Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Nature contents: 4 May 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 545 Issue 7652
This Week  
Trump’s empty chairs rob science of a voice in government
Delay in making presidential appointments harms research and the broader public.
Integrity starts with the health of research groups
Funders should force universities to support laboratories’ research health.
Increased scrutiny of climate-change models should be welcomed
The apparent slowdown in global warming has provided a spur for better understanding of the underlying processes.
For certain infections, faecal transplants have resulted in remarkable recoveries. Will the same ever be true for people with IBD? It's a condition on the rise in Asia, but why? Follow those trying to find out, and learn how our environments influence IBD in this Outlook.
Produced with support from
World View  
No researcher is too junior to fix science
If young scientists plan to advance their careers before setting the system right, nothing will change, warns John Tregoning.
Seven Days  
Arctic drilling, controversial reforms and new views of Saturn
The week in science: 28 April–4 May 2017
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
News in Focus
Researchers frustrated by Italian misconduct probe
Alfredo Fusco denies claims that his research lab hired a photo studio to manipulate images.
Alison Abbott
  Dreams of the Stone Age dated for first time in southern Africa
Ancient rock art research could piece together how the peoples who lived in the region some 5,700 years ago interacted.
Sarah Wild
Europe’s billion-euro quantum project takes shape
Scientists offer more detail on flagship programme to harness quantum effects in devices.
Elizabeth Gibney
  Party drug’s power to fight depression puzzles scientists​
Ketamine can ease depression in hours, but researchers might have misjudged how it works.
Sara Reardon
BioRxiv preprint server gets cash boost from Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
Money will be used to develop open-source platform and help put articles in web-friendly formats.
Ewen Callaway
The shock tactics set to shake up immunology
An experimental procedure is exposing the links between the nervous and immune systems. Could it be the start of a revolution?
Douglas Fox
Nature Podcast: 4 May 2017
This week, the secret life of the thalamus, how to talk about antibiotic resistance, and dangerous research.
Antibiotic resistance has a language problem
A failure to use words clearly undermines the global response to antimicrobials' waning usefulness. Standardize terminology, urge Marc Mendelson and colleagues.
Marc Mendelson, Manica Balasegaram, Tim Jinks et al.
Books and Arts  
Palaeontology: Evolution with teeth
Louise Humphrey applauds a treatise on the dental roots of the human story.
Louise Humphrey
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Medical Research: Pitching the big tent of modern microbiology
Andrew Jermy explores the work of a bacteriologist who championed basic research and reproducibility.
Andrew Jermy
Publishing: One submission to all journals
Tim Birkhead, Robert Montgomerie
  Soil: Restore earthworms to rebuild topsoil
Robert Blakemore, Axel Hochkirch
Germany: Note limitations of DNA legislation
Fabian Staubach
  Nomenclature: Share names for dinosaur divisions
Thomas R. Holtz
Technology Feature: Pocket Laboratories
Mobile phones are helping to take conventional laboratory-based science into the field, the classroom and the clinic.
Jeffrey M. Perkel
Disks back from the dead
Getting data off an ancient floppy disk or computer tape isn't easy, but it can be done with the help of clever software and hardware.
Monya Baker
Structural biology: Signalling under the microscope
G-protein-coupled receptors are biological targets for drug discovery. Developments in cryo-electron microscopy have enabled the solution of the structure of a class B receptor in complex with its signalling protein. Two biologists and a microscopist explain the exciting implications of this work.
Structural Biology: An ion-transport enzyme that rocks
Previous crystal structures of membrane-spanning enzymes called ATPases have revealed that the enzymes undergo complex movements. The movements, it now emerges, involve rocking in place in the membrane.
Whole-genome landscapes of major melanoma subtypes
The first large, high-coverage whole-genome sequencing study of melanomas from cutaneous, acral and mucosal sites.
Maintenance of persistent activity in a frontal thalamocortical loop
Thalamic neurons show selective persistent activity that predicts movement direction, and their photoinhibition decreases activity in the anterior lateral motor cortex, and vice versa, suggesting that persistent activity requires reciprocal excitation in a thalamocortical loop.
Protein–phospholipid interplay revealed with crystals of a calcium pump
Solvent contrast modulation reveals how the lipid bilayer actively participates in the conformational switches of Ca2+-ATPase through the actions of tryptophan, arginine and lysine residues, which function as membrane floats and anchors.
Experimental evidence that thrust earthquake ruptures might open faults
Earthquake rupture experiments and mathematical modelling reveal the existence of a torquing mechanism of thrust fault ruptures near the free surface that causes them to dynamically unclamp, open and slip large distances.
The concurrent emergence and causes of double volcanic hotspot tracks on the Pacific plate
The emergence of geographically and geochemically distinct double volcanic chains on the Pacific plate coincides with a recent azimuthal change in the motion of the plate.
Thalamic amplification of cortical connectivity sustains attentional control
The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus amplifies the functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex, thereby sustaining cortical representations of rule sets without relaying categorical information.
Surrogate Wnt agonists that phenocopy canonical Wnt and β-catenin signalling
The authors describe water-soluble surrogate Wnt agonists, with specificity towards some frizzled (FZD) receptors, which can maintain human intestinal organoid cultures and have effects on the mouse liver in vivo.
Non-equivalence of Wnt and R-spondin ligands during Lgr5+ intestinal stem-cell self-renewal
R-spondin and Wnt ligand families act non-redundantly and cooperatively within the same molecular pathway in the intestinal stem-cell niche to maintain stem-cell competency and drive stem-cell expansion.
FGF-dependent metabolic control of vascular development
Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signalling is a crucial regulator of endothelial metabolism and vascular development.
Core Mediator structure at 3.4 Å extends model of transcription initiation complex
The 3.4 Å crystal structure of the 15-subunit core Mediator complex in yeast.
Dominant protection from HLA-linked autoimmunity by antigen-specific regulatory T cells
The molecular mechanism of Goodpasture disease is modelled to mechanistically determine how a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele can exert its dominant protective effect in autoimmune disease.
Structural basis of CRISPR–SpyCas9 inhibition by an anti-CRISPR protein
Chemotherapy drugs induce pyroptosis through caspase-3 cleavage of a Gasdermin
Corrigendum: An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae
News and Views  
Archaeology: Of rats and resilience
Jared Diamond
Neurodegeneration: Role of repeats in protein clearance
Dale D. O. Martin, Michael R. Hayden
Organic Chemistry: Nickel steps towards selectivity
Matthew Gaunt, Patrick Williamson

npj 2D Materials and Applications is an online-only, open access journal that aims to become a top-tier interdisciplinary platform for scientists to share research on 2D materials and their applications. Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, npj 2D Materials and Applications is published in partnership with FCT NOVA, Lisbon, with the support of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS). The journal is now open for submissions.

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Molecular genetics: Chaperone protein gets personal
Mark L. Siegal
Climate Science: The 'pause' unpacked
James S. Risbey, Stephan Lewandowsky
50 & 100 Years Ago
Human Development: Advances in mini-brain technology
J. Gray Camp, Barbara Treutlein
Cell diversity and network dynamics in photosensitive human brain organoids
Long-term cultures of human brain organoids display a high degree of cellular diversity, mature spontaneous neuronal networks and are sensitive to light.
Giorgia Quadrato, Tuan Nguyen, Evan Z. Macosko et al.
Assembly of functionally integrated human forebrain spheroids
Human pluripotent stem cells were used to develop dorsal and ventral forebrain 3D spheroids, which can be assembled to study interneuron migration and to derive a functionally integrated forebrain system with cortical interneurons and glutamatergic neurons.
Fikri Birey, Jimena Andersen, Christopher D. Makinson et al.
T-cell invigoration to tumour burden ratio associated with anti-PD-1 response
The clinical benefit of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is dependent on the extent to which exhausted CD8 T cells are reinvigorated in relation to the tumour burden of the patient.
Alexander C. Huang, Michael A. Postow, Robert J. Orlowski et al.
Visualizing multistep elevator-like transitions of a nucleoside transporter
Multiple crystallographic structures of a concentrative nucleoside transporter show how it uses an ‘elevator’ mechanism to move its transport domain across the membrane.
Marscha Hirschi, Zachary Lee Johnson, Seok-Yong Lee
Observation of the frozen charge of a Kondo resonance
In a quantum dot in the Kondo regime, electrical charges are effectively frozen, but the quantum dot remains electrically conducting owing to strong electron–electron correlations.
M. M. Desjardins, J. J. Viennot, M. C. Dartiailh et al.
Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow
Quasiparticles in strongly interacting fractional quantum Hall systems carry heat according to the same quantization of thermal conductance as for particles in non-interacting systems.
Mitali Banerjee, Moty Heiblum, Amir Rosenblatt et al.
Dual-phase nanostructuring as a route to high-strength magnesium alloys
Combining the benefits of nanocrystals with those of amorphous metallic glasses leads to a dual-phase material—comprising sub-10-nanometre-sized nanocrystalline grains embedded in amorphous glassy shells—that exhibits a strength approaching the ideal theoretical limit.
Ge Wu, Ka-Cheung Chan, Linli Zhu et al.
Remote carboxylation of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons with carbon dioxide
A nickel catalyst that promotes carboxylation of halogenated hydrocarbons at remote aliphatic sites with carbon dioxide via tunable and controllable chain-walking is described.
Francisco Juliá-Hernández, Toni Moragas, Josep Cornella et al.
Burgess Shale fossils illustrate the origin of the mandibulate body plan
Tokummia katalepsis from the Burgess Shale had a pair of mandibles and maxilliped claws, showing that large bivalved arthropods from the Cambrian period are forerunners of myriapods and pancrustaceans, thereby providing a basis for the origin of the hyperdiverse mandibulate body plan.
Cédric Aria, Jean-Bernard Caron
The mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger is essential for Ca2+ homeostasis and viability
Conditional deletion of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCLX in adult mouse hearts causes sudden death due to mitochondrial calcium overload, whereas its overexpression limits cell death elicited by ischaemia reperfusion injury and heart failure.
Timothy S. Luongo, Jonathan P. Lambert, Polina Gross et al.
Tumour ischaemia by interferon-γ resembles physiological blood vessel regression
Interferon-γ acts on tumour endothelial cells to drive vascular regression, inducing ischaemia that leads to tumour collapse.
Thomas Kammertoens, Christian Friese, Ainhoa Arina et al.
Transmission of cytokinesis forces via E-cadherin dilution and actomyosin flows
Under physiological forces, resulting from cytokinesis, the mechanosensitivity of adherens junction arises from a local decrease in E-cadherin concentration and results in actomyosin flows.
Diana Pinheiro, Edouard Hannezo, Sophie Herszterg et al.
Polyglutamine tracts regulate beclin 1-dependent autophagy
The polyglutamine domain in ataxin 3, which is expanded in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, allows normal ataxin 3 to interact with and deubiquitinate beclin 1 and thereby to promote autophagy.
Avraham Ashkenazi, Carla F. Bento, Thomas Ricketts et al.
Structural insight into allosteric modulation of protease-activated receptor 2
Crystal structures of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in complex with two different antagonist ligands and with a blocking antibody reveal binding sites that are distinct from those found on PAR1, offering new leads for structure-based drug design.
Robert K. Y. Cheng, Cédric Fiez-Vandal, Oliver Schlenker et al.
Corrigendum: Elucidation of the biosynthesis of the methane catalyst coenzyme F430
Simon J. Moore, Sven T. Sowa, Christopher Schuchardt et al.
Corrigendum: Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota
Kristoffer Forslund, Falk Hildebrand, Trine Nielsen et al.
Erratum: Effective combinatorial immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer
Xin Lu, James W. Horner, Erin Paul et al.



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