Metabolism: Energy sensing through a sugar diphosphate
Bruce E. Kemp, Jonathan S. Oakhill
Ecology: Chimps at risk from anthrax
Anna Armstrong
50 & 100 Years Ago
The evolution of the host microbiome as an ecosystem on a leash
Within the human microbiome there is tension between microbes evolving to compete within the host ecosystem, and hosts trying to keep them under control.
Kevin R. Foster, Jonas Schluter, Katharine Z. Coyte et al.
Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs
Ablation of hypothalamic stem/progenitor cells in mice leads to ageing-related decreases in physiological parameters and lifespan, and the speed of ageing is partially controlled by these cells through the release of exosomal miRNAs.
Yalin Zhang, Min Soo Kim, Baosen Jia et al.
An ultrahot gas-giant exoplanet with a stratosphere
Observations of the gas-giant exoplanet WASP-121b reveal near-infrared emission lines of water, suggesting that the planet has a stratosphere—a layer in the upper atmosphere where temperature increases with altitude.
Thomas M. Evans, David K. Sing, Tiffany Kataria et al.
Rapid elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV by immunization in cows
Immunization of cows with a recombinant HIV envelope protein leads to the rapid development of potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.
Devin Sok, Khoa M. Le, Melissa Vadnais et al.
Global Λ hyperon polarization in nuclear collisions
The measurement of an alignment between the angular momentum of a non-central collision between heavy ions and the spin of emitted particles reveals that the fluid produced in the collision is extremely vortical.
The STAR Collaboration, L. Adamczyk, J. K. Adkins et al.
Observation of the hyperfine spectrum of antihydrogen OPEN
The hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen has been measured and is consistent with expectations for atomic hydrogen.
M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, C. J. Baker et al.
Quantum simulation of a Fermi–Hubbard model using a semiconductor quantum dot array
A quantum simulation platform based on quantum dots is reported that can operate at relatively low temperatures, and its utility is shown by simulating a Fermi–Hubbard model.
T. Hensgens, T. Fujita, L. Janssen et al.
Visible-light-driven methane formation from CO2 with a molecular iron catalyst
An iron tetraphenylporphyrin complex is shown to catalyse the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane upon visible light irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure.
Heng Rao, Luciana C. Schmidt, Julien Bonin et al.
Elements of Eoarchean life trapped in mineral inclusions
In situ infrared spectroscopy maps the occurrences of chemical bonds within tiny inclusions in 3,700-million-year-old metasedimentary rocks from West Greenland, finding greater evidence for organic life at this early date.
T. Hassenkam, M. P. Andersson, K. N. Dalby et al.
Persistent anthrax as a major driver of wildlife mortality in a tropical rainforest
An anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts in a tropical rainforest, with important implications for the conservation of mammals such as chimpanzees.
Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek et al.
Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference OPEN
A report of high-depth, short-read sequencing and de novo assemblies for 150 individuals from 50 parent–offspring trios as part of establishing a population reference genome for the GenomeDenmark project.
Lasse Maretty, Jacob Malte Jensen, Bent Petersen et al.
Distinct timescales of population coding across cortex
Calcium imaging data from mice performing a virtual reality auditory decision-making task are used to analyse the population codes in primary auditory and posterior parietal cortex that support choice behaviour.
Caroline A. Runyan, Eugenio Piasini, Stefano Panzeri et al.
In vivo FRET–FLIM reveals cell-type-specific protein interactions in Arabidopsis roots
Imaging in living Arabidopsis roots reveals that protein complexes can change their conformation in a cell-type-dependent manner to regulate specific gene expression programs leading to precise specification and maintenance of particular cell fates within the root meristem.
Yuchen Long, Yvonne Stahl, Stefanie Weidtkamp-Peters et al.
Stimulation of functional neuronal regeneration from Müller glia in adult mice
Inhibition of histone deacetylation allows the transcription factor Ascl1 to bind to key gene loci in Müller glia and drive the functional generation of retinal neurons in adult mice.
Nikolas L. Jorstad, Matthew S. Wilken, William N. Grimes et al.
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase mediate glucose sensing by AMPK
Glucose starvation activates AMPK via an AMP/ADP-independent mechanism that involves fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and aldolase.
Chen-Song Zhang, Simon A. Hawley, Yue Zong et al.
Complex cellular logic computation using ribocomputing devices
De-novo-designed RNA molecules are used to construct cellular computing devices that can implement complex logic functions.
Alexander A. Green, Jongmin Kim, Duo Ma et al.
Corrigendum: Crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a peptide agonist
Ali Jazayeri, Mathieu Rappas, Alastair J. H. Brown et al.
Corrigendum: Modulating the therapeutic response of tumours to dietary serine and glycine starvation
Oliver D. K. Maddocks, Dimitris Athineos, Eric C. Cheung et al.

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