Thursday, May 18, 2017

Nature Immunology Contents: June 2017 Volume 18 pp595 - 705

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RNA-binding proteins, the guardians of the marginal zone   pp595 - 597
Palaniraja Thandapani, Beatriz Aranda-Orgilles and Iannis Aifantis
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) take control of binary cell-fate 'decisions' and cellular identity in lymphoid organs, as the RBP ZFP36L1 is shown to negatively regulate the stability of the transcription factors KLF2 and IRF8 to control the maintenance, survival and localization of marginal zone B cells.

See also: Article by Newman et al.

STAT5 alters the state of transcriptional networks, driving aggressive leukemia   pp597 - 598
Sinisa Dovat and Kimberly J Payne
The transcription factor STAT5 acts as an oncoprotein in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, competing with the transcription factors NF-κB and Ikaros for binding to DNA.

See also: Article by Katerndahl et al.

Alternative monocytes settle in for the long term   pp599 - 600
Allan McI Mowat and Calum C Bain
Monocytes recruited to the peritoneum under conditions of a type 2 inflammatory reaction can convert into resident-type macrophages under the control of vitamin A.

See also: Article by Gundra et al.

Unusual suspects: dancing with stromal cells   pp601 - 602
Gabrielle T Belz and Francisca F Almeida
M cells sample gut lumenal antigens and microbes to induce gut immune responses. A novel population of stromal cell—the M cell inducers—are essential for sustaining M cell differentiation and bacteria-specific production of immunoglobulin A to maintain the gut-immune system symbiosis.

See also: Article by Nagashima et al.

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Research Highlights


Monocyte and DC atlas | Superinduction! | Enchained growth | Fertilization and nucleic acid sensing | Exploitation by Mtb | Zika-neutralizing antibodies



IL-17+ γδ T cells as kick-starters of inflammation   pp604 - 611
Pedro H Papotto, Julie C Ribot and Bruno Silva-Santos
Silva-Santos and colleagues review the activation and pathophysiological functions of γδ17 T cells during inflammatory responses.

Interleukin 17 is a chief orchestrator of immunity   pp612 - 621
Marc Veldhoen
Although interleukin 17 (IL-17) has modest activity on its own, it has a substantial impact in immunity through its synergistic action with other factors and its self-sustaining feedback loop. Veldhoen discusses the role of IL-17 during infections.

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S100-alarmin-induced innate immune programming protects newborn infants from sepsis   pp622 - 632
Thomas Ulas, Sabine Pirr, Beate Fehlhaber, Marie S Bickes, Torsten G Loof et al.
Neonates are thought to have impaired immune responses, yet, paradoxically, they can also demonstrate hyperinflammation. Ulas et al. show that a neonatal burst of the alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 activates a distinct innate immune response without dangerous hyperinflammation.

Mice deficient in NRROS show abnormal microglial development and neurological disorders   pp633 - 641
Kit Wong, Rajkumar Noubade, Paolo Manzanillo, Naruhisa Ota, Oded Foreman et al.
Microglia are the tissue-resident macrophages of the brain. Ouyang and colleagues show the ER-resident transmembrane protein NRROS is necessary for proper development and function of microglia. Mice lacking NRROS exhibit neurologic defects and die prematurely.

Vitamin A mediates conversion of monocyte-derived macrophages into tissue-resident macrophages during alternative activation   pp642 - 653
Uma Mahesh Gundra, Natasha M Girgis, Michael A Gonzalez, Mei San Tang, Hendrik J P Van Der Zande et al.
Loke and colleagues show that vitamin A is required for the conversion of interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated monocyte-derived macrophages into macrophages with a tissue-resident phenotype in the peritoneal cavity and in S. mansoni-induced liver granulomas in mice.

See also: News and Views by Mowat & Bain

A self-sustained loop of inflammation-driven inhibition of beige adipogenesis in obesity   pp654 - 664
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou, Matina Economopoulou, Ruben Garcia-Martin, Vasileia I Alexaki et al.
Obesity is commonly accompanied by inflammatory responses in white adipose tissues. Chavakis and colleagues identify a vicious cycle involving α4 integrins and the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 that promotes inflammatory macrophage-adipocyte interactions and suppresses beige adipogenesis.

Brown-adipose-tissue macrophages control tissue innervation and homeostatic energy expenditure   pp665 - 674
Yochai Wolf, Sigalit Boura-Halfon, Nina Cortese, Zhana Haimon, Hadas Sar Shalom et al.
Macrophages serve important functions in defense and tissue homeostasis. Jung and colleagues demonstrate that a resident population of macrophages controls the innervation of brown adipose tissue and thereby regulates energy use.

Identification of subepithelial mesenchymal cells that induce IgA and diversify gut microbiota   pp675 - 682
Kazuki Nagashima, Shinichiro Sawa, Takeshi Nitta, Masanori Tsutsumi, Tadashi Okamura et al.
IgA is necessary for maintaining gut homeostasis, and its production depends on microbial sampling by the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Takayanagi and colleagues identify a novel population of mesenchymal cells in the GALT that control M cell differentiation and function of gut epithelium.

See also: News and Views by Belz & Almeida

Maintenance of the marginal-zone B cell compartment specifically requires the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1   pp683 - 693
Rebecca Newman, Helena Ahlfors, Alexander Saveliev, Alison Galloway, Daniel J Hodson et al.
Turner and colleagues show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36L1 regulates a post-transcriptional hub that determines the identity of marginal-zone B cells by promoting their localization and survival.

See also: News and Views by Thandapani et al.

Antagonism of B cell enhancer networks by STAT5 drives leukemia and poor patient survival   pp694 - 704
Casey D S Katerndahl, Lynn M Heltemes-Harris, Mark J L Willette, Christine M Henzler, Seth Frietze et al.
Transcription factors compete for superenhancer sites and have antagonist functions. Farrar and colleagues identify regulatory competition between STAT5 and IKAROS or NF-κB in B cells and show that the ratio of STAT5 to IKAROS or to NF-κB can serve as a prognostic marker of disease severity of the leukemia B-ALL.

See also: News and Views by Dovat & Payne

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Corrigendum: Quantifying the shifting landscape of B cell immunodominance   p705
Gordon A Dale, Jessica R Shartouny and Joshy Jacob



Erratum: Epigenetic landscapes reveal transcription factors that regulate CD8+ T cell differentiation   p705
Bingfei Yu, Kai Zhang, J Justin Milner, Clara Toma, Runqiang Chen et al.

Erratum: THEMIS enhances TCR signaling and enables positive selection by selective inhibition of the phosphatase SHP-1   p705
Seeyoung Choi, Claude Warzecha, Ekaterina Zvezdova, Jan Lee, Jérémy Argenty et al.

Erratum: CCL19-CCR7-dependent reverse transendothelial migration of myeloid cells clears Chlamydia muridarum from the arterial intima   p705
Mark Roufaiel, Eric Gracey, Allan Siu, Su-Ning Zhu, Andrew Lau et al.

Intestinal microflora in health and disease 

The human gut teems with trillions of microorganisms. The search for links between these microbes and our health is yielding promising insights. 

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