Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Nature Communications - 19 July 2017

Nature Communications

Nature Research symposium: Metamaterials and Grand Challenges

Nature Communications, Nature Materials and Nature Photonics present a symposium which will cover the potential of metamaterials to address the so-called "grand challenges" in research. The symposium will take place at the upcoming Metamaterials'2017 conference in Marseille, 28 August - 2 September.

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19 July 2017 
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Scientific rigour and reproducibility

Science progresses by standing on the shoulders of giants, to paraphrase Newton. But what if those shoulders aren't steady? Read about how to assess and improve the reliability of biomedical research. 

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Nature Outline: Eardrum Regeneration

A burst eardrum is a common injury. Although ruptures can cause pain and hearing loss, most heal naturally. But for those that don’t, there could soon be an alternative to specialist surgery. Regenerative medicine is helping the eardrum to heal itself. 

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An open access, online-only journal providing researchers, policy makers and the public with the latest research on weather and climate, publishing high-quality papers that focus on topics including climate dynamics, climate variability, weather and climate prediction, climate change, weather extremes, atmospheric composition including aerosols, the hydrological cycle and atmosphere-ocean interactions. 

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November 2-3, 2017 | Hanover, Germany

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  Latest Articles View all Articles  
De novo active sites for resurrected Precambrian enzymes OPEN
Valeria A. Risso, Sergio Martinez-Rodriguez, Adela M. Candel, Dennis M. Krüger, David Pantoja-Uceda, Mariano Ortega-Muñoz, Francisco Santoyo-Gonzalez, Eric A. Gaucher, Shina C. L. Kamerlin, Marta Bruix, Jose A. Gavira and Jose M. Sanchez-Ruiz
The emergence of novel catalytic functions in ancient proteins likely played a role in the evolution of modern enzymes. Here, the authors use protein sequences from Precambrian beta-lactamases and demonstrate that a single hydrophobic-to-ionizable amino acid mutation can lead to substantial Kemp eliminase activity.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16113

Non-equilibrium dissipative supramolecular materials with a tunable lifetime OPEN
Marta Tena-Solsona, Benedikt Rieß, Raphael K. Grötsch, Franziska C. Löhrer, Caren Wanzke, Benjamin Käsdorf, Andreas R. Bausch, Peter Müller-Buschbaum, Oliver Lieleg and Job Boekhoven
Biological systems vital functions are based on non-equilibrium states driven by consumption of chemical fuels. Here the authors show a spatiotemporal control over the formation of hydrophobic colloids, hydrogels or inks through a chemical reaction network of dicarboxylate compounds fuelled by carbodiimide.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15895

Ancient European dog genomes reveal continuity since the Early Neolithic OPEN
Laura R. Botigué, Shiya Song, Amelie Scheu, Shyamalika Gopalan, Amanda L. Pendleton, Matthew Oetjens, Angela M. Taravella, Timo Seregély, Andrea Zeeb-Lanz, Rose-Marie Arbogast, Dean Bobo, Kevin Daly, Martina Unterländer, Joachim Burger, Jeffrey M. Kidd and Krishna R. Veeramah
The European continent is thought to have played a major role in the origins of modern dogs. Here, analysing two ancient dog genomes from Germany, the authors find significant genetic continuity throughout the Neolithic period and time dog domestication to ∼20,000–40,000 years ago.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16082

Phosphorylated HBO1 at UV irradiated sites is essential for nucleotide excision repair OPEN
Hiroyuki Niida, Ryoichi Matsunuma, Ryo Horiguchi, Chiharu Uchida, Yuka Nakazawa, Akira Motegi, Koji Nishimoto, Satoshi Sakai, Tatsuya Ohhata, Kyoko Kitagawa, Shinichi Moriwaki, Hideo Nishitani, Ayako Ui, Tomoo Ogi and Masatoshi Kitagawa
Repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers requires access to DNA by the nucleotide excision repair machinery. Here the authors show that HBO1 facilitates accumulation of SNF2H and ACF1 to make chromatin more accessible after ultraviolet damage.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16102

Central insulin modulates food valuation via mesolimbic pathways OPEN
Lena J. Tiedemann, Sebastian M. Schmid, Judith Hettel, Katrin Giesen, Paul Francke, Christian Büchel and Stefanie Brassen
The influence of insulin on food preference and the corresponding underlying neural circuits are unknown in humans. Here, the authors show that increasing insulin changes food preference by modulating mesolimbic neural circuits, and that this pattern is changed in insulin-resistant individuals.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16052

Crystalline metamaterials for topological properties at subwavelength scales OPEN
Simon Yves, Romain Fleury, Thomas Berthelot, Mathias Fink, Fabrice Lemoult and Geoffroy Lerosey
Existing classical wave analogues of topological insulator are physically wavelength scaled, limiting potential applications. Here, Yves et al. show complex topological crystalline properties in spatially ordered metamaterials with deep subwavelength resonant elements on specific lattices.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16023

The smectic order of wrinkles OPEN
Hillel Aharoni, Desislava V. Todorova, Octavio Albarrán, Lucas Goehring, Randall D. Kamien and Eleni Katifori
A thin elastic sheet can develop wrinkles which arrange into patterns similar to those characteristic of liquid crystals. Here the authors use this analogy to propose a mapping between the elastic sheet problem and the smectic liquid crystal problem which can enable a better understanding of wrinkling.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15809

Physical limits to biomechanical sensing in disordered fibre networks OPEN
Farzan Beroz, Louise M. Jawerth, Stefan Münster, David A. Weitz, Chase P. Broedersz and Ned S. Wingreen
Cells in the connective tissue are surrounded by a heterogeneous network of biopolymers. Here, the authors investigate how such heterogeneity affects cellular mechanosensing by simulating the deformation response of experimental and modelled biopolymer networks to locally applied forces.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16096

Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals OPEN
Jean-Michel Guay, Antonino Calà Lesina, Guillaume Côté, Martin Charron, Daniel Poitras, Lora Ramunno, Pierre Berini and Arnaud Weck
The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. Here, Guay et al. use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper, and aluminium.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16095

Non-canonical NOTCH3 signalling limits tumour angiogenesis OPEN
Shuheng Lin, Ana Negulescu, Sirisha Bulusu, Benjamin Gibert, Jean-Guy Delcros, Benjamin Ducarouge, Nicolas Rama, Nicolas Gadot, Isabelle Treilleux, Pierre Saintigny, Olivier Meurette and Patrick Mehlen
Notch signalling is deregulated in several cancers; therefore, strategies targeting this pathway are currently being explored. Here the authors report a pro-apoptotic function of Notch3 in endothelial cells; consequently, when Notch3 is silenced in stroma cells, tumour growth and angiogenesis are increased.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16074

Pericyte-expressed Tie2 controls angiogenesis and vessel maturation OPEN
Martin Teichert, Laura Milde, Annegret Holm, Laura Stanicek, Nicolas Gengenbacher, Soniya Savant, Tina Ruckdeschel, Zulfiyya Hasanov, Kshitij Srivastava, Junhao Hu, Stella Hertel, Arne Bartol, Katharina Schlereth and Hellmut G. Augustin
The angiopoietins regulate vascular maturation, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis via their Tie receptors that were long believed to be endothelium-specific. Here the authors show that angiopoietins activate and control pericyte function through pericyte-expressed Tie2 triggering of Calpain, Akt and FOXO3A signalling cascades.
18 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16106

Progression through mitosis promotes PARP inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in homologous recombination-deficient cancer cells OPEN
Pepijn M. Schoonen, Francien Talens, Colin Stok, Ewa Gogola, Anne Margriet Heijink, Peter Bouwman, Floris Foijer, Madalena Tarsounas, Sohvi Blatter, Jos Jonkers, Sven Rottenberg and Marcel A. T. M. van Vugt
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 render a cancer cell hypersensitive to PARP inhibitors but they can acquire resistance and relapse. Here the authors find that PARP inhibition leads to replication fork instability, cytokinesis failure and cell death, aiding our understanding of how inhibition leads to cytotoxic outcomes.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15981

Transancestral mapping and genetic load in systemic lupus erythematosus OPEN
Carl D. Langefeld, Hannah C. Ainsworth, Deborah S. Cunninghame Graham, Jennifer A. Kelly, Mary E. Comeau, Miranda C. Marion, Timothy D. Howard, Paula S. Ramos, Jennifer A. Croker, David L. Morris, Johanna K. Sandling, Jonas Carlsson Almlöf, Eduardo M. Acevedo-Vásquez, Graciela S. Alarcón, Alejandra M. Babini, Vicente Baca, Anders A. Bengtsson, Guillermo A. Berbotto, Marc Bijl, Elizabeth E. Brown et al.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a strong ethnic and gender bias. In a transancestral genetic association study, Langefeld et al. identify 24 novel regions associated with risk to lupus and propose a cumulative hits hypothesis for loci conferring risk to SLE.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16021

High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states OPEN
M. A. Fareed, V. V. Strelkov, N. Thiré, S. Mondal, B. E. Schmidt, F. Légaré and T. Ozaki
High-energy photons in XUV range and attosecond pulses are generated from infrared laser pulses through high harmonic generation in gases and solids. Here, the authors demonstrate the microscopic origin of resonant harmonic generation involving the autoionizing states of Sn in plasma plumes.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16061

Quantifying the critical thickness of electron hybridization in spintronics materials OPEN
T. Pincelli, V. Lollobrigida, F. Borgatti, A. Regoutz, B. Gobaut, C. Schlueter, T. -L. Lee, D. J. Payne, M. Oura, K. Tamasaku, A. Y. Petrov, P. Graziosi, F. Miletto Granozio, M. Cavallini, G. Vinai, R. Ciprian, C. H. Back, G. Rossi, M. Taguchi, H. Daimon et al.
Surface versus bulk effects in electronic structure of spintronics materials are crucial to their applications but are yet well understood. Here the authors experimentally determine the critical thickness that defines the crossover of electron hybridization between surface and bulk for two prototype spintronics materials.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16051

Essential role of FBXL5-mediated cellular iron homeostasis in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells OPEN
Yoshiharu Muto, Masaaki Nishiyama, Akihiro Nita, Toshiro Moroishi and Keiichi I. Nakayama
The iron-regulated F-box protein FBXL5 regulates iron homeostasis by mediating the degradation of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2). Here the authors show that FBXL5 and its regulation of IRP2 are required for HSC self-renewal and reconstitution capability.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16114

Modulation of nongenomic activation of PI3K signalling by tetramerization of N-terminally-cleaved RXRα OPEN
Liqun Chen, Alexander E. Aleshin, Gulimiran Alitongbieke, Yuqi Zhou, Xindao Zhang, Xiaohong Ye, Mengjie Hu, Gaoang Ren, Ziwen Chen, Yue Ma, Duo Zhang, Shuai Liu, Weiwei Gao, Lijun Cai, Lingjuan Wu, Zhiping Zeng, Fuquan Jiang, Jie Liu, Hu Zhou, Gregory Cadwell et al.
The transcription factor retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRα) can also form homotetramers. Here the authors show that the anti-cancer agent K-80003 selectively inhibits the nongenomic action of N-terminally-cleaved RXRα in tumour cells by stabilizing its tetramerization but not that of full-length RXRα.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16066

MUS81 nuclease activity is essential for replication stress tolerance and chromosome segregation in BRCA2-deficient cells OPEN
Xianning Lai, Ronan Broderick, Valérie Bergoglio, Jutta Zimmer, Sophie Badie, Wojciech Niedzwiedz, Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann and Madalena Tarsounas
BRCA2-deficient cells fail to complete replication in S-phase, which results in DNA bridges and chromosome mis-segregation at mitosis. Here the authors show that MUS81 helps BRCA2-deficient cells survive replication stress by activating mitotic DNA synthesis and resolving mitotic DNA bridges.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15983

Acylated heptapeptide binds albumin with high affinity and application as tag furnishes long-acting peptides OPEN
Alessandro Zorzi, Simon J. Middendorp, Jonas Wilbs, Kaycie Deyle and Christian Heinis
A major challenge for the application of peptide therapeutics is their short half-life in vivo. Here, the authors design peptide-fatty acid chimeras bearing an engineered linker that promotes albumin binding and allows longer circulation times of therapeutic peptides in animal models.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16092

Facultative CTCF sites moderate mammary super-enhancer activity and regulate juxtaposed gene in non-mammary cells OPEN
M. Willi, K. H. Yoo, F. Reinisch, T. M. Kuhns, H. K. Lee, C. Wang and L. Hennighausen
Chromatin neighbourhoods, formed by CTCF, have been proposed to isolate enhancers and their target genes from other regulatory elements. Here, the authors provide evidence that while CTCF binding does regulates mammary-specific super-enhancers, CTCF sites are relatively porous borders.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16069

Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond OPEN
Ilya V. Pobelov, Kasper Primdal Lauritzen, Koji Yoshida, Anders Jensen, Gábor Mészáros, Karsten W. Jacobsen, Mikkel Strange, Thomas Wandlowski and Gemma C. Solomon
The force required to break a chemical bond is related both to the bond strength and the rate at which force is applied, however recent experiments on gold nanowires have challenged this view. Here, the authors perform breaking experiments on single gold-gold bonds and propose a solution to the apparent paradox.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15931

Cryo-EM structures of the ATP-bound Vps4E233Q hexamer and its complex with Vta1 at near-atomic resolution OPEN
Shan Sun, Lin Li, Fan Yang, Xiaojing Wang, Fenghui Fan, Mengyi Yang, Chunlai Chen, Xueming Li, Hong-Wei Wang and Sen-Fang Sui
The ESCRT-III and Vps4 complexes mediate a variety of membrane remodelling events. Here the authors describe the structure of the Vps4 hexamer complexed to its cofactor Vta1, and show that Vta1 bridges adjacent Vps4 subunits to promote formation of the active hexamer during ESCRT-III filament disassembly.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16064

Targeting the differential addiction to anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family for cancer therapy OPEN
Akane Inoue-Yamauchi, Paul S. Jeng, Kwanghee Kim, Hui-Chen Chen, Song Han, Yogesh Tengarai Ganesan, Kota Ishizawa, Sylvia Jebiwott, Yiyu Dong, Maria C. Pietanza, Matthew D. Hellmann, Mark G. Kris, James J. Hsieh and Emily H. Cheng
Small cell lung cancer cells (SCLC) are differentially sensitive to inhibitors of the BCL-2 family. Here the authors analyse the response to BH3 mimetics in SCLC, delineate patterns of expression of apoptotic proteins correlated with differential sensitivities and demonstrate a synergistic anti-tumour activity between ABT-199 and anthracyclines or CDK9 inhibitors.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16078

Prioritizing multiple therapeutic targets in parallel using automated DNA-encoded library screening OPEN
Carl A. Machutta, Christopher S. Kollmann, Kenneth E. Lind, Xiaopeng Bai, Pan F. Chan, Jianzhong Huang, Lluis Ballell, Svetlana Belyanskaya, Gurdyal S. Besra, David Barros-Aguirre, Robert H. Bates, Paolo A. Centrella, Sandy S. Chang, Jing Chai, Anthony E. Choudhry, Aaron Coffin, Christopher P. Davie, Hongfeng Deng, Jianghe Deng, Yun Ding et al.
Encoded Library Technology (ELT) has streamlined the identification of chemical ligands for protein targets in drug discovery. Here, the authors optimize the ELT approach to screen multiple proteins in parallel and identify promising targets and antibacterial compounds for S. aureus, A. baumannii and M. tuberculosis.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16081

Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems OPEN
Jian-Qiang Zhong, Mengen Wang, Nusnin Akter, John D. Kestell, Alejandro M. Boscoboinik, Taejin Kim, Dario J. Stacchiola, Deyu Lu and J. Anibal Boscoboinik
While noble gases can be trapped in 3D porous structures, immobilizing them on 2D surfaces represents a formidable challenge. Here, the authors cage individual argon atoms in 2D model zeolite frameworks at room temperature, providing exciting opportunities for the fundamental study of isolated noble gas atoms using surface science methods.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16118

Enhanced anti-tumour immunity requires the interplay between resident and circulating memory CD8+ T cells OPEN
Michel Enamorado, Salvador Iborra, Elena Priego, Francisco J. Cueto, Juan A. Quintana, Sarai Martínez-Cano, Ernesto Mejías-Pérez, Mariano Esteban, Ignacio Melero, Andrés Hidalgo and David Sancho
Circulating memory cells include central memory T cells retaining the ability to enter the lymph nodes whereas tissue resident memory cells are confined to the parenchymal tissues. Here the authors explore the interplay between the two T-cell types and show that both cooperate in anti-tumour immunity.
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16073

Structural and functional characterization of a DARPin which inhibits Ras nucleotide exchange OPEN
Sandrine Guillard, Paulina Kolasinska-Zwierz, Judit Debreczeni, Jason Breed, Jing Zhang, Nicolas Bery, Rose Marwood, Jon Tart, Ross Overman, Pawel Stocki, Bina Mistry, Christopher Phillips, Terence Rabbitts, Ronald Jackson and Ralph Minter
Ras is mutated in many cancers, but so far no drug targeting Ras is in clinical use despite great efforts. Here the authors structurally and functionally characterize a DARPin that potently inhibits the nucleotide exchange of Ras, which might facilitate the development of Ras-targeted therapies.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16111

DNA binding drives the association of BRG1/hBRM bromodomains with nucleosomes OPEN
Emma A. Morrison, Julio C. Sanchez, Jehnna L. Ronan, Daniel P. Farrell, Katayoun Varzavand, Jenna K. Johnson, Brian X. Gu, Gerald R. Crabtree and Catherine A. Musselman
BRG1 and BRM are central components of the BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodelling complex, which is critical for regulation of chromatin structure. Here, the authors provide evidence that both the BRG1 and hBRM bromodomains have DNA-binding activity and bind to both DNA and H3K14ac simultaneously.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16080

Ligand-induced type II interleukin-4 receptor dimers are sustained by rapid re-association within plasma membrane microcompartments OPEN
David Richter, Ignacio Moraga, Hauke Winkelmann, Oliver Birkholz, Stephan Wilmes, Markos Schulte, Michael Kraich, Hella Kenneweg, Oliver Beutel, Philipp Selenschik, Dirk Paterok, Martynas Gavutis, Thomas Schmidt, K. Christopher Garcia, Thomas D. Müller and Jacob Piehler
The contribution of ligands for cytokine receptor dimerization is still not fully understood. Here, the authors show the efficient ligand-induced dimerization of type II interleukin-4 receptor at the plasma membrane and the kinetic trapping of signalling complexes by actin-dependent membrane microdomains.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15976

Target guided synthesis using DNA nano-templates for selectively assembling a G-quadruplex binding c-MYC inhibitor OPEN
Deepanjan Panda, Puja Saha, Tania Das and Jyotirmayee Dash
Identification of inhibitors can be accelerated by using the target as a template for ligand formation. Here the authors show that DNA-functionalised magnetic nanoparticles guide templating of G-quadruplex binding c-MYC inhibitors from an array of building blocks, and can be isolated by magnetic decanting.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16103

Singlet oxygen-based electrosensing by molecular photosensitizers OPEN
Stanislav Trashin, Vanoushe Rahemi, Karpagavalli Ramji, Liselotte Neven, Sergiu M. Gorun and Karolien De Wael
Application of enzyme-based sensors is usually affected by costs, enzyme stability and immobilization and use of additional chemicals. Here, the authors show a cost-effective and robust photoelectrochemical detection system that can mimic enzymatic sensors using only air and light.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16108

Redox-dependent substrate-cofactor interactions in the Michaelis-complex of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase OPEN
Tobias Werther, Stefan Wahlefeld, Johannes Salewski, Uwe Kuhlmann, Ingo Zebger, Peter Hildebrandt and Holger Dobbek
Due to their transient nature, enzyme-substrate complexes are difficult to characterize structurally. Here, the authors capture the reactive reduced form of xenobiotic reductase A bound to its substrate and show that the oxidation state of the flavin cofactor affects the interaction of the substrate with the enzyme.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16084

Single molecule magnet with an unpaired electron trapped between two lanthanide ions inside a fullerene OPEN
Fupin Liu, Denis S. Krylov, Lukas Spree, Stanislav M. Avdoshenko, Nataliya A. Samoylova, Marco Rosenkranz, Aram Kostanyan, Thomas Greber, Anja U. B. Wolter, Bernd Büchner and Alexey A. Popov
Single molecule magnets have demonstrated promise for information storage, molecular spintronics and quantum computing, but are limited by their low operational temperatures. Here, Popov and coworkers prepare a SMM with a high blocking temperature of 18 K by trapping two lanthanide ions with a single-electron bond inside a fullerene.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16098

Synthetic-lattice enabled all-optical devices based on orbital angular momentum of light OPEN
Xi-Wang Luo, Xingxiang Zhou, Jin-Shi Xu, Chuan-Feng Li, Guang-Can Guo, Chuanwei Zhang and Zheng-Wei Zhou
Design of all-optical devices rely on large numbers of optical elements and precise control makes this approach challenging. The authors demonstrate that optical devices such as quantum memory and optical filters can be realized using synthetic orbital angular momentum lattices in a single main degenerate cavity.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16097

4-alkyl-L-(Dehydro)proline biosynthesis in actinobacteria involves N-terminal nucleophile-hydrolase activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase homolog for C-C bond cleavage OPEN
Guannan Zhong, Qunfei Zhao, Qinglin Zhang and Wen Liu
γ-Glutamyltranspeptidases in gram-positive bacteria are not involved in glutathione metabolism, as their counterparts in eukaryotes and gram-negative bacteria. Here, the authors show that in Actinobacteria they catalyse the unusual cleavage of a C–C bond for the biosynthesis of non-proteinogenic amino acids.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16109

Reactogenicity to major tuberculosis antigens absent in BCG is linked to improved protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis OPEN
Nacho Aguilo, Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Samuel Alvarez-Arguedas, Dessislava Marinova, Ana Belen Gomez, Santiago Uranga, Ralf Spallek, Mahavir Singh, Regine Audran, François Spertini and Carlos Martin
MTBVAC, a live attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine under clinical evaluation, contains the major tuberculosis antigens ESAT6 and CFP10, which are absent from the current vaccine, BCG. Here, the authors show that these antigens contribute to enhanced vaccine efficacy in mouse models.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16085

The unprecedented 2015/16 Tasman Sea marine heatwave OPEN
Eric C. J. Oliver, Jessica A. Benthuysen, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, Alistair J. Hobday, Neil J. Holbrook, Craig N. Mundy and Sarah E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick
The Tasman Sea experienced an unprecedented marine heatwave in 2015/16, with important ecological impacts. Oliver et al. link this event to warm, southwards flowing waters from East Australia and find that climate change has made these events almost seven times more likely.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16101

Effect of water activity on rates of serpentinization of olivine OPEN
Hector M. Lamadrid, J. Donald Rimstidt, Esther M. Schwarzenbach, Frieder Klein, Sarah Ulrich, Andrei Dolocan and Robert J. Bodnar
Serpentinization of mantle rocks occurs in a variety of tectonic settings, but the controls on the rates of serpentinization are poorly constrained. Here, the authors developed an in situ experimental method to show that the rate of serpentinization is strongly controlled by the salinity of the reacting fluid.
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16107

Amoeba-like self-oscillating polymeric fluids with autonomous sol-gel transition OPEN
Michika Onoda, Takeshi Ueki, Ryota Tamate, Mitsuhiro Shibayama and Ryo Yoshida
Most polymeric materials that show sol-gel transitions are unidirectional and stimuli-responsive systems. Here the authors show a block copolymer solution that undergoes autonomous and periodic sol-gel transitions under constant conditions.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15862

Dynamic-template-directed multiscale assembly for large-area coating of highly-aligned conjugated polymer thin films OPEN
Erfan Mohammadi, Chuankai Zhao, Yifei Meng, Ge Qu, Fengjiao Zhang, Xikang Zhao, Jianguo Mei, Jian-Min Zuo, Diwakar Shukla and Ying Diao
Controlling macromolecular assembly across length scales during solution coating of semiconducting polymers is still a challenge. Here the authors show a biomineralization inspired dynamic templating method that expedites polymer nucleation and assembly which allows for surface reconfiguration.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16070

Spin diffusion from an inhomogeneous quench in an integrable system OPEN
Marko Ljubotina, Marko Žnidarič and Tomaž Prosen
The anisotropic Heisenberg model is integrable, possessing a macroscopic number of conserved quantities that constrain the many-body dynamics. Here the authors show numerically that, despite its integrability, it can exhibit diffusive and, at the isotropic point, super-diffusive behaviour.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16117

Radiocarbon constraints on the glacial ocean circulation and its impact on atmospheric CO2 OPEN
L. C. Skinner, F. Primeau, E. Freeman, M. de la Fuente, P. A. Goodwin, J. Gottschalk, E. Huang, I. N. McCave, T. L. Noble and A. E. Scrivner
Establishing the efficiency of the biological carbon pump is needed to constrain the impact of ocean circulation on the carbon cycle. Here, the authors compile a global array of ocean–atmosphere radiocarbon disequilibrium estimates and evaluate the strength of the carbon pump over the last glacial maximum.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16010

The type VI secretion system sheath assembles at the end distal from the membrane anchor OPEN
Andrea Vettiger, Julius Winter, Lin Lin and Marek Basler
The bacterial Type VI secretion system (T6SS) delivers proteins into target cells using fast contraction of a long sheath anchored to the cell envelope. Here, Vettiger et al. study sheath dynamics in Vibrio cholerae spheroplasts, and show that the sheath assembles by addition of subunits at the distal end.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16088

Precise inhibitory microcircuit assembly of developmentally related neocortical interneurons in clusters OPEN
Xin-Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Zhi Han, Khadeejah T. Sultan, Kun Huang and Song-Hai Shi
Developmental neuroscientists have long asked if clonally-related neurons retain functional relationships after maturation. The authors show that sparsely labelled neocortical interneurons in clusters with high possibility of clonal relation preferentially form electrical, but not chemical, synapses.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16091

Quantitative real-time imaging of glutathione OPEN
Xiqian Jiang, Jianwei Chen, Aleksandar Bajić, Chengwei Zhang, Xianzhou Song, Shaina L. Carroll, Zhao-Lin Cai, Meiling Tang, Mingshan Xue, Ninghui Cheng, Christian P. Schaaf, Feng Li, Kevin R. MacKenzie, Allan Chris M. Ferreon, Fan Xia, Meng C. Wang, Mirjana Maletić-Savatić and Jin Wang
Fluorescent sensors for small biomolecules are needed to shed insight into real-time cellular processes. Here the authors develop RealThiol, a sensor that can quantitatively monitor glutathione dynamics in living cells, and measure increased antioxidant capability of activated neurons and glutathione changes during ferroptosis.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16087

Flat clathrin lattices are dynamic actin-controlled hubs for clathrin-mediated endocytosis and signalling of specific receptors OPEN
Daniela Leyton-Puig, Tadamoto Isogai, Elisabetta Argenzio, Bram van den Broek, Jeffrey Klarenbeek, Hans Janssen, Kees Jalink and Metello Innocenti
Clathrin lattices coat flat membrane regions, called plaques, whose regulation and function are poorly understood. Here the authors find that plaques are regulated by actin dynamics and contain both the endocytic and the cell adhesion machineries, and are involved in endocytosis of specific cargos, and cell migration.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16068

Structural insights into the mycobacteria transcription initiation complex from analysis of X-ray crystal structures OPEN
Elizabeth A. Hubin, Mirjana Lilic, Seth A. Darst and Elizabeth A. Campbell
Understanding of the mycobacterial transcription system is useful to the development of therapeutics against tuberculosis infection. Here the authors present the crystal structure of a complete M. smegmatis RNA polymerase open promoter complex that reveals unique features of the mycobacterial polymerase.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16072

Genome-wide association and expression quantitative trait loci studies identify multiple susceptibility loci for thyroid cancer OPEN
Ho-Young Son, Yul Hwangbo, Seong-Keun Yoo, Sun-Wha Im, San Duk Yang, Soo-Jung Kwak, Min Seon Park, Soo Heon Kwak, Sun Wook Cho, Jun Sun Ryu, Jeongseon Kim, Yuh-Seog Jung, Tae Hyun Kim, Su-jin Kim, Kyu Eun Lee, Do Joon Park, Nam Han Cho, Joohon Sung, Jeong-Sun Seo, Eun Kyung Lee et al.
Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer in Korea but previous genome-wide association studies on risk loci have been conducted only in Europeans. Here the authors identify three previously reported loci and seven putatively new loci in the Korean population.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15966

Auger electron emission initiated by the creation of valence-band holes in graphene by positron annihilation OPEN
V. A. Chirayath, V. Callewaert, A. J. Fairchild, M. D. Chrysler, R. W. Gladen, A. D. Mcdonald, S. K. Imam, K. Shastry, A. R. Koymen, R. Saniz, B. Barbiellini, K. Rajeshwar, B. Partoens and A. H. Weiss
Auger processes are at the core of electron emission in solid-state physics, however measuring the spectra of electrons emitted solely as a result of Auger transitions remains a challenge. Here, the authors measure the electron energy spectrum in graphene and observe the prominence of Auger-like processes in its valence band.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16116

Potential increase in coastal wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise suggested by considering hydrodynamic attenuation effects OPEN
José F. Rodríguez, Patricia M. Saco, Steven Sandi, Neil Saintilan and Gerardo Riccardi
Predictions of coastal wetland response to sea-level rise often neglect attenuation effects due to vegetation and infrastructure. Here, the authors show that including attenuation effects improves prediction of wetland evolution and suggests increases in wetland vulnerability to sea-level rise.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16094

Manipulation of nuclear architecture through CRISPR-mediated chromosomal looping OPEN
Stefanie L. Morgan, Natasha C. Mariano, Abel Bermudez, Nicole L. Arruda, Fangting Wu, Yunhai Luo, Gautam Shankar, Lin Jia, Huiling Chen, Ji-Fan Hu, Andrew R. Hoffman, Chiao-Chain Huang, Sharon J. Pitteri and Kevin C. Wang
Chromatin looping plays an important role in gene regulation and the ability to manipulate loops would aid in understanding how this occurs. Here the authors present CLOuD9, a system that uses dimerized Cas9 complexes to selectively and reversibly establish chromatin loops.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15993

Platelet function is modified by common sequence variation in megakaryocyte super enhancers OPEN
Romina Petersen, John J. Lambourne, Biola M. Javierre, Luigi Grassi, Roman Kreuzhuber, Dace Ruklisa, Isabel M. Rosa, Ana R. Tomé, Heather Elding, Johanna P. van Geffen, Tao Jiang, Samantha Farrow, Jonathan Cairns, Abeer M. Al-Subaie, Sofie Ashford, Antony Attwood, Joana Batista, Heleen Bouman, Frances Burden, Fizzah A. Choudry et al.
Numerous genetic variants, including those located in the non-coding regions of the genome, are known to be associated with blood cells traits. Here, Frontini and colleagues investigate their potential regulatory functions using epigenomic data and promoter long-range interactions.
13 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16058

Capicua deficiency induces autoimmunity and promotes follicular helper T cell differentiation via derepression of ETV5 OPEN
Sungjun Park, Seungwon Lee, Choong-Gu Lee, Guk Yeol Park, Hyebeen Hong, Jeon-Soo Lee, Young Min Kim, Sung Bae Lee, Daehee Hwang, Youn Soo Choi, John D. Fryer, Sin-Hyeog Im, Seung-Woo Lee and Yoontae Lee
Follicular helper T (TFH) cells promote germinal centre (GC) response for efficient generation of protective antibodies during humoral immunity. Here the authors show that deficiency of the translational repressor, Capicua/CIC, enhances TFH differentiation and GC responses potentially via the derepression of Etv5.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16037

Idiosyncratic Mòjiāng virus attachment glycoprotein directs a host-cell entry pathway distinct from genetically related henipaviruses OPEN
Ilona Rissanen, Asim A. Ahmed, Kristopher Azarm, Shannon Beaty, Patrick Hong, Sham Nambulli, W. Paul Duprex, Benhur Lee and Thomas A. Bowden
The attachment glycoprotein (HNV-G) of henipaviruses interacts with host receptors at the cell surface and is a major determinant of species tropism. Here the authors provide structural and functional evidence that the emergent henipavirus, Mòjiang virus, uses an entry mechanism that is independent of known paramyoxviral cellular receptors.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16060

Loss of mTORC1 signalling impairs β-cell homeostasis and insulin processing OPEN
Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Rebecca Barbaresso, Margarita Jimenez-Palomares, Nadejda Bozadjieva, Joao Pedro Werneck-de-Castro, Masayuki Hatanaka, Raghavendra G. Mirmira, Nahum Sonenberg, Ming Liu, Markus A. Rüegg, Michael N. Hall and Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi
Deregulation of mTORC1 pathway has been associated with several human diseases including diabetes, neurodegeneration and cancer. Here Blandino-Rosano et al. show that mTORC1 signalling controls insulin secretion and β-cell maintenance by regulation of β-cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy and insulin processing.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16014

Reversal of cancer gene expression correlates with drug efficacy and reveals therapeutic targets OPEN
Bin Chen, Li Ma, Hyojung Paik, Marina Sirota, Wei Wei, Mei-Sze Chua, Samuel So and Atul J. Butte
Increased availability of large-scale molecular profiling has enabled system-level monitoring of molecular effects of candidate therapeutics. Here, the authors take advantage of such data to show that the ability of a drug to reverse cancer-associated gene expression changes is indicative of its in vitro anti-proliferative efficacy, allowing them to identify novel compounds against liver cancer.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16022

LFA-1 activates focal adhesion kinases FAK1/PYK2 to generate LAT-GRB2-SKAP1 complexes that terminate T-cell conjugate formation OPEN
Monika Raab, Yuning Lu, Karsten Kohler, Xin Smith, Klaus Strebhardt and Christopher E. Rudd
The T-cell integrin LFA-1 binds ICAM-1 on antigen presenting cells to affect TCR-MHC interactions. Here the authors show detailed mechanics of how LFA-1 ligation affects T-cell conjugation to dendritic cells to regulate adhesion and de-adhesion of these cells in the context of antigen presentation.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16001

Anion-capped metallohost allows extremely slow guest uptake and on-demand acceleration of guest exchange OPEN
Yoko Sakata, Chiho Murata and Shigehisa Akine
Host—guest assemblies can exploit stimuli-responsive guest binding and release for molecular recognition, but are typically governed by thermodynamics alone. Here, the authors design macrocycles with removable and exchangeable anion caps, allowing for the kinetic trapping and on-demand exchange of guest ions.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16005

Adipocyte adaptive immunity mediates diet-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance by decreasing adipose Treg cells OPEN
Tuo Deng, Joey Liu, Yanru Deng, Laurie Minze, Xiang Xiao, Valerie Wright, Richeng Yu, Xian C. Li, Alecia Blaszczak, Stephen Bergin, David DiSilvestro, Ryan Judd, David Bradley, Michael Caligiuri, Christopher J. Lyon and Willa A. Hsueh
Obesity is associated with inflammation in adipose tissue, characterized by a shift in local T cell subsets. Here the authors show that loss of MHCII expression on adipocytes increases levels of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells in adipose tissue, which enhances insulin sensitivity.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15725

The entangled triplet pair state in acene and heteroacene materials OPEN
Chaw Keong Yong, Andrew J. Musser, Sam L. Bayliss, Steven Lukman, Hiroyuki Tamura, Olga Bubnova, Rawad K. Hallani, Aurélie Meneau, Roland Resel, Munetaka Maruyama, Shu Hotta, Laura M. Herz, David Beljonne, John E. Anthony, Jenny Clark and Henning Sirringhaus
Singlet fission in organic semiconductors can generate triplet exciton pairs that are crucial to the charge generation in a photovoltaic process, whilst their nature remains elusive. Here, Yong et al. show that the immediate triplet pair is bound and emissive in a range of acene and heteroacene materials.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15953

Local magnetic moments in iron and nickel at ambient and Earth’s core conditions OPEN
A. Hausoel, M. Karolak, E. Şaşɩoğlu, A. Lichtenstein, K. Held, A. Katanin, A. Toschi and G. Sangiovanni
A first principles understanding of the origins of the Earth's magnetic field requires the study of iron and nickel at high temperatures and pressures. Here, the authors find anomalies in the electronic properties of nickel and iron-nickel alloys, which may be important for the physics of geomagnetism.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16062

Scalable variable-index elasto-optic metamaterials for macroscopic optical components and devices OPEN
Dongheok Shin, Junhyun Kim, Changwook Kim, Kyuyoung Bae, Seunghwa Baek, Gumin Kang, Yaroslav Urzhumov, David R. Smith and Kyoungsik Kim
Large-scale graded-index metamaterial devices are difficult to fabricate owing to limitations of typical micro- and nanofabrication approaches. Here, Shin et al. demonstrate millimetre-scale transformation elements based on elasto-optic metamaterials made from aerogels.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16090

Large-scale GWAS identifies multiple loci for hand grip strength providing biological insights into muscular fitness OPEN
Sara M. Willems, Daniel J. Wright, Felix R. Day, Katerina Trajanoska, Peter K. Joshi, John A. Morris, Amy M. Matteini, Fleur C. Garton, Niels Grarup, Nikolay Oskolkov, Anbupalam Thalamuthu, Massimo Mangino, Jun Liu, Ayse Demirkan, Monkol Lek, Liwen Xu, Guan Wang, Christopher Oldmeadow, Kyle J. Gaulton, Luca A. Lotta et al.
Hand grip strength as a proxy of muscular fitness is a clinical predictor of mortality and morbidity. In a large-scale GWA study, the authors find 16 robustly associated genetic loci that highlight roles in muscle fibre structure and function, neuronal maintenance and nervous system signal transduction.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16015

BCAT1 controls metabolic reprogramming in activated human macrophages and is associated with inflammatory diseases OPEN
Adonia E. Papathanassiu, Jeong-Hun Ko, Martha Imprialou, Marta Bagnati, Prashant K. Srivastava, Hong A. Vu, Danilo Cucchi, Stephen P. McAdoo, Elitsa A. Ananieva, Claudio Mauro and Jacques Behmoaras
BCATs catabolize leucine and other BCAAs. Here the authors show that BCAA metabolism affects the broken Krebs cycle, reprogramming macrophages to be less proinflammatory, and show that BCAT1 inhibitor ERG240 can treat arthritis in mice and glomerulonephritis in rats.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16040

Nano-palladium is a cellular catalyst for in vivo chemistry OPEN
Miles A. Miller, Bjorn Askevold, Hannes Mikula, Rainer H. Kohler, David Pirovich and Ralph Weissleder
Palladium (Pd) is a well-known catalyst in organic chemistry but its use in nanomedicine is limited. Here, the authors design a Pd nanoparticle that triggers the activation of an antitumour prodrug in vivo, which shows efficacy and improves toxicity compared to traditional solvent- and nanoparticle-drug formulations.
12 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms15906
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Corrigendum: Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps OPEN
Jürgen Mey, Dirk Scherler, Andrew D. Wickert, David L. Egholm, Magdala Tesauro, Taylor F. Schildgen and Manfred R. Strecker
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16138

Corrigendum: Recent pause in the growth rate of atmospheric CO2 due to enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake OPEN
Trevor F. Keenan, I. Colin Prentice, Josep G. Canadell, Christopher A. Williams, Han Wang, Michael Raupach and G. James Collatz
14 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16137
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Erratum: Growth of organic crystals via attachment and transformation of nanoscopic precursors OPEN
Yuan Jiang, Matthias Kellermeier, Denis Gebauer, Zihao Lu, Rose Rosenberg, Adrian Moise, Michael Przybylski and Helmut Cölfen
17 July 2017 | doi: 10.1038/ncomms16132

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