Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Nature Medicine Contents: July 2017 Volume 23 Number 7 pp 789-898

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Nature Medicine

From Bench to Bedside and Back Again

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July 2017 Volume 23, Issue 7

News and Views
Brief Communication
Technical Reports

Nature Index China 2017

China continues to increase its global share of research papers, but publication numbers are just one indicator that a country's science is thriving.

Read the full supplement free for six months

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Nature Index Japan 2017 

Japan's status as a science superstar is vulnerable. Nature Index 2017 Japan reveals that although the country is still among the upper echelons of global research, its output has continued to slide.

Read the full supplement free for six months
Focus on Disease models: reproducibility and translation 

Lab Animal, a Nature Research journal focusing on in vivo methods, research and technology with model organisms of human health & disease, presents a special Focus on reproducibility and translation of in vivo research with disease models. 

Access this Focus >

Produced with support from: 
Taconic Biosciences, Inc. 
Charles River

Presented by: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College | Chinese Society for Immunology (CSI) | Nature Reviews Immunology | Nature Immunology | Nature | Nature Communications

This conference will feature sessions on microbiota, cell death, metabolism, technologies, and innate sensing and signaling as they relate to inflammatory diseases and cancer.

September 17-20, 2017 | Beijing, China




A prescription for cancer diagnostics   p789
Cancer research has made great strides in identifying effective therapies for treating advanced-stage tumors. The next challenge is moving the battle to earlier stages of disease.

Battling the biology of opioid addiction   p790
Deaths from drug overdose are rising worldwide, in part owing to the growing epidemic of opioid addiction. Efforts to combat opioid addiction will benefit from stronger collaboration between preclinical researchers who are studying addiction and those studying chronic pain.



Medicine's movable feast: What jumping genes can teach us about treating disease   pp791 - 795
Roxanne Khamsi

Put to the test: Organoid-based testing becomes a clinical tool   pp796 - 799
Shraddha Chakradhar



Correction   p799

News and Views


An unexpected role for bile acid synthesis in adaptation to low temperature   pp800 - 802
Folkert Kuipers and Albert K Groen
Enhanced conversion of dietary cholesterol to bile acids through the alternative pathway leads to cold-associated, metabolically beneficial changes in the intestinal microbiome and to elevated bile acid levels that contribute to adaptive thermogenesis.

See also: Article by Worthmann et al.

A mouse model of renal cell carcinoma   pp802 - 803
Laura S Schmidt and W Marston Linehan
A mouse model with combined renal epithelium-specific deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 that develops clear-cell renal cell carcinoma provides a research tool for investigating the mechanisms that drive this cancer, and for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents.

See also: Article by Harlander et al.

Nature Medicine
JOBS of the week
Post-doctoral Position in Cancer Genomics and Precision Medicine
Candiolo Cancer Institute-FPO, IRCCS
Associate Editor, Science Translational Medicine
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Multiple Opportunities in Molecular Neuroscience
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Postdoctoral Fellow
Case Western Reserve University, School of Medicine
Chair, Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science
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Insulin action and resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes   pp804 - 814
Michael P Czech
In this Perspective, Michael Czech presents evidence for whether hyperinsulinemia occurs before insulin resistance upon overfeeding or high-fat diet feeding, or whether insulin resistance causes hyperinsulinemia, thus attempting to delineate the relationship between hyperinsulinemia, obesity and insulin resistance.

Brief Communication


Elimination of large tumors in mice by mRNA-encoded bispecific antibodies   pp815 - 817
Christiane R Stadler, Hayat Bahr-Mahmud, Leyla Celik, Bernhard Hebich, Alexandra S Roth et al.
Bispecific antibodies that connect T cells with tumor cells can be delivered in the form of in vitro-transcribed pharmacologically optimized mRNA; when injected into mice, these mRNA-encoded antibodies reject large established tumors as efficiently as the corresponding recombinant antibody protein.

Nature Outlook: Animal Health

Animal and human health are closely linked. This Outlook examines how climate change is pushing diseases into formerly 'safe' regions of the world, the challenges in treating parasites, the efforts to vaccinate gorillas against Ebola and how a holistic approach to disease could further the well-being of animals. 

Access the Outlook free online
Produced with support from 
Bayer Animal Health GmbH 



Interaction of reactive astrocytes with type I collagen induces astrocytic scar formation through the integrin-N-cadherin pathway after spinal cord injury   pp818 - 828
Masamitsu Hara, Kazu Kobayakawa, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiromi Kumamaru, Kazuya Yokota et al.
In a mouse model of spinal cord injury, reactive astrogliosis is found to be context dependent and reversible. Blockade of type I collagen-reactive astrocyte interactions prevents astrocyte scar formation and facilitates functional recovery after injury.

Thermoneutral housing exacerbates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice and allows for sex-independent disease modeling   pp829 - 838
Daniel A Giles, Maria E Moreno-Fernandez, Traci E Stankiewicz, Simon Graspeuntner, Monica Cappelletti et al.
Current mouse models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are limited, making identification and preclinical testing of new treatments challenging. Housing mice at thermoneutrality leads to less stress, a stronger immune response and better modeling of this condition.

Cold-induced conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in mice shapes the gut microbiome and promotes adaptive thermogenesis   pp839 - 849
Anna Worthmann, Clara John, Malte C Ruhlemann, Miriam Baguhl, Femke-Anouska Heinsen et al.
During cold stimulation, cholesterol is converted to bile acids in an alternative pathway. The bile acids then alter the microbiota, which in turn promotes more heat generation.

See also: News and Views by Kuipers & Groen

Metformin alters the gut microbiome of individuals with treatment-naive type 2 diabetes, contributing to the therapeutic effects of the drug   pp850 - 858
Hao Wu, Eduardo Esteve, Valentina Tremaroli, Muhammad Tanweer Khan, Robert Caesar et al.
A randomized clinical trial reveals that the antidiabetic effects of metformin are at least partially due to beneficial changes in the microbiota.

Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention   pp859 - 868
Ruixin Liu, Jie Hong, Xiaoqiang Xu, Qiang Feng, Dongya Zhang et al.
Composition of gut bacteria and serum metabolites in young, obese individuals is partially restored following weight loss surgery, including Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which decreases serum glutamate levels and fat mass gain in mice.

Combined mutation in Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 causes clear cell renal cell carcinoma in mice   pp869 - 877
Sabine Harlander, Desiree Schonenberger, Nora C Toussaint, Michael Prummer, Antonella Catalano et al.
Through combined deletion of Vhl, Trp53 and Rb1 in renal epithelial cells, the authors develop a new mouse model of renal cell carcinoma that recapitulates the cellular and molecular features of a large proportion of human tumors. This model uncovers a role for primary-cilium-related genes in the development of the disease and provides a reliable platform for preclinical therapeutic studies.

See also: News and Views by Schmidt & Linehan

Scientific rigour and reproducibility 

Science progresses by standing on the shoulders of giants, to paraphrase Newton. But what if those shoulders aren't steady? Read about how to assess and improve the reliability of biomedical research. 

Access this Collection of articles free online

Produced with support from: 
Gilson & sciNote



Colonic organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells for modeling colorectal cancer and drug testing   pp878 - 884
Miguel Crespo, Eduardo Vilar, Su-Yi Tsai, Kyle Chang, Sadaf Amin et al.
A protocol based on chemical modulation of WNT activity is used to efficiently generate colonic organoids that recapitulate the molecular features of human colon tissue. Colonic organoids generated from induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis provide an in vitro platform for disease modeling and preclinical drug testing.

Technical Reports


Novel assay reveals a large, inducible, replication-competent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells   pp885 - 889
Anwesha Sanyal, Robbie B Mailliard, Charles R Rinaldo, Deena Ratner, Ming Ding et al.
Sanyal et al. report a new and rapid assay for measuring replication-competent HIV-1 in CD4+ T cells.

ISDoT: in situ decellularization of tissues for high-resolution imaging and proteomic analysis of native extracellular matrix   pp890 - 898
Alejandro E Mayorca-Guiliani, Chris D Madsen, Thomas R Cox, Edward R Horton, Freja A Venning et al.
By surgically directing the vascular delivery of decellularization reagents, the in situ decellularization of desired organs or tissues in mice can be achieved, enabling detailed imaging and characterization of the intact extracellular matrix, including in the cancer metastatic niche.

Call for nominations: 2017 John Maddox Prize for Standing up for Science.

Recognising the work of individuals who promote science in the face of hostility. Winners will be announced at a reception in London, as well as in Nature, and will receive £2,000.

Closing date for nominations is 31st July 2017.

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