Monday, July 31, 2017

Science X Newsletter Week 30

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for week 30:

Scientists produce robust catalyst to split water into hydrogen, oxygen

Splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen to produce clean energy can be simplified with a single catalyst developed by scientists at Rice University and the University of Houston.

People who drink 3 to 4 times per week less likely to develop diabetes than those who never drink: study

Frequent alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of diabetes in both men and women, according to a new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes), with alcohol consumption over 3-4 week days giving the lowest risks of diabetes.

Brain cells found to control aging

Scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine have found that stem cells in the brain's hypothalamus govern how fast aging occurs in the body. The finding, made in mice, could lead to new strategies for warding off age-related diseases and extending lifespan. The paper was published online today in Nature.

Scientists build DNA from scratch to alter life's blueprint

At Jef Boeke's lab, you can whiff an odor that seems out of place, as if they were baking bread here.

Milky Way's origins are not what they seem

In a first-of-its-kind analysis, Northwestern University astrophysicists have discovered that, contrary to previously standard lore, up to half of the matter in our Milky Way galaxy may come from distant galaxies. As a result, each one of us may be made in part from extragalactic matter.

Physics of bubbles could explain language patterns

Language patterns could be predicted by simple laws of physics, a new study has found.

Astrophysicists map out the light energy contained within the Milky Way

For the first time, a team of scientists have calculated the distribution of all light energy contained within the Milky Way, which will provide new insight into the make-up of our galaxy and how stars in spiral galaxies such as ours form. The study is published in the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Cellular roots of anxiety identified

From students stressing over exams to workers facing possible layoffs, worrying about the future is a normal and universal experience. But when people's anticipation of bad things to come starts interfering with daily life, ordinary worry can turn into an anxiety disorder. About one in four adults will struggle with anxiety at some point in their lives, making it one of the most common mental disorders in the United States.

Coral gardening is benefiting Caribbean reefs, study finds

A new study found that Caribbean staghorn corals (Acropora cervicornis) are benefiting from "coral gardening," the process of restoring coral populations by planting laboratory-raised coral fragments on reefs.

Study suggests link between autism, pain sensitivity

New research by a UT Dallas neuroscientist has established a link between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and pain sensitivity. 

Scientists solve longstanding biological mystery of DNA organization

Stretched out, the DNA from all the cells in our body would reach Pluto. So how does each tiny cell pack a two-meter length of DNA into its nucleus, which is just one-thousandth of a millimeter across?

Optical lens can transfer digital information without loss

(—Researchers have designed an optical lens that exhibits two properties that so far have not been demonstrated together: self-focusing and an optical effect called the Talbot effect that creates repeating patterns of light. The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems.

Scientists uncover a hidden calcium cholesterol connection

It's well known that calcium is essential for strong bones and teeth, but new research shows it also plays a key role in moderating another important aspect of health—cholesterol.

Green tea ingredient may ameliorate memory impairment, brain insulin resistance, and obesity

A study published online in The FASEB Journal, involving mice, suggests that EGCG (epigallocatechin-3-gallate), the most abundant catechin and biologically active component in green tea, could alleviate high-fat and high-fructose (HFFD)-induced insulin resistance and cognitive impairment. Previous research pointed to the potential of EGCG to treat a variety of human diseases, yet until now, EGCG's impact on insulin resistance and cognitive deficits triggered in the brain by a Western diet remained unclear.

Nanoparticles loaded with component of common spice kill cancer cells

Attaching curcumin, a component of the common spice turmeric, to nanoparticles can be used to target and destroy treatment-resistant neuroblastoma tumor cells, according to a new study published in Nanoscale.

New discovery could reverse tissue damage caused by heart attacks

A new discovery by University of Bristol scientists helps to explain how cells which surround blood vessels, called pericytes, stimulate new blood vessels to grow with the hormone 'leptin' playing a key role. Leptin is produced by fat cells which helps to regulate energy balance in the body by inhibiting the appetite. This study, described in Scientific Reports, may have important implications for the treatment of heart attacks and also for cancer, the two main killers in the UK.

High-temperature superconductivity in B-doped Q-carbon

Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material.

Physicists turn a crystal into an electrical circuit

Washington State University physicists have found a way to write an electrical circuit into a crystal, opening up the possibility of transparent, three-dimensional electronics that, like an Etch A Sketch, can be erased and reconfigured.

Dark matter is likely 'cold,' not 'fuzzy,' scientists report after new simulations

Dark matter is the aptly named unseen material that makes up the bulk of matter in our universe. But what dark matter is made of is a matter of debate.

Sugar not so sweet for mental health

Sugar may be bad not only for your teeth and your waistline, but also your mental health, claimed a study Thursday that was met with scepticism by other experts.

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