Monday, May 22, 2017

Science X Newsletter Monday, May 22

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for May 22, 2017:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

New clues emerge about how fruit flies navigate their world

Researchers discover hottest lavas that erupted in past 2.5 billion years

Tidal tails detected around a distant globular cluster

Best of Last Week – Using stars as random number generator, Antarctica greening and eye drops treat macular degeneration

'Saddle-shaped' universe could undermine general relativity

Classical synchronization indicates persistent entanglement in isolated quantum systems

3.3 million-year-old fossil reveals origins of the human spine

Kepler telescope spies details of TRAPPIST-1 system's outermost planet

Scientists solve mystery of how most antimatter in the Milky Way forms

Two simple building blocks produce complex 3-D material

Sequestering blue carbon through better management of coastal ecosystems

Qualcomm has focus on charging for electric vehicles

Ready, Set, Go! Rematch of man vs machine in ancient game

Land around powerlines could be boon to birds

New Zealand space launch has nation reaching for the stars

Astronomy & Space news

Tidal tails detected around a distant globular cluster

(Phys.org)—Astronomers have found tidal tails around a distant globular cluster known as NGC 7492. The newly discovered features could provide important information about the nature of globular clusters. The findings were presented in a paper published May. 11 on the arXiv preprint repository.

Kepler telescope spies details of TRAPPIST-1 system's outermost planet

A University of Washington-led international team of astronomers has used data gathered by the Kepler Space Telescope to observe and confirm details of the outermost of seven exoplanets or-biting the star TRAPPIST-1.

Scientists solve mystery of how most antimatter in the Milky Way forms

A team of international astrophysicists led by The Australian National University (ANU) has shown how most of the antimatter in the Milky Way forms.

New Zealand space launch has nation reaching for the stars

New Zealand has never had a space program but could soon be launching commercial rockets more often than the United States.

Tabby's star dims again, multiple telescopes to examine its spectra

(Phys.org)—Telescope operators around the world have been notified that "Boyajian's star" (officially known as KIC 8462852) has dimmed again, offering space researchers a unique opportunity to study the star, which has baffled scientists ever since its discovery by a team at Yale University in 2015 led by Tabetha Boyajian. Subsequently nicknamed Tabby's star, it has been found to dim periodically to differing degrees, which cannot be attributed to a planet passing between it and us. At one point in time, it was found to have dimmed approximately 22 percent—by comparison, if a planet the size of Jupiter was to pass in front of our own star, an observer 1,300 light years away (the distance that Tabby's star is from us), would see just a 3 percent reduction of light.

Star-forming filaments

Interstellar molecular clouds are often seen to be elongated and "filamentary" in shape, and come in a wide range of sizes. In molecular clouds, where stars form, the filamentary structure is thought to play an important role in star formation as the matter collapses to form protostars. Filamentary clouds are detected because the dust they contain obscures the optical light of background stars while emitting at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths.

NASA orders up urgent spacewalking repairs at space station

NASA has ordered up urgent spacewalking repairs at the International Space Station.

Researchers propose new type of planetary object

Scientists suggest in a new study the existence of a planetary object called a "synestia," a huge, spinning, donut-shaped mass of hot, vaporized rock, formed as planet-sized objects smash into each other.

Study shows how radioactive decay could support extraterrestrial life

In the icy bodies around our solar system, radiation emitted from rocky cores could break up water molecules and support hydrogen-eating microbes. To address this cosmic possibility, a University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) team modeled a natural water-cracking process called radiolysis. They then applied the model to several worlds with known or suspected interior oceans, including Saturn's moon Enceladus, Jupiter's moon Europa, Pluto and its moon Charon, as well as the dwarf planet Ceres.

After 9 months in space, mouse sperm yield healthy mice

After nine months in space, mouse sperm has yielded healthy mice, Japanese scientists reported Monday.

Image: CubeSats deployed outside station's Kibo lab module

A pair of CubeSats, with the Earth's limb in the background, moments after being ejected from a small satellite deployer outside of the International Space Station's Kibo laboratory module on Wednesday, May 16, 2017.

A new approach to forecasting solar flares

The emerging discipline of space meteorology aims to reliably predict solar flares so that we may better guard against their effects. Using 3-D numerical models, an international team headed by Etienne Pariat, a researcher at LESIA (Observatoire de Paris / CNRS / Université Paris Diderot / UPMC), has discovered a proxy that could be used to forecast an eruptive event. The proxy is associated with magnetic helicity, which reflects the extent of twist and entanglement of the magnetic field. The study is published in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics dated 17 May 2017.

ASKAP telescope to rule radio-burst hunt

A CSIRO telescope in Western Australia has found its first 'fast radio burst' from space after less than four days of searching.

NASA lab's life-saving work

Some NASA missions fundamentally change the world of science or help win Nobel prizes, but only one helps save thousands of lives worldwide every year.

Secondary mirror of ELT successfully cast—largest convex mirror blank ever created

The casting of the secondary mirror blank for ESO's Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) has been completed by SCHOTT at Mainz, Germany. The completed mirror will be 4.2 metres in diameter and weigh 3.5 tonnes. It will be the largest secondary mirror ever employed on a telescope and also the largest convex mirror ever produced.

Technology news

Qualcomm has focus on charging for electric vehicles

(Tech Xplore)—What about that technology focused on charging electric vehicles while they are moving, not standing still?

Ready, Set, Go! Rematch of man vs machine in ancient game

It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI.

Watch out in a world of connected objects, cyber specialists warn

The massive global cyber attack that wreaked havoc in computer systems earlier this month caused plenty of visible disruption, not least in Britain's National Health Service.

Attractive names of paint colors as delivered by a neural network

x(Tech Xplore)—Many people walking through the paint department of a store will be thinking of just that, picking up some paint with names like Comfy Cabbage or Sand Dune and getting out. If you are Janelle Shane, though, you are a research scientist who can't see what's being presented as paint names without also wondering how artificial intelligence can turn up the volume.

Humanitarian efforts could be aided by AI

Researchers have developed an AI algorithm to accurately predict the gender of pre-paid mobile phone users, which could be useful in crises.

Combination of features produces new Android vulnerability

A new vulnerability affecting Android mobile devices results not from a traditional bug, but from the malicious combination of two legitimate permissions that power desirable and commonly-used features in popular apps. The combination could result in a new class of attacks, which has been dubbed "Cloak and Dagger."

Network traffic provides early indication of malware infection

By analyzing network traffic going to suspicious domains, security administrators could detect malware infections weeks or even months before they're able to capture a sample of the invading malware, a new study suggests. The findings point toward the need for new malware-independent detection strategies that will give network defenders the ability to identify network security breaches in a more timely manner.

Researchers find computer code that Volkswagen used to cheat emissions tests

An international team of researchers has uncovered the mechanism that allowed Volkswagen to circumvent U.S. and European emission tests over at least six years before the Environmental Protection Agency put the company on notice in 2015 for violating the Clean Air Act. During a year-long investigation, researchers found code that allowed a car's onboard computer to determine that the vehicle was undergoing an emissions test. The computer then activated the car's emission-curbing systems, reducing the amount of pollutants emitted. Once the computer determined that the test was over, these systems were deactivated.

Rare Apple-I fetches less than expected at German auction

A rare working Apple-1, the first computer produced by Steve Jobs' world-beater-to-be company four decades ago, sold for less than expected at auction in Germany on Saturday.

Jury awards T-Mobile $4.8M in trade-secrets case against Huawei

A robot named "Tappy" has finally had its day in court, and emerged victorious. Well, its creator - T-Mobile - did.

Cybersecurity experts gather to try to prevent future attacks like WannaCry

An entire team of experts works at the Mayo Clinic to ensure that 25,000 networked medical devices - everything from digital cameras to proton beam therapy systems - are hardened against cyberattacks like the WannaCry worm that affected hospitals from England to China last week.

U. of C. Medicine, Google hope to use patterns in patient records to predict health

As a patient, your electronic medical record contains a wealth of information about you: vital signs, notes from physicians and medications.

SoftBank-Saudi high-tech Vision fund raises $93bn

Japanese mobile carrier SoftBank said, with Saudi partners, it has raised nearly $100 billion in pledges to launch a major global fund for long-term, high-tech investments.

'Symphony' sets sights on financial world and beyond

Having won over Wall Street and Silicon Valley with a low-cost messaging platform that aims to remake the way traders communicate, Symphony creator David Gurle has set his sights on new industries.

Swiss to vote on gradual nuclear phaseout, energy makeover

The Swiss will vote in a referendum Sunday on a planned overhaul of the country's energy system by gradually replacing the power from its ageing nuclear reactors with renewable sources.

Schools using smart phone technology against sex assaults

The same technology that keeps kids glued to their smart phones is being used by some schools as protection against sexual assaults . Using apps, victims and bystanders can alert school officials, police or parents to trouble. While the systems can be used by kids pranking each other, app developers and school officials say most claims end up being credible. Reporting happens as events unfold and administrators can respond immediately.

Connecting solutions for grid resilience

Imagine Alexander Graham Bell's reaction if someone handed him an iPhone and told him that the device in his hand was the same as the large, cone-mounted transmitter he invented and used to call Thomas Watson in 1876.

A new way to imagine grid stability

To ensure that the US electric grid remains stable and resilient, power generators in three main regions (Eastern, Western, and Texas) must be synchronized, all operating at the frequency of 60 hertz. Because generators interact with each other through a network of transmission lines, if one generator gets out of sync, it can disrupt the stability of the entire system and lead to outages for power consumers.

A user-controlled file security scheme for cloud services

By securing data files with a 'need-to-know' decryption key, researchers at Singapore's Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) have developed a way to control access to cloud-hosted data in real time, adding an extra layer of security for data sharing via the Internet.

Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for solar windows

Scientists are exploring ways to develop transparent or semi-transparent solar cells as a substitute for glass walls in modern buildings with the aim of harnessing solar energy. But this has proven challenging, because transparency in solar cells reduces their efficiency in absorbing the sunlight they need to generate electricity.

The deaf-blind can now 'watch' television without intermediaries

Today Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), Telefónica and the Federation of Deaf-Blind Persons Associations has developed PervasiveSUB, groundbreaking software that allows deaf-blind persons to receive and enjoy television content without intermediaries in real time.

Automatically detecting emotion from text

Think about what you shared with your friends on Facebook today. Was it feelings of "stress" or "failure", or perhaps "joy", "love" or "excitement"? Each time we post on social media, we leave traces of our mood.

How data is transforming the music industry

Fifteen years ago, Steve Jobs introduced the iPod. Since then, most music fans have understood this has radically changed how they listen to music.

Snapchat leads augmented reality gains: researchers

Augmented reality is seeing strong gains among Americans thanks to social networks like Snapchat, Instagram and Facebook, a market research firm said Monday.

Parasitic robot system for waypoint navigation of turtle

A KAIST research team presented a hybrid animal-robot interaction called "the parasitic robot system," that imitates the nature relationship between parasites and host.

World's first demonstration of multicolor 3-D in vivo imaging using ultra-compact Compton camera

As represented by conventional radiograph, radiological images provide only black and white figures in 2D space. The situation is basically the same for Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which are the two most common molecular imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine. PET is used especially for early cancer and Alzheimer's disease detection, but radioactive tracers suitable for each detector are limited in terms of energy. For example, PET can only image monochromatic gamma rays thus provide black and white 2D images. Moreover, production of PET tracers, usually made by a cyclotron facility in medical centers, is inevitably costly.

Zuckerberg: not running for office, but wants 'to learn'

Facebook chief Mark Zuckerberg says he is not running for public office but is making a series of public appearances "to learn about people's hopes and challenges."

Baseball coming June 1 to virtual-reality headsets

Baseball games will soon arrive on virtual-reality headsets.

Team creates high-speed internet lane for emergency situations

In a disaster, a delay can mean the difference between life and death. Emergency responders don't have time to wait in traffic—even on the congested information superhighway.

Ford taps former office furniture executive to be new CEO

The job of Ford's new CEO won't be easy: He will have to shore up the 114-year-old company's traditional auto business, but also invest in self-driving cars and other projects that could one day make that business obsolete.

Sheffield bioenergy experts collaborate with Egyptian partners to produce drinking water

Seawater in Egypt could be turned into drinking water using biomass energy as a source of heat in a new collaborative project from academics at the University of Sheffield UK and Port Said University in Egypt.

A leap for 3-D printing

When the Space Shuttle hit the Earth's atmosphere on its return trip from the cosmos, it was traveling at 17,000 miles per hour—25 times the speed of sound. Were it not for the protection of the ceramic tiles that acted as heat shields, the entire spacecraft would have burned to nothing.

Crews cover partially-collapsed tunnel at nuclear site

Workers this weekend finished installing a protective cover over a partially-collapsed tunnel that contained radioactive waste on the Hanford Nuclear Reservation, the U.S. Department of Energy said Monday.

Ukrainian hacker sentenced in stolen news releases scheme

A Ukrainian hacker involved in an international scheme that used stolen unpublished news releases to make about $30 million in profits was sentenced Monday to more than two years in prison.

Medicine & Health news

Doctors urge FDA to tighten regulations on 'filtered' cigarettes

A new study shows that so-called "light" cigarettes have no health benefits to smokers and have likely contributed to the rise of a certain form of lung cancer that occurs deep in the lungs.

Researchers reveal potential target for the treatment of skin inflammation in eczema and psoriasis

Superficially, psoriasis and atopic dermatitis may appear similar but their commonalities are only skin deep. Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, is primarily driven by an allergic reaction, while psoriasis is considered an autoimmune disease. Nevertheless, researchers at La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology were able to pinpoint a common driver of skin inflammation in both diseases.

New heart disease risk genes point to flaws in blood vessel walls

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite dozens of regions in the genome associated with CAD, most of the genetic components of heart disease are not fully understood, suggesting that more genes are out there to be found. A team led by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Stanford University, and Cambridge University found 15 new risk genes for coronary artery disease. They published their results online this week in Nature Genetics.

New answers for kids with inherited kidney disease

A new gene behind a rare form of inherited childhood kidney disease has been identified by a global research team.

Muscular men less likely to support social and economic equality, study suggests

Physically stronger men are less in favour of social and economic equality than weaker men, new research from Brunel University London indicates.

People perceive attractive scientists as more interesting but less able, studies show

If you think of good science communicators, it's likely that the names Brian Cox, Alice Roberts or Neil deGrasse Tyson may come to mind. But do you consider them good science communicators because they look competent or because they are attractive?

Himalayan powerhouses: How Sherpas have evolved superhuman energy efficiency

Sherpas have evolved to become superhuman mountain climbers, extremely efficient at producing the energy to power their bodies even when oxygen is scarce, suggests new research published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Protective responses appear weaker in neural stem cells from Huntington disease patients

A multi-institutional team based at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) has discovered how a potential treatment strategy for Huntington disease (HD) produces its effects, verified its action in human cells and identified a previously unknown deficit in neural stem cells from patients with HD. In their report published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes finding how a group of compounds activates the NRF2 molecular pathway, which protects cells from several damaging influences, and also discovering that NRF2-mediated activity appears to be impaired in neural stem cells from the brains of HD patients.

Researchers pinpoint how diesel fumes could cause 'flare up' of respiratory symptoms

Scientists have shown how diesel fumes trigger respiratory reflexes which could potentially worsen underlying conditions, such as asthma.

Computations of visual motion in the brain

Botond Roska and his group at the FMI have elucidated how the retina and the visual cortex work together in visual motion perception. They found that cortical cells, which respond preferentially to backward image motion, are dependent on input from direction-selective cells in the retina, while other cortical cells are less dependent on such input.

Field of 'sexting' research finds little to worry about

A recent analysis of research into how so-called "sexting" may affect sexual behavior finds that it has little impact on sexual activity – but highlights significant shortcomings in the research itself.

Modified experimental vaccine protects monkeys from deadly malaria

Researchers from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, modified an experimental malaria vaccine and showed that it completely protected four of eight monkeys that received it against challenge with the virulent Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. In three of the remaining four monkeys, the vaccine delayed when parasites first appeared in the blood by more than 25 days.

Supercomputer study unlocks secrets of brain and safer anesthetics

Researchers have used a supercomputer to show how proteins in the brain control electrical signals, in a breakthrough that could lead to safer and more effective drugs and anaesthetics.

'Smart genes' account for 20% of intelligence: study

Scientists on Monday announced the discovery of 52 genes linked to human intelligence, 40 of which have been identified as such for the first time.

An elegans solution: Worm genetic screen maps cell-to-cell communication in human cancer

Some major cell-to-cell communication networks were first studied in worms. Now those worms, Caenorhabditis elegans, are being used to understand the influence of cancer mutations on those networks, report researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in the May 22, 2017 issue of Developmental Cell.

Experimental therapy for immune diseases hits Achilles heel of activated T cells

Immune diseases like multiple sclerosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis unleash destructive waves of inflammation on the body, causing death or a lifetime of illness and physical impairment. With safe and effective treatments in short supply, scientists report in PNAS Early Edition (Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences) discovery of an experimental treatment that targets an Achilles heel of activated immune cells - killing them off and stopping autoimmune damage.

The secret to combating pancreatic cancer may lie in suppression of a common protein

New research from the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California (USC) shows new promise in the fight against one of the most lethal forms of cancer. Studies in mice with a mutation present in 90 percent of pancreatic cancer patients (the KRAS mutation) indicate that expressing only half the amount of the glucose-regulated protein GRP78 is enough to halt the earliest stage of pancreatic cancer development.

Study identifies RNA molecule that shields breast cancer stem cells from immune system

Researchers from Princeton University's Department of Molecular Biology have identified a small RNA molecule that helps maintain the activity of stem cells in both healthy and cancerous breast tissue. The study, which will be published in the June issue of Nature Cell Biology, suggests that this "microRNA" promotes particularly deadly forms of breast cancer and that inhibiting the effects of this molecule could improve the efficacy of existing breast cancer therapies.

Parental BMI, low income and smoking found to have strong effects on child BMI and overweight

New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Porto, Portugal (17-20 May) shows that parental body mass index (BMI), low income and smoking have persisting, strong and direct effects on a child's future BMI and risk of overweight, independent of that child's birthweight and BMI in infancy. The study is by Dr Camilla Schmidt Morgen, Associate Professor Jennifer Baker, Professor Thorkild IA Sørensen and colleagues at Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Overweight boys at greater risk of colon cancer as adults, but losing weight may modify risk

New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Porto, Portugal (17-20 May) suggests that overweight boys may be at greater risk of colon (bowel) cancer when they grow up than their slimmer friends. However, overweight boys who shed the pounds and achieve a healthy weight by young adulthood do not appear to be at increased risk of colon cancer as adults. The findings underline how important it is for children to be a healthy weight.

Study reveals meeting guidelines on TV time, physical activity and sleep duration lower BMI and body fat in children

New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Porto, Portugal (17-20) May shows that achieving the guideline amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is associated with significantly lower BMI and body fat in children. The study was conducted by Dr Peter Katzmarzyk and Dr Amanda Staiano at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

High protein intake in early childhood is associated with higher body fat mass but not higher lean mass

New research presented at this year's European Congress on Obesity (ECO) in Porto, Portugal (17-20) May shows that a high intake of protein in early childhood, particularly from animal food sources, is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) due to increased body fat and not increases in fat-free mass. The study was conducted by Dr Trudy Voortman and colleagues at the Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Tablet helps heart failure patients manage their disease including drug dosages

A novel tablet is helping heart failure patients to manage their disease including drug dosages, according to research presented today at EuroHeartCare 2017.

Heart failure and stroke identified as lethal combination

Heart failure and stroke has been identified as a lethal combination in research presented today at EuroHeartCare 2017. Heart failure patients with previous stroke had greater risks of depression, hospitalisation and death than those without a history of stroke.

How NOT to nod off behind the wheel

(HealthDay)—At least one in five fatal motor vehicle accidents involves drowsy driving, U.S. traffic safety experts say. So it's vital that you recognize when you're sleepy behind the wheel.

Study questions utility of universal cervical length screens

(HealthDay)—Patients with a short cervix who deliver prematurely have a significantly longer interval from antenatal corticosteroid administration, and fewer receive antenatal corticosteroids within seven days of birth, according to a study published in the June issue of Obstetrics & Gynecology.

Glucose peaks linked to cognitive decline, dementia in diabetes

(HealthDay)—Glucose peaks are associated with cognitive decline and dementia among individuals with diabetes, according to a study published online May 12 in Diabetes Care.

High vitamin K1 intake linked to reduced cataract risk

(HealthDay)—High intake of vitamin K1 is associated with reduced risk of cataracts, according to a study published online May 11 in JAMA Ophthalmology.

COPD exacerbations in those with CVD may increase heart attack/stroke risk

After an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, people with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or people at risk for CVD appear more likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke, according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

New hope for patients with severe lung disease

Patients suffering from severe lung disease could see their lives transformed thanks to a 'game-changing' clinical trial carried out by UK experts and led by the team from the Lane Fox Respiratory Service based at Guy's and St Thomas' in London.

Addition of in-home noninvasive ventilation to oxygen therapy improves outcomes following COPD exacerbation

Among patients with an excess of carbon dioxide in their blood (persistent hypercapnia) following a flare-up (acute exacerbation) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in-home use of a mask and machine to support breathing in addition to home oxygen therapy prolonged the time to hospital readmission or death, according to a study published by JAMA. The study is being released to coincide with its presentation at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Directly observed therapy for multidrug-resistant TB decreases mortality

Directly observed therapy (DOT) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) was associated with a 77 percent decrease in mortality in the United States, compared to self-administered therapy from 1993 to 2013, according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

Prompt sepsis treatment less likely when ERs overcrowded

According to a new study, patients with sepsis, a life-threatening complication of an infection, had delays approaching one hour in being given antibiotics when seen in emergency rooms that were overcrowded. The study was presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome found to be lower in high-volume ICUs

In a new study that analyzed data from the large French CUB-REA database, high volume intensive care units (ICUs) were found to have lower death rates from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than low and moderate volume ICUs. The researchers also found that, overall, among the 35 ICUs in the CUB-REA registry, ICU mortality decreased despite an increase in ARDS severity. The study was presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Two biomarkers appear to predict course of IPF

Two T cell biomarkers appear to predict the survival trajectory of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a lung disease that has a varied, but ultimately devastating, impact on patients, according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

Study shows baby boxes and sleep education reduced bed-sharing in first week of infancy

Bed-sharing, the unsafe practice in which parents sleep in the same bed as their babies, is associated with sleep-related deaths in infants, including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. However, a research team at Temple University Hospital (TUH) has now found that face-to-face postpartum education about safe infant sleep, combined with the distribution of a baby box, which is a cardboard bassinet, reduced the rates of bed-sharing during babies' first 8 days of life. The research was presented May 6 at the Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting in San Francisco.

Why fewer blood cancer patients receive hospice care

Research has shown that patients with blood cancers are less likely to enroll in hospice care than patients with solid cancers, and the findings from a national survey suggest that concerns about the adequacy of hospice may prevent blood cancer specialists from referring their patients. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings point to potential means of improving end-of-life care for patients with blood cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma.

New study describes standardized assessment for students graduating from UK medical schools

A new study describes a standardised assessment that ensures that students who graduate from UK medical schools have achieved a minimum standard of knowledge and skill related to prescribing medications. Following the introduction of the Prescribing Safety Assessment, as described in a new article published in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, the vast majority of final-year medical students are able to accurately prescribe medications, but a small proportion require further training or supervision before being able to prescribe independently.

Faster is better when it comes to sepsis care

Following the tragic and widely publicized death of Rory Staunton, 12, from undiagnosed sepsis in 2012, New York became the first state to require that hospitals follow a protocol to quickly identify and treat the condition.

National study looks at tobacco advertising and susceptibility to use tobacco among youth

Among 12- to 17-year-olds who have never used tobacco products, nearly half were considered receptive to tobacco marketing if they were able to recall or liked at least one advertisement, report a coalition of behavioral scientists in a new national study. Receptivity to tobacco ads is associated with an increased susceptibility to smoking cigarettes in the future.

Moderate drinking may not ward off heart disease

Many people believe that having a glass of wine with dinner—or moderately drinking any kind of alcohol—will protect them from heart disease. But a hard look at the evidence finds little support for that.

Accuracy of physician and nurse predictions for survival, functional outcomes after an ICU admission

Physicians were more accurate in predicting the likelihood of death and less accurate in predicting cognitive abilities in six months for critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients; nurses' predictions were similar or less accurate, according to a study published by JAMA. The study is being released to coincide with its presentation at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Air pollution may disrupt sleep

High levels of air pollution over time may get in the way of a good night's sleep, according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

First ever data on number of gender confirmation surgeries

For the first time, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) is reporting on the number of gender confirmation surgeries in the United States. ASPS—the world's largest plastic surgery organization—found that more than 3,200 transfeminine and transmasculine surgeries were performed in 2016. The procedures can include anything from facial and body contouring to gender reassignment surgeries.

Antibiotic therapy for nearly 1 in 4 adults with pneumonia does not work

Approximately one in four (22.1 percent) adults prescribed an antibiotic in an outpatient setting (such as a doctor's office) for community-acquired pneumonia does not respond to treatment, according to a new study presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Improving health care for mother and child, doing fewer cesareans and ... saving money

In Canada, one in four women delivers by caesarean section. This procedure can save the life of the mother and baby. But the steady increase in the rate of caesareans in industrialized countries is cause for concern because a medically unnecessary caesarean entails the risk of additional complications for the mother and her child, as well as costs for the health system.

Angiotensin II shows promise in helping critically ill patients with low blood pressure

Sixty years after Cleveland Clinic researchers first isolated the role of angiotensin II in controlling blood pressure, a new international study led by Cleveland Clinic researchers shows that the compound can safely improve blood pressure among critically ill patients who are experiencing life-threatening hypotension, or low blood pressure.

Trump to propose slashing Medicaid

President Donald Trump is expected to propose cutting $800 billion from Medicaid over 10 years in a budget plan to be released Tuesday that would slash spending on anti-poverty and other programs, US media reported.

New biomarkers of multiple sclerosis pathogenesis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic debilitating inflammatory disease targeting the brain. The pathogenesis of MS remains largely unknown, though brain tissue damage in MS is likely due to immune cells attacking myelin basic protein (MBP), which composes the insulating sheath of nerve tissue. Most MS brain lesions are found near small veins, and have prominent immune cell infiltration, supporting the hypothesis that brain lesions are due to leukocyte damage to neurons. Clinical data as well as evidence collected using an animal model of MS suggest that leukocytes cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and localize in brain lesions. However, it is still unclear whether inflammation in the brain is initiated within the central nervous system or is the result of leukocyte migration across the BBB driven by systemic inflammation.

Study examines polyneuropathy and long-term opioid use

Polyneuropathy is a common painful condition, especially among older patients, which can result in functional impairment.

Was a statin beneficial for primary cardiovascular prevention in older adults?

Analysis of data from older adults who participated in a clinical trial showed no benefit of a statin for all-cause mortality or coronary heart disease events when a statin was started for primary prevention in older adults with hypertension and moderately high cholesterol, according to a new article published by JAMA Internal Medicine.

Making alcohol, tobacco and drug use less appealing for teens

Picture this: Young people at a beach party, having a great time, looking healthy, holding bottles of cold beer. What's missing from our beer ad? Vomiting, blurred vision, clouded judgment and hangovers, among other things.

A new molecular target to improve neuroblastoma treatment

The annual mortality rate in childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system, or neuroblastoma, is 10 per million between the ages of zero and four. A collaborative work between Basque and Valencian researchers has identified some genetic mutations that could improve the treatment of this disease.

Ketamine finds market as costly off-label option to treat mental disorders

As research shows that the hallucinogen is a potentially powerful treatment for intractable mental disorders, and academics continue to debate its safety, private clinics across the country offer the drug to patients now.

Respiratory infections in children often treated unnecessarily with antibiotics

Many childhood virus infections are mistaken for bacterial infection and risk being unnecessarily treated with antibiotics. A new thesis from Karolinska Institutet on respiratory infections in children shows that viruses are a more common cause of serious respiratory infection than previously believed. It is hoped that the research will help to reduce antibiotic use and contribute to new more effective drugs and diagnostic tests.

Abused caregivers have double chance of poor health

Women who become caregivers after experiencing intimate partner violence face a double-whammy hit to their health, University of Queensland research shows.

Cereal's colour trumps health star rating

Parents are interested in star ratings indicating the nutritional value of cereals but it's the colour in the breakfast bowl that has final sway, a study by researchers at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) has found.

A good night's sleep rests on your spine's biomechanics

A three-year study by QUT biomedical researchers in the Paediatric Spine Research Group (PSRG) aims to deepen our understanding of the concepts of comfort by using new techniques to look at how the spine reacts in different lying positions.

Poor sleep in kids with cystic fibrosis may impact overall health

A Monash University study into the sleep patterns of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) has found, even when the disease is clinically stable, they experience less sleep than healthy children, impacting their health and quality of life.

What is positive psychology, and how can you use it for yourself?

Many people have probably heard the term "positive psychology", but know little about what it means in practice. Positive psychology aims to find ways to make life better for people, and ensure they're the most mentally healthy person they can be.

Health agency spends more on travel than AIDS

Dr. Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization, traveled to Guinea earlier this month to join the country's president in celebrating the world's first Ebola vaccine.

Diagnosing GAN one strand at a time

Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an extremely rare genetic disease with only 73 known patients worldwide. GAN causes a gradual failure of motor neurons that stimulate muscles and eventually failure of sensory neurons. New research, published recently in Journal of the Royal Society Interface, offers a novel way of diagnosing the disease. The work was led by Professor Maikel Rheinstadter who runs an experimental biophysics lab at McMaster University.

Predictive models may help determine which patients benefit from ICDs

Two predictive models may help cardiologists decide which patients would most benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), suggests a new study published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. According to the researchers, confirming the findings in a larger, randomized trial could lead to new national guidelines for choosing patients who are good candidates for ICD implantation.

Intestinal fungi worsen alcoholic liver disease

Liver cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of mortality worldwide and approximately half of those deaths are due to alcohol abuse. Yet apart from alcohol abstinence, there are no specific treatments to reduce the severity of alcohol-associated liver disease. Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine and J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) have linked intestinal fungi to increased risk of death for patients with alcohol-related liver disease. They also found that antifungal treatment protects mice from alcohol-related liver disease progression.

Half of patients recover to baseline function after refractory status epilepticus

Three in four patients with refractory status epilepticus treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are still alive a year later, and half of them have recovered to baseline function, according to a new study from the University of Eastern Finland. The study was the first to show the population-based incidences for refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus and to evaluate the long-term outcome. Anne-Mari Kantanen, MD, presented the results in her doctoral thesis at the University of Eastern Finland.

Strong evidence of the benefits of exercise therapy in chronic diseases

There is strong evidence of that aerobic exercise, strength training and condition-specific therapeutic exercise affect positively on the functional capacity of patients with chronic diseases. This is revealed in an extensive systematic analysis of published research data by the Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The systematic review of meta-analyses evaluates the effects of exercise therapy on more than twenty of the most common chronic diseases such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, coronary artery disease, heart failure, type 2 diabetes, different types of cancers, and Alzheimer's disease.

Researchers discover mechanism behind rapid smell source localization

Scientists at NERF (VIB-KU Leuven-imec) have provided fundamental insights into the mechanism of smell localization. This marks an important step in unraveling the entire neural odor localization mechanism, which is highly valuable to the study of memory diseases such as Alzheimer's. The team, led by Prof. Sebastian Haesler, used mice for the experiment, which are smell identification champions. Using a novel non-invasive technique based on infrared technology, they revealed that localizing odors is achieved by comparing information gathered from the left and right nostril. The study is published in the leading scientific journal Current Biology.

Study analysis shows cutting calories might slow biological aging

Anti-aging serums, wrinkle creams and surgeries provide the promise of a youthful appearance that can go only skin-deep.

Cyberbullying linked with depression, emotional abuse

Cyberbullying may exacerbate mental health conditions among adolescents, particularly teens who have experienced previous emotional abuse, according to new research presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in San Diego.

Cognitive behavioral therapy delivered online effective for treating depression

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) delivered online is effective for treating depression in adults concludes a new meta-analysis presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in San Diego.

No fruit juice before age 1, pediatricians say

(HealthDay)—Several new recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics may just send toddlers into tantrums.

Time to take your workouts outside

(HealthDay)—The weather is warming up and beckoning you to take your workouts outside. But keep in mind that exercising outdoors is different from breaking a sweat at the gym, say experts at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Fewer US teens are boozing it up

(HealthDay)—American teens are hitting the bottle less often than they did 25 years ago, new research reveals.

Discovery may offer hope to Parkinson's disease patients

The finding of a common protein abnormality in these degenerative diseases supports a hypothesis among experts that abnormal deposition of proteins in many neurodegenerative disorders reflects an early change in these proteins.

Sleep apnea may increase risk of pregnancy complications

Women with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appear to be at greater risk for serious pregnancy complications, longer hospital stays and even admission to the ICU than mothers without the condition, according to a new study of more than 1.5 million pregnancies presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

Sleep apnea and insomnia in African-Americans goes undiagnosed

African Americans with sleep apnea and insomnia are rarely diagnosed with either problem, even when the severity of the two sleep disorders are likely to affect their health, according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

Deep sleep maintains the learning efficiency of the brain

For the first time, researchers of the University of Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich have demonstrated the causal context of why deep sleep is important to the learning efficiency of the human brain. They have developed a new, non-invasive method for modulating deep sleep in humans in a targeted region of the brain.

Study redefines HPV-related head and neck cancers

Much of what we thought we knew about the human papilloma virus (HPV) in HPV-related head and neck cancers may be wrong, according to a newly published study by Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) researchers that analyzed data from The Human Cancer Genome Atlas. Head and neck cancers involving HPV are on the rise, and many experts believe we are seeing the start of an epidemic that will only get worse in the coming years.

Injecting activator of a powerful tumor suppressor directly into the cancer increases tumor destruction, decreases toxic

Directly injecting a tumor with an agent that activates a natural, powerful tumor suppressor enhances the drug's capacity to attack the tumor both locally and where it spreads, scientists report in the journal Cancer Research.

Study finds that sleep disorders affect men and women differently

A new study suggests that men and women are affected differently by sleep disorders.

New cancer drug can prevent reactions to common airborne allergens

A cancer drug for patients with certain types of leukemia and lymphoma can also prevent reactions to some of the most common airborne allergies, according to a recent Northwestern Medicine study. The promising data from this pilot study could have greater implications for adults with food allergies.

South African team performs second successful penis transplant

A team from Stellenbosch University (SU) and the Tygerberg Academic Hospital has recently performed a second penis transplant, making it the first medical centre in the world to successfully perform this procedure twice.

Humble aspirin helping solve one-in-20 pregnancy threat

For most women, the first pregnancy is a joyous time that they will remember with tenderness for the rest of their lives. But for 5 % of all pregnant women around the world, the journey towards childbirth takes an unexpected turn for the worse.

Mindfulness takes practice

Mindfulness meditation practice is set at 45 minutes a day at home, as well as weekly group sessions with the teacher. And the 45 minutes is every day, six days a week as long as the course lasts. These are the guidelines for students taking part in the standard Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy or Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction courses, but an average course student practices only 30 minutes. Nevertheless, this practice is related to positive benefit.

Outgoing WHO chief says world 'better prepared' for health crises

The World Health Organization's outgoing chief Margaret Chan defended her legacy Monday, insisting the world had become better prepared to face health emergencies like Ebola on her watch.

Preterm birth linked to higher risk of heart failure

Babies born preterm run a higher risk of heart failure during childhood and adolescence than those born at full term, researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report. The registry-based study is published in The Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC).

Support for health care law higher when polls mention 'repeal'

With the U.S. Senate set to take up debate on a new health care bill, Cornell researchers asked a simple question: Does the American public want former President Obama's health care law repealed and replaced?

High levels of prenatal air pollution exposure and stress increase childhood asthma risk

A new study has found that children, especially boys, whose mothers were exposed to higher levels of outdoor particulate air pollution at the same time that they were very stressed were most likely to develop asthma by age six. The study was presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Lung disease patients say home oxygen delivery systems don't meet their needs

According to a new survey, patients with lung disease report that they are unable to obtain home oxygen equipment that meets their needs thereby forcing them to become isolated. The study was presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference.

Investigational biologic appears to reduce oral corticosteroid use in severe asthma

An investigational biologic may reduce the need for adults with severe asthma to take an oral corticosteroid to control their asthma, according to a randomized controlled trial presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference. Study findings are being reported simultaneously online, ahead of print in the New England Journal of Medicine.

Extreme preterm infant death or disease may be predicted by biomarker

Tests of cells collected from the umbilical cord blood vessel walls at birth can predict death or poor pulmonary outcomes in extremely preterm infants, say researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Study shows one of the deadliest hospital-acquired infections is preventable

For some hospital patients, going on a ventilator is often the difference between life and death. About 800,000 hospital patients undergo mechanical ventilation each year in the United States due to a variety of illnesses or conditions, such as a brain injury, stroke or pneumonia. A ventilator can provide much-needed assistance to patients with their breathing. Being on a ventilator, however, also comes with risks and can lead to complications, or ventilator-associated events, such as blood clots, lung damage or ventilator-associated pneumonia—believed to be one of the most common and deadly hospital-acquired infections in the ICU.

Science Says: Medications prevent opioid addiction relapse

Remarks by a top U.S. health official have reignited a quarrel in the world of addiction and recovery: Does treating opioid addiction with medication save lives? Or does it trade one addiction for another?

Americans skeptical of corporate-backed health research

(HealthDay)—Most people don't trust health research when industry is involved, a new study finds.

Actemra approved for certain blood vessel inflammation

(HealthDay)—The injected drug Actemra (tocilizumab) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat adults with giant cell arteritis, an inflammation of the blood vessels (vasculitis).

No link to cognition in diabetes prevention program study

(HealthDay)—For participants in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Outcomes Study (DPPOS), exposure to metformin or lifestyle intervention is not associated with cognition, according to research published online May 12 in Diabetes Care.

Nine of ten practices surveyed have dismissed patients

(HealthDay)—The majority of medical practices have dismissed patients, according to a research letter published online May 15 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Initial specimen diversion device cuts culture contamination

(HealthDay)—For patients undergoing blood cultures in an emergency department setting, use of a device that diverts and sequesters the initial 1.5 to 2.0 mL of blood (initial specimen diversion device [ISDD]) is associated with a decrease in blood culture contamination, according to a study published online May 17 in Clinical Infectious Diseases.

Lower-, higher-dose elagolix beneficial for endometriosis

(HealthDay)—Lower- and higher-dose elagolix are beneficial for women with endometriosis, according to research published online May 19 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with the 13th World Congress on Endometriosis, held from May 17 to 20 in Vancouver, Canada.

Combined urine test for T2:ERG, PCA3 ups prostate CA detection

(HealthDay)—Testing for combined urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG (T2:ERG) RNA can improve detection of prostate cancer, according to a study published online May 18 in JAMA Oncology.

Sleep apnea may increase atrial fibrillation risk

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF), according to new research presented at the ATS 2017 International Conference.

New COPD action plan outlines strategies for improved care

COPD is the third-leading cause of death in the United States. But public awareness of the condition lags far behind its impact.

Genes responsible for severe congenital heart disease identified

The first known identification of two genes responsible for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), a severe congenital heart defect, has been reported by researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. The findings are published today in the journal Nature Genetics.

EM physicians should stay current on studies to up their critical care game

Reviewing studies can be a tedious task. But Matthew Stull, M.D., says it's a necessary one.

Researchers suppress fibrosis chemical signal to block haywire healing

An injured body always seeks to heal. But that process is far from simple. A host of cells organize to restore what was damaged. Then, critically, the process tapers off. And when it doesn't, the effects can be disastrous. Fibrosis is the thickening and scarring of tissue due to an overactive healing response.

Chronic anabolic steroid use may damage heart, arteries

Long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid use may reduce the heart's ability to pump blood throughout the body, according to new research in the American Heart Association's journal Circulation.

Intensive blood pressure can reduce risk of harm to heart muscle

A new study by researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center has shown that aggressive lowering of blood pressure in people with hypertension reduced the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This condition, the enlargement and thickening of the walls of the heart's main pumping chamber, is the most common complication of high blood pressure and greatly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

New insight into life-threatening childhood brain cancer

The most common type of malignant childhood brain cancer has been identified as seven separate conditions each needing a different treatment, new research has revealed.

Risk of interval colorectal cancers higher among African-Americans

An American Cancer Society study of Medicare enrollees finds the risk for interval colorectal cancers, cancers that develop after a colonoscopy but before the next recommended test, is higher for blacks than whites. The study, appearing in Annals of Internal Medicine, finds that blacks and other minorities were less likely to receive colonoscopy from more highly-rated physicians, though variations in quality of screening did not account for the black-white differences in interval cancers.

Will short-term and long-term treatments for single-gene diseases survive?

Two weeks and several political disasters ago, the House of Representatives passed the American Health Care Act of 2017, and soon lists of "pre-existing conditions" festooned news feeds. We all ticked off a few. But the lists, although acknowledged as incomplete, offered a highly inconsistent menu of maladies as broad as "cancer" yet as specific as "cystic fibrosis." I don't know whether the focus on the familiar reflects editorial choices to appeal to the masses, or ignorance of or deliberate avoidance of mentioning many of the lesser-known rare diseases. More than 30 million people in the US have rare diseases, many of them genetic and some of those treatable with approaches more complex than those used for more common conditions.

High levels of anxiety found among Syrian refugee children

The Syria Civil War has exposed millions of civilians to extreme physical and emotional trauma. Anxiety is common among Syrian refugee children, affecting more than four in five children, according to research presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in San Diego.

PTSD, alcohol use disorder common in adolescents exposed to natural disasters

Adolescents who were highly exposed to natural and environmental disasters show higher levels of alcohol misuse and emotional trauma than their peers, according to new research presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in San Diego. The findings indicate the importance of mental health services for youth that have experienced emotional trauma.

Cholera kills 315 in Yemen in less than month: WHO

Cholera has killed 315 people in Yemen in under a month, the World Health Organization has said, as another aid organisation warned Monday the outbreak could become a "full-blown epidemic".

EuroPCR issues statement on bioresorbable stent (BRS) technologies

Ongoing development of bioresorbable stent (BRS) technologies that are bioresorbed after achieving vessel expansion in percutaneous coronary intervention procedures is an important option to optimise outcomes in patients whose needs are not adequately met with current devices, EuroPCR advised in a statement issued at the close of the 2017 annual course.

Viral ARIs in infants may lead to recurrent childhood wheezing

Viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) may lead to oxidative stress in some infants, and play a major role in the development of recurrent wheezing in early childhood, according to a new study presented at the 2017 American Thoracic Society International Conference. Oxidative stress is an imbalance between the production of free radicals (atoms that can cause cellular damage in the body) and the ability of the body to counteract their harmful effects through neutralization by antioxidants.

Reimbursement for integrative health care suggests violation of non-discrimination law

A new study shows that the likelihood of health insurance reimbursement for some common clinical services differs significantly depending on whether they are provided by a complementary healthcare service provider or a primary care physician. A comparison of reimbursement rates for health services provided in a nonemergent outpatient setting is reported in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, a peer-reviewed publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on JACM website until June 22, 2017.

Biology news

New clues emerge about how fruit flies navigate their world

Nestled deep inside a fruit fly's brain, specialized nerve cells knit themselves into a tiny compass. New results from neuroscientists at the Janelia Research Campus illuminate the architecture of this circuit and the neural forces that collectively move the compass needle.

Land around powerlines could be boon to birds

Transmission lines may be eyesores for most people but for songbirds, the forest around them might just be critical habitat.

Sequencing of green alga genome provides blueprint to advance clean energy, bioproducts

Plant biologists have sequenced the genome of a particularly promising species of green alga, providing a blueprint for new discoveries in producing sustainable biofuels, antioxidants, and other valuable bioproducts.

Scientists identify two new proteins connected to plant development

The discovery of two new proteins could lead to better ways to regulate plant structure and the ability to resist crop stresses such as drought, thus improving agriculture productivity, according to researchers at Texas A&M AgriLife Research.

Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections

Microbial biofilms—dense, sticky mats of bacteria that are hard to treat and can lead to dangerous infections—often form in medical equipment, such as flexible plastic tubing used in catheters or in tubes used to help patients breathe. By some estimates, more than 1 million people contract infections from medical devices in U.S. hospitals each year, many of which are due to biofilms. A study from The University of Texas at Austin suggests a possible new way to prevent such biofilms from forming, which would sharply reduce incidents of related hospital-borne infection.

New findings on formation and malformation of blood vessels

In diseases like cancer, diabetes, rheumatism and stroke, a disorder develops in the blood vessels that exacerbates the condition and obstructs treatment. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet now show how blood vessels can normally change their size to create a functional circulatory system and how vascular malformation during disease can occur. In the study, published in Nature Cell Biology, the researchers managed to treat vascular malformation in mice, a discovery of potential significance to numerous vascular diseases.

Sunflower genome sequence to provide roadmap for more resilient crops

University of Georgia researchers are part of an international team that has published the first sunflower genome sequence. This new resource will assist future research programs using genetic tools to improve crop resilience and oil production.

Rethinking role of viruses in coral reef ecosystems

Conventional wisdom has it that within virus-bacteria population dynamics, viruses frequently kill their host bacterial cells—a process called lysis—especially when there's a large concentration of bacteria. A different dynamic called lysogeny, in which viruses lie dormant within their host cells but don't kill them, has been thought to be a relatively rare phenomenon, mostly occurring at low bacterial concentrations.

Norway to boost climate change defences of 'doomsday' seed vault

Norway on Saturday said it would boost protection of a seed storage vault designed to protect the world's crops from disaster, after soaring temperatures caused water to leak into its entrance.

Bevy of bobcats: Thriving animals poised as next urban pest

As someone who has studied bobcats for almost four decades, wildlife ecologist John Litvaitis remembers many times returning from the field without spotting a single one of these solitary and shy creatures that often hunt at dusk.

Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

Scientists from MIPT, in collaboration with international colleagues, have proposed a universal mechanism for the sense of smell in bacteria. The researchers obtained the structure of the NarQ protein from Escherichia coli (E. coli), which belongs to a universal class of sensory histidine kinases that are responsible for transmitting signals to bacteria about their environment. The paper published in Science describes how bacteria communicate with one another and form biofilms on sterile surfaces or inside the human body.

Breakthrough means fewer frogs needed for research

The number of clawed frogs used worldwide in research could soon be a fraction of the current number, following new research at the University of Portsmouth.

Wild geese in China are 'prisoners' in their own wetlands

In many places in the world, goose populations are booming as the birds have moved out of their wetland habitats to exploit an abundance of food on farmland. But, new evidence reported in Current Biology on May 22 confirms, that's not working so well for migratory waterbirds that overwinter in China.

Calcium dynamics regulating the timing of decision-making in C. elegans

All animals make decisions according to information, but the detailed mechanism is not known. The researchers found that, a tiny worm chooses the direction in an odor space by mathematically integrating the information of odor concentration. Moreover, they also identified a gene responsible for the integration. Because integration of information has been known to be important for decision-making of more complex experimental animals such as monkeys, the gene for integration may also be important for decision-making even in humans.

Conservation and nameless earthworms: Assessors in the dark?

Species that live exclusively in a single region are at a particular risk of extinction. However, for them to be protected, thorough assessments of the environmental impacts need to be performed.

Team finds new antibiotic resistance gene in Salmonella from broiler chickens

A team of investigators from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph, Ontario, has discovered a gene that confers resistance to the important broad-spectrum antibiotic, fosfomycin. The researchers found the gene in isolates of the pathogen, Salmonella enterica, from broiler chickens. The research is published in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Luminous bacteria will help to measure radioactivity

In a new study, scientists asked the following questions, which are important in the field of radiobiology: What are the effects of low-dose gamma radiation on living creatures? What are the differences between gamma, alpha and beta radiation in terms of their effects on living creatures?

Whales, dolphins, and seals all follow the same evolutionary patterns

From the poles to the equator, marine mammals such as seals, dolphins, and whales, play an important role in global ecosystems as apex predators, ecosystem engineers, and even organic ocean fertilisers. They occupy a diverse range of habitats, from deep sea environments to the Earth's rivers and coastlines, and continue to astound us with their natural beauty.

Toward lab-grown designer babies

It gives new meaning to the vulgarity "a piece of tail." The latest way of divorcing baby-making from the old-fashioned method not only involves no sexual relations, it doesn't even involve eggs and sperm. At least at first.

Nepal torches valuable wildlife parts

Nepal destroyed thousands of valuable animal skins and other parts seized from poachers on a giant bonfire Monday in a symbolic gesture against the illegal wildlife trade.


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1 comment:

Marie Harris said...

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