Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Nature Geoscience contents: May 2017 Volume 10 Number 7 pp463-535

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Nature Geoscience

Focus on gender equity in astronomy

The June issue of Nature Astronomy includes a Focus on gender equity in astronomy, as data show that female astronomers face discrimination at all stages of their careers. A variety of articles explore the different manifestations of discrimination within our community.


July 2017 Volume 10, Issue 7

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For people and planet   p463
The emerging field of geohealth links human well-being and ecosystem health. A deeper understanding of these linkages can help society mitigate the health costs of economic growth before they become crises.



Biodiversity loss from deep-sea mining   pp464 - 465
C. L. Van Dover, J. A. Ardron, E. Escobar, M. Gianni, K. M. Gjerde et al.



Climate change narratives   pp466 - 468
Richard D. Pancost
Reconstructions of Earth's past are much more than benchmarks for climate models. They also help us comprehend risk by providing concrete narratives for diverse climates.

News and Views


Aquatic biogeochemistry: Cleaner Chinese lakes   pp469 - 470
Jessica Corman
Phosphorus loading can cause eutrophication of lakes. Analyses of lake chemistry in China reveal that policies have led to lower phosphorus levels overall, but increasing trends in some lakes suggest that expanded policies may be needed.
See also: Article by Tong et al.

Climate variability: The Atlantic's internal drum beat   pp470 - 471
Sloan Coats & Jason E. Smerdon
The North Atlantic region experiences climate variability on a range of timescales. A climate reconstruction suggests that large-magnitude, multidecadal internal variability was a robust feature over the past 1,200 years.
See also: Article by Wang et al.

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Correction   p463



The deep atmosphere of Venus and the possible role of density-driven separation of CO2 and N2    pp473 - 477
Sebastien Lebonnois & Gerald Schubert
The only temperature profile of the lowermost Venusian atmosphere appears unstable. Compositional heterogeneity due to density-driven separation of N2 from CO2 gas in the lower atmosphere of Venus may be a viable explanation.

Call for nominations: 2017 John Maddox Prize for Standing up for Science.

Recognising the work of individuals who promote science in the face of hostility. Winners will be announced at a reception in London, as well as in Nature, and will receive £2,000.

Closing date for nominations is 31st July 2017.

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Causes of differences in model and satellite tropospheric warming rates   pp478 - 485
Benjamin D. Santer, John C. Fyfe, Giuliana Pallotta, Gregory M. Flato, Gerald A. Meehl et al.
Over the early twenty-first century, model-derived warming trends exceeded observed warming. Analyses of global-mean tropospheric temperature suggest that these differences are likely to stem from missing external influences in the models.

Top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing affected by brown carbon in the upper troposphere   pp486 - 489
Yuzhong Zhang, Haviland Forrister, Jiumeng Liu, Jack Dibb, Bruce Anderson et al.
Brown carbon absorbs light, but its climate impacts in the upper troposphere are not well known. A series of aircraft observations in the US reveals that convection lofts brown carbon to high altitudes, causing greater warming than at lower altitudes.

Transition from high- to low-NOx control of night-time oxidation in the southeastern US   pp490 - 495
P. M. Edwards, K. C. Aikin, W. P. Dube, J. L. Fry, J. B. Gilman et al.
The influence of NOx levels at night on atmospheric oxidation is unclear. Analyses of aircraft observations suggest that night-time oxidation is transitioning from a high- to low-NOx regime in the southeast US due to declines in NOx levels.

Hotspots of soil N2O emission enhanced through water absorption by plant residue   pp496 - 500
A. N. Kravchenko, E. R. Toosi, A. K. Guber, N. E. Ostrom, J. Yu et al.
Production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide occurs episodically in small soil volumes. Soil microcosm experiments reveal that water absorption by plant residue raises moisture levels and accelerates nitrous oxide production by microbial denitrification.

Substantial inorganic carbon sink in closed drainage basins globally   pp501 - 506
Yu Li, Chengqi Zhang, Naiang Wang, Qin Han, Xinzhong Zhang et al.
Dissolved inorganic carbon is buried in dryland basins that do not drain to the sea. Based on measurements of sediment chemistry in twelve of these sites, closed basins are estimated to store 0.15 Pg of dissolved inorganic carbon annually.

Decline in Chinese lake phosphorus concentration accompanied by shift in sources since 2006   pp507 - 511
Yindong Tong, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang, Raoul-Marie Couture, Thorjorn Larssen et al.
Many lakes in China are subject to eutrophication. Water quality analyses on 862 Chinese lakes reveal that better sanitation has reduced phosphorus inputs in the most populated areas, but aquaculture and livestock offset improvements elsewhere.
See also: News and Views by Corman

Internal and external forcing of multidecadal Atlantic climate variability over the past 1,200 years   pp512 - 517
Jianglin Wang, Bao Yang, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Jurg Luterbacher, Timothy J. Osborn et al.
The North Atlantic region experiences climate variability on multidecadal timescales. An analysis of a tree-ring network shows this variability can be attributed to both internal and external forcing over the past 1,200 years.
See also: News and Views by Coats & Smerdon

Abrupt North Atlantic circulation changes in response to gradual CO2 forcing in a glacial climate state   pp518 - 523
Xu Zhang, Gregor Knorr, Gerrit Lohmann & Stephen Barker
During glacial climates, the strength of the Atlantic overturning circulation has changed abruptly. Climate model simulations show that gradual changes in atmospheric CO2 levels can trigger such events via atmospheric moisture transport.

Cumulate causes for the low contents of sulfide-loving elements in the continental crust   pp524 - 529
Frances Elaine Jenner
Earth's continents are depleted in some economically important elements. Geochemical analysis reveals that some sulfide-loving elements are preferentially delaminated and recycled back into the mantle during subduction.

The roles of pyroxenite and peridotite in the mantle sources of oceanic basalts   pp530 - 535
Andrew K. Matzen, Bernard J. Wood, Michael B. Baker & Edward M. Stolper
Whether subducted oceanic crust is recycled via the mantle back into newly forming seafloor at mid-ocean ridges is unclear. Laboratory partitioning experiments now reveal that recycled material is not required to create oceanic lithosphere.

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