Friday, May 5, 2017

Nature Medicine Contents: May 2017 Volume 23 Number 5 pp 527-643

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Nature Medicine

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May 2017 Volume 23, Issue 5

News and Views
Brief Communications
New Gene Editing Technology Now Available!
Canopy Biosciences is excited to introduce a new gene editing technology--the TUNR Flexible Gene Editing System. The TUNR system leverages CRISPR-Cas9 and allows you to generate cell lines or animal models with a range of expression of your targeted gene. To find out more, visit our website at

Recommend to library

Nature Outlook: Regenerative Medicine 

Sometimes, a drug can remedy a chemical imbalance or surgery can repair a structural failure, but there are times when there is no substitute for replacing a part with human tissue or an entire organ. Rapid advances in regenerative medicine are bringing that possibility closer to reality.

Access the Outlook

Produced with support from 
Translational Research Informatics Center(TRI) 
Clio, Inc. 
Sapporo Medical University 
Animation: Alzheimer's disease 

Nature Neuroscience presents this animation, which introduces the molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms associated with Alzheimer's disease and highlights some of the most recent advances in our understanding of the onset and progression of this devastating neurological condition. 

Watch the Animation free online >>

Presented by: Ospedale San Raffaele | Nature

The conference will feature sessions on regeneration in animal models, functional and dysfunctional regeneration in mammals, and new therapeutic approaches to regeneration.

November 16-18, 2017 | Milan, Italy



The curse of uncertainty   p527
Proposed US budget cuts and the impending exit of the UK from the European Union have the potential to destabilize the global biomedical-research enterprise. In the meantime, the uncertainty of not knowing just how bad the effects will be will inflict its own damage.



Host with the most: Targeting host cells instead of pathogens to fight infectious disease   pp528 - 531
Amanda B. Keener

Bringing RNA into the fold: Small molecules find new targets in RNA to combat disease   pp532 - 534
Shraddha Chakradhar



Correction   p534

News and Views


A role for oncostatin M in inflammatory bowel disease   pp535 - 536
Walter M Kim, Arthur Kaser and Richard S Blumberg
A new study identifies oncostatin M (OSM) as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and pinpoints mucosal stromal cells as key players in OSM-mediated inflammation.

See also: Article by West et al.

Thymosin α1: a single drug with multiple targets in cystic fibrosis   pp536 - 538
Andre M Cantin and John W Hanrahan
A new study in mice suggests that a single drug, thymosin α1, may simultaneously rectify the impaired trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cystic fibrosis (CF) and reduce inflammation, offering new hope for CF treatment.

See also: Article by Romani et al.

HIV persistence in macrophages   pp538 - 539
Mario Stevenson
A recent study using a humanized mouse model shows that HIV-1 can persist in macrophages during antiretroviral therapy (ART), and suggests that macrophages may represent an obstacle to efforts to cure HIV-1 infection.

See also: Letter by Honeycutt et al.

Nature Medicine
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Is autoimmunity the Achilles' heel of cancer immunotherapy?   pp540 - 547
Carl H June, Jeremy T Warshauer and Jeffrey A Bluestone
In this Perspective, June, Bluestone and Warshauer discuss potential cellular and molecular explanations for the autoimmunity often associated with immunotherapy, and propose additional research and changes to reporting practices to aid efforts to understand and minimize these toxic side effects.

Brief Communications


Diagnosis of Zika virus infection on a nanotechnology platform   pp548 - 550
Bo Zhang, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jeyarama S Ananta, Su Zhao, Shylaja Arulkumar et al.
Antibody-based diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is complicated by cross-reactivity with antibodies against dengue virus. Hongjie Dai and colleagues report their development of a new IgA- and IgG-based diagnostic test that detects ZIKV with high specificity.

VISTA is an inhibitory immune checkpoint that is increased after ipilimumab therapy in patients with prostate cancer   pp551 - 555
Jianjun Gao, John F Ward, Curtis A Pettaway, Lewis Z Shi, Sumit K Subudhi et al.
Prostate cancer is refractory to anti-CTLA-4 therapy, but the reason why is unclear. Padmanee Sharma and colleagues report that the inhibitory molecule VISTA, which negatively regulates T cells, is upregulated on macrophages in prostate tumors that have been treated with anti-CTLA-4 and may play a role in resistance to this immunotherapy.

Nature Milestones: Interactive antibody timeline

Nature Milestones: Antibodies presents an interactive timeline on the history of antibodies covering everything from their initial description in antisera through to their application in immunotherapy. The timeline includes written content, video interviews and animations. 

Access the timeline free online

Produced with support from



Dectin 1 activation on macrophages by galectin 9 promotes pancreatic carcinoma and peritumoral immune tolerance   pp556 - 567
Donnele Daley, Vishnu R Mani, Navyatha Mohan, Neha Akkad, Atsuo Ochi et al.
Activation of dectin-1-dependent signaling in macrophages through ligation by galectin 9 promotes an immunosuppressive, protumorigenic microenvironment in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA). Blocking dectin 1 ligation restores anti-tumor immunity and delays tumor growth, thus offering a novel strategy for improving the effectiveness of immunotherapy in patients with PDA.

A stemness-related ZEB1-MSRB3 axis governs cellular pliancy and breast cancer genome stability   pp568 - 578
Anne-Pierre Morel, Christophe Ginestier, Roxane M Pommier, Olivier Cabaud, Emmanuelle Ruiz et al.
During malignant transformation, the ability of mammary epithelial cells to cope with oncogene-induced DNA damage and avoid chromosomal instability is determined by stemness-related expression of the canonical epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition transcription factor ZEB1 and its target MSRB3, a methionine sulfoxide reductase involved in antioxidant defense.

Oncostatin M drives intestinal inflammation and predicts response to tumor necrosis factor-neutralizing therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease   pp579 - 589
Nathaniel R West, Ahmed N Hegazy, Benjamin M J Owens, Samuel J Bullers, Bryan Linggi et al.
The cytokine oncostatin M drives intestinal inflammation in mice, and its abundance in the intestine of patients with inflammatory bowel disease predicts response to tumor necrosis factor-neutralizing therapy.

See also: News and Views by Kim et al.

Thymosin α1 represents a potential potent single-molecule-based therapy for cystic fibrosis   pp590 - 600
Luigina Romani, Vasilis Oikonomou, Silvia Moretti, Rossana G Iannitti, Maria Cristina D'Adamo et al.
Thymosin α1 is used in the clinic as a treatment in viral disease and acts as an anti-inflammatory. Here it was found to also correct the misfolding of mutant CTFR and potentiate its activity, thus improving outcome in a mouse model of cystic fibrosis.

See also: News and Views by Cantin & Hanrahan

Marginal zone B cells control the response of follicular helper T cells to a high-cholesterol diet   pp601 - 610
Meritxell Nus, Andrew P Sage, Yuning Lu, Leanne Masters, Brian Y H Lam et al.
Splenic marginal zone B cells suppress atherosclerosis in mice by dampening the proatherogenic T follicular helper response via a PDL1-dependent interaction with T follicular helper cells.

A heart-brain-kidney network controls adaptation to cardiac stress through tissue macrophage activation   pp611 - 622
Katsuhito Fujiu, Munehiko Shibata, Yukiteru Nakayama, Fusa Ogata, Sahohime Matsumoto et al.
The ability of the heart to withstand pressure overload, as occurs in heart failure, depends on a multi-organ circuit, in which sympathetic activation of the kidney leads to release of the cytokine CSF2 into the circulation, stimulating cardiac-resident macrophages that protect the heart.

Alternatively activated macrophages do not synthesize catecholamines or contribute to adipose tissue adaptive thermogenesis   pp623 - 630
Katrin Fischer, Henry H Ruiz, Kevin Jhun, Brian Finan, Douglas J Oberlin et al.
In contrast to previously reported findings, M2-like polarized macrophages are not a source of catecholamines and do not contribute to browning of the fat.

The 5th Helmholtz-Nature Medicine

September 17-19, 2017 | Munich, Germany

Presented by: Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen | Nature Medicine




The cold-induced lipokine 12,13-diHOME promotes fatty acid transport into brown adipose tissue   pp631 - 637
Matthew D Lynes, Luiz O Leiria, Morten Lundh, Alexander Bartelt, Farnaz Shamsi et al.
Cold stimulation induces the synthesis and release of the lipid species 12,13-diHOME from brown adipose tissue. This /`lipokine/' then acts on brown adipocytes to promote the uptake of fatty acids to fuel this cell type's heat production.

HIV persistence in tissue macrophages of humanized myeloid-only mice during antiretroviral therapy   pp638 - 643
Jenna B Honeycutt, William O Thayer, Caroline E Baker, Ruy M Ribeiro, Steven M Lada et al.
Persistence of HIV is attributed primarily to latent infection of CD4+ T cells. Honeycutt et al. report that in humanized mice lacking T cells HIV can rebound from myeloid cells after antiretroviral treatment interruption, suggesting that persistence of HIV could involve other cell types.

See also: News and Views by Stevenson


September 17-19, 2017 | Seattle, WA, USA

Presented by: Adaptive Biotechnologies | Nature Immunology | Nature Medicine | Nature Biotechnology

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