Friday, July 7, 2017

Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Contents: 2017 Volume #24 pp 555 - 606

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Nature Structural & Molecular Biology

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July 2017 Volume 24, Issue 7

News and Views
Brief Communication
Nature Outline: Eardrum Regeneration

A burst eardrum is a common injury. Although ruptures can cause pain and hearing loss, most heal naturally. But for those that don't, there could soon be an alternative to specialist surgery. Regenerative medicine is helping the eardrum to heal itself.

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Nature Milestones: Interactive antibody timeline

Nature Milestones: Antibodies presents an interactive timeline on the history of antibodies covering everything from their initial description in antisera through to their application in immunotherapy. The timeline includes written content, video interviews and animations. 

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Open-door policies   p555
Nature research journals announce new reporting summaries to promote transparency, and our editors welcome early-career researchers to the Springer Nature office in New York to discuss careers in scientific publishing.

News and Views


Chromatin-enriched lncRNAs: a novel class of enhancer RNAs   pp556 - 557
Srimonta Gayen and Sundeep Kalantry
Long noncoding (lnc)RNAs are postulated to control diverse biological processes by modulating transcription, yet for most lncRNAs evidence supporting this function has been lacking. A new report describes the role of a novel class of lncRNAs—chromatin-associated enhancer RNAs or cheRNAs—in the regulation of proximal gene expression.

See also: Article by Werner et al.

Switching dynein motors on and off   pp557 - 559
Gaia Pigino and Stephen M King
Cytoplasmic dyneins transport cellular components from the periphery toward the center of the cell. By moving cargoes along microtubules, dyneins ensure proper cell division, regulate exchange of materials between organelles, and contribute to the internal organization of eukaryotic cells. Two recent studies show that, upon dimerization, cytoplasmic dyneins intrinsically adopt an autoinhibited configuration that can be relieved by other factors to precisely control motor activity and regulate dynein-based transport.

Human antibody pieces together the puzzle of the trimeric Lassa virus surface antigen   pp559 - 560
Antra Zeltina and Thomas A Bowden
The envelope glycoprotein spike, the sole antigen on the Lassa virus (LASV) surface, constitutes the focal point of the host neutralizing immune response. A high-resolution structure of the trimeric LASV glycoprotein in an antibody-bound form illuminates the molecular architecture of the antigen and reveals the mode of action of the most abundant known class of Lassa-specific human neutralizing antibodies.

Structural & Molecular Biology
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RNA fate determination through cotranscriptional adenosine methylation and microprocessor binding   pp561 - 569
Philip Knuckles, Sarah H Carl, Michael Musheev, Christof Niehrs, Alice Wenger et al.
Microprocessor components Dgcr8 and Drosha associate with transcriptionally active coding and noncoding genes in a Mettl3-dependent manner and, upon temperature stress, relocate to heat-shock genes, where they mark mRNAs for subsequent degradation.

Structural basis for the cooperative allosteric activation of the free fatty acid receptor GPR40   pp570 - 577
Jun Lu, Noel Byrne, John Wang, Gerard Bricogne, Frank K Brown et al.
Crystal structures of hGPR40, a target for treatment of type 2 diabetes, bound to a partial and an allosteric agonist explain the binding cooperativity between these ligands and present new opportunities for structure-guided drug design.

Structural analysis of MDM2 RING separates degradation from regulation of p53 transcription activity   pp578 - 587
Koji Nomura, Marta Klejnot, Dominika Kowalczyk, Andreas K Hock, Gary J Sibbet et al.
MDM2 mutations that prevent E2-ubiquitin binding without altering RING domain structure lead to loss of E3-ligase activity, while the ability to limit p53 transcriptional activity is retained, allowing cells to respond more quickly to cellular stress.

Rif1 maintains telomeres and mediates DNA repair by encasing DNA ends   pp588 - 595
Stefano Mattarocci, Julia K Reinert, Richard D Bunker, Gabriele A Fontana, Tianlai Shi et al.
Structure determination and functional analyses of budding yeast Rif1 reveal a novel, hooked N-terminal DNA-binding domain required for telomere maintenance and checkpoint control and show that Rif1's role in DNA-repair pathway choice is conserved in yeast and mammalian cells.

Chromatin-enriched lncRNAs can act as cell-type specific activators of proximal gene transcription   pp596 - 603
Michael S Werner, Matthew A Sullivan, Rohan N Shah, Rangarajan D Nadadur, Adrian T Grzybowski et al.
Functional characterization of chromatin enriched lncRNAs (cheRNAs) reveals their role as cis-acting transcriptional activators that couple enhancers at sites of cheRNA synthesis to promoters of proximal target genes.

See also: News and Views by Gayen & Kalantry

Brief Communication


A MILI-independent piRNA biogenesis pathway empowers partial germline reprogramming   pp604 - 606
Lina Vasiliauskaite, Dimitrios Vitsios, Rebecca V Berrens, Claudia Carrieri, Wolf Reik et al.
MILI-mediated piRNA processing and amplification is not essential for all MIWI2 male germline reprogramming activity, indicating the existence of a MILI-independent piRNA biogenesis pathway.

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