Thursday, May 25, 2017

Nature Neuroscience Contents: June 2017 Volume 20 Number 6, pp 761 - 896

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Nature Neuroscience

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June 2017 Volume 20, Issue 6

News and Views

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Extending transparency to code   p761
Reproducibility initiatives seek to promote greater transparency and sharing of scientific reagents, procedures and data. Less recognized is the need to share data analysis routines. Nature Neuroscience is launching a pilot project to evaluate the efficacy of sharing code.

News and Views


Microglial confetti party   pp762 - 763
Charlotte Madore, Caroline Baufeld and Oleg Butovsky
Microglia are highly heterogeneous and plastic. However, the dynamics of their turnover have been difficult to visualize. A new multicolor reporter system reveals a plastic but stable network of microglia during health and disease.

See also: Article by Tay et al.

A cell-type-specific jolt for motor disorders   pp763 - 765
Yu-Wei Wu and Jun B Ding
Manipulating the activity of a subpopulation of external globus pallidus neurons with optogenetic deep brain stimulation ameliorates motor deficits in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

See also: Article by Mastro et al.

Fear from the bottom up   pp765 - 767
Joseph M Stujenske and Ekaterina Likhtik
Two groups demonstrate the importance of inputs from the amygdala to the medial prefrontal cortex for signaling aversion across a range of behaviors and motivational drives.

See also: Article by Klavir et al. | Article by Burgos-Robles et al.

Pinging the brain to reveal hidden memories   pp767 - 769
Rosanne L Rademaker and John T Serences
Keeping a picture in mind requires many brain cells to actively communicate ... or does it? There might be more to working memory than neuronal chatter, and silent processes could be hiding right beneath the surface.

See also: Article by Wolff et al.

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Toward standard practices for sharing computer code and programs in neuroscience   pp770 - 773
Stephen J Eglen, Ben Marwick, Yaroslav O Halchenko, Michael Hanke, Shoaib Sufi et al.
Computational techniques are central in many areas of neuroscience and are relatively easy to share. This paper describes why computer programs underlying scientific publications should be shared and lists simple steps for sharing. Together with ongoing efforts in data sharing, this should aid reproducibility of research.

Portable fNIRS System

Shimadzu's LIGHTNIRS expands opportunities for brain imaging research by providing high-quality Blood Oxygen Level Dependent signals of the cerebral cortex in a compact, wearable design. The portability of LIGHTNIRS allows visualizing brain function activity in real time in a more natural state than other methods. Learn more.



Mural lymphatic endothelial cells regulate meningeal angiogenesis in the zebrafish   pp774 - 783
Neil I Bower, Katarzyna Koltowska, Cathy Pichol-Thievend, Isaac Virshup, Scott Paterson et al.
Bower et al. describe a population of mural lymphatic endothelial cells found along meningeal blood vessels in the adult zebrafish. These mural cells are distinct from meningeal lymphatic vessel cells but form by developmental lymphangiogenesis. They take up low-density lipoproteins from the bloodstream and can modulate angiogenesis during meningeal vascularization.

Abnormal wiring of CCK+ basket cells disrupts spatial information coding   pp784 - 792
Isabel del Pino, Jorge R Brotons-Mas, André Marques-Smith, Aline Marighetto, Andreas Frick et al.
The authors report that genetic disruption of the connectivity of CCK+ basket cells during development reveals a critical role for these interneurons in the regulation of theta oscillatory activity and in the coding of spatial information in the adult mouse hippocampus.

A new fate mapping system reveals context-dependent random or clonal expansion of microglia   pp793 - 803
Tuan Leng Tay, Dominic Mai, Jana Dautzenberg, Francisco Fernández-Klett, Gen Lin et al.
Microglia can expand and divide quickly in the context of CNS pathology, but little is known about the kinetics and clonality of microgliosis. Prinz and colleagues develop a new fate mapping system to monitor microglial dynamics. Microglial self-renewal is found to be a stochastic process under steady state conditions, whereas clonal expansion is observed during disease.

See also: News and Views by Madore et al.

Identification of spinal circuits involved in touch-evoked dynamic mechanical pain   pp804 - 814
Longzhen Cheng, Bo Duan, Tianwen Huang, Yan Zhang, Yangyang Chen et al.
Touch-evoked dynamic mechanical pain is one of most bothersome and prevalent symptoms in chronic pain patients. Here the authors have genetically identified a population of spinal excitatory neurons that contribute to this form of pain. These cells process information from low-threshold Aβ mechanoreceptors and are part of a morphine-resistant pathway.

Cell-specific pallidal intervention induces long-lasting motor recovery in dopamine-depleted mice   pp815 - 823
Kevin J Mastro, Kevin T Zitelli, Amanda M Willard, Kimberly H Leblanc, Alexxai V Kravitz et al.
The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key contributor to motor suppressing pathways in the basal ganglia. The authors show that optogenetic interventions targeted to specific neuronal subpopulations in the GPe can disrupt pathological activity in the basal ganglia and restore movement for hours beyond stimulation.

See also: News and Views by Wu & Ding

Amygdala inputs to prefrontal cortex guide behavior amid conflicting cues of reward and punishment   pp824 - 835
Anthony Burgos-Robles, Eyal Y Kimchi, Ehsan M Izadmehr, Mary Jane Porzenheim, William A Ramos-Guasp et al.
Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the orchestration of competing motivational drives. During the simultaneous presentation of cues associated with shock or sucrose, when rats may engage in fear- or reward-related behaviors, amygdala neurons projecting to prefrontal cortex more accurately predict behavioral output and bias animals toward fear-related behavior.

See also: News and Views by Stujenske & Likhtik

Manipulating fear associations via optogenetic modulation of amygdala inputs to prefrontal cortex   pp836 - 844
Oded Klavir, Matthias Prigge, Ayelet Sarel, Rony Paz and Ofer Yizhar
Fear-related disorders are thought to reflect strong and persistent fear associations. The authors show that optogenetic high-frequency stimulation of direct amygdala inputs to the prefrontal cortex can destabilize fear memories and facilitate the extinction of previously acquired fear associations.

See also: News and Views by Stujenske & Likhtik

Sharp wave ripples during learning stabilize the hippocampal spatial map   pp845 - 853
Lisa Roux, Bo Hu, Ronny Eichler, Eran Stark and György Buzsáki
The authors optogenetically suppressed CA1 pyramidal neurons during awake sharp-wave ripples (SPW-R) as mice were learning reward locations in a multiwell maze. Comparison of place cells' activities before and after SPW-R manipulation suggests that interference with SPW-R-associated activity during learning prevents stabilization and refinement of the hippocampal map.

Delay activity of specific prefrontal interneuron subtypes modulates memory-guided behavior   pp854 - 863
Tsukasa Kamigaki and Yang Dan
Using calcium imaging and optogenetic manipulation in mice performing a working memory task, the authors show that delay activity in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons is crucial for task performance. Optogenetic activation of VIP interneurons enhances the neuronal representation of task-relevant information and improves the animal's memory retention.

Dynamic hidden states underlying working-memory-guided behavior   pp864 - 871
Michael J Wolff, Janina Jochim, Elkan G Akyürek and Mark G Stokes
Wolff and colleagues show that 'activity-silent' brain states are important to working memory. Using a perturbation method to 'ping' the brain, they uncover hidden neural states that reflect temporary information held in mind and predict memory performance. They argue that dynamic hidden states could underpin working memory.

See also: News and Views by Rademaker & Serences

The neural correlates of dreaming   pp872 - 878
Francesca Siclari, Benjamin Baird, Lampros Perogamvros, Giulio Bernardi, Joshua J LaRocque et al.
The authors show that during sleep, dreaming and specific perceptual dream contents can be localized to a posterior hot zone of the brain. By monitoring activity in this zone, they were able to predict dreaming in real time with high accuracy.

Moral transgressions corrupt neural representations of value   pp879 - 885
Molly J Crockett, Jenifer Z Siegel, Zeb Kurth-Nelson, Peter Dayan and Raymond J Dolan
Crockett et al. used model-based fMRI to investigate the neural basis of decisions to profit from harming others vs. themselves. Most people preferred to harm themselves over others for profit. This moral preference was associated with diminished neural responses in value-sensitive brain regions to profit gained from harming others.



Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of neocortical layers in humans, chimpanzees and macaques   pp886 - 895
Zhisong He, Dingding Han, Olga Efimova, Patricia Guijarro, Qianhui Yu et al.
By sectioning and sequencing the prefrontal cortex of humans, chimpanzees and macaques, He et al. compiled comprehensive transcriptome atlases of cortical layers. The study provides scores of previously uncharacterized layer-marker genes and more than a hundred human-specific genes, implying that the human neocortex has evolved more than was previously appreciated.



Corrigendum: Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation   p896
Bridget M Nugent, Christopher L Wright, Amol C Shetty, Georgia E Hodes, Kathryn M Lenz et al.



Erratum: Distinct neural mechanisms for the control of thirst and salt appetite in the subfornical organ   p896
Takashi Matsuda, Takeshi Y Hiyama, Fumio Niimura, Taiji Matsusaka, Akiyoshi Fukamizu et al.

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