Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Nature contents: 01 June 2017

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  journal cover  
Nature Volume 546 Issue 7656
This Week  
Keep shouting to save science
As political leaders on either side of the Atlantic set out contrasting positions on science funding, researchers everywhere need to ensure that their voices are heard.
Why function is catching on in conservation
Counting what species do is becoming as important as counting how many there are.
Announcement: Towards greater reproducibility for life-sciences research in Nature
World View  
Crowd-based peer review can be good and fast
Confidential feedback from many interacting reviewers can help editors make better, quicker decisions, explains Benjamin List.
Seven Days  
LHC fires up, Google bot retires and Jupiter up close
The week in science: 26 May–1 June 2017.
Research Highlights  
This issue's Research Highlights
Selections from the scientific literature.
How much time and money does it take to publish research? What factors affect how your paper will get cited?

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News in Focus
Trials of embryonic stem cells to launch in China
Studies to treat vision loss and Parkinson’s disease are the first to proceed under new regulations.
David Cyranoski
  UK election: science spending pledges overshadowed by Brexit
Parties promise more money for research, but scientists fear impact of split with European Union.
Daniel Cressey
Mummy DNA unravels ancient Egyptians’ ancestry
Genetic analysis reveals a close relationship with Middle Easterners, not central Africans.
Traci Watson
  Neutron stars set to open their heavy hearts
Space mission will peer inside the densest matter in the Universe.
Elizabeth Gibney
Trump budget would slash science programmes across government
Proposed cuts include 11% at the National Science Foundation, 18% at the National Institutes of Health and 30% at the Environmental Protection Agency.
Sara Reardon, Jeff Tollefson, Alexandra Witze et al.
Biodiversity moves beyond counting species
Ecologists are increasingly looking at how richness of traits — rather than number of species — helps set the health of ecosystems.
Rachel Cernansky
Nature: 01 June 2017
This week, ‘sticky’ RNA causes disease, disorganised taxonomy, and 'intelligent crowd' peer review.
Nature Extra: Backchat May 2017
This month the team get to grips with new penalties for faking scientific data, twice-retracted scientific papers and... religion.
Taxonomy anarchy hampers conservation
The classification of complex organisms is in chaos. Stephen T. Garnett and Les Christidis propose a solution.
Stephen T. Garnett, Les Christidis
Govern land as a global commons
Felix Creutzig calls for international coordination of land use to ensure everyone has access to its fruits.
Felix Creutzig
Books and Arts  
Genome editing: That's the way the CRISPR crumbles
Nathaniel Comfort finds heroism but little nuance in Jennifer Doudna's account of her co-discovery.
Nathaniel Comfort
Books in brief
Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.
Barbara Kiser
Art: Under Mona Lisa's smile
Philip Ball is intrigued by an analysis of Leonardo's iconic painting.
Philip Ball
Retractions: Stamp out fake peer review
Jian Gao, Tao Zhou
  Unsung heroes: Value coordinating roles in research
Eleanor M Slade, Terhi Riutta
Training: Lure young surgeons on to research tracks
Daniel S Alt
  Data management: Stable identifiers for collection specimens
Quentin Groom, Roger Hyam, Anton Güntsch
Ageing: Rejuvenation study stirs old memories
Matthis Krischel, Nils Hansson
Software simplified
Containerization technology takes the hassle out of setting up software and can boost the reproducibility of data-driven research.
Andrew Silver
Molecular biology: Local metabolites linked to memory
Production of the metabolite acetyl-CoA near specific regions of DNA modulates gene expression in mouse neurons during cellular differentiation and memory formation.
Evolution: Differences can hold populations together
Evolution favours the body form best adapted to the local environment, but it can also favour rare forms. Stickleback experiments reveal how these two selection forces can interact, and how this can limit population divergence.
Neurodegenerative disease: RNA repeats put a freeze on cells
Droplet-like assemblies of RNA in cell nuclei are associated with certain neurodegenerative diseases. Experiments reveal that these assemblies become 'frozen' gels in cells, potentially explaining their toxicity.
A Cryptosporidium PI(4)K inhibitor is a drug candidate for cryptosporidiosis
The establishment of a drug-discovery screening pipeline for cryptosporidiosis, and identification of pyrazolopyridines as selective ATP-competitive inhibitors of the Cryptosporidium lipid kinase PI(4)K.
Structure of the human multidrug transporter ABCG2
The structure of human ABCG2 bound to an inhibitory antibody using cryo-electron microscopy, representing the first high-resolution structural data of a human multidrug transporter.
RNA phase transitions in repeat expansion disorders
Nucleotide repeat expansions create templates for multivalent base-pairing, which causes RNA to undergo a sol–gel phase transition and may explain the formation of nuclear RNA foci that are commonly observed in several neurological and neuromuscular diseases.
Acetyl-CoA synthetase regulates histone acetylation and hippocampal memory
The metabolic enzyme acetyl coenzyme A synthetase directly regulates gene expression during memory formation by binding to specific genes and providing acetyl coenzyme A for histone acetylation.
Crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a peptide agonist
The solved crystal structure of the GLP-1 receptor bound to a truncated agonist enables the design of synthetic agonists that exhibit potent activity in vivo.
Frequency dependence limits divergent evolution by favouring rare immigrants over residents
In a study using stickleback fish, negative frequency-dependent selection favours rare immigrants over common residents, weakening the effect of divergent natural selection.
The B-cell receptor controls fitness of MYC-driven lymphoma cells via GSK3β inhibition
Combined studies in MYC-driven mouse lymphomas and human Burkitt lymphoma unravel an essential role for the B-cell antigen receptor in the control of tumour B-cell fitness both in vitro and in vivo, with possible biological and clinical implications.
Genetic wiring maps of single-cell protein states reveal an off-switch for GPCR signalling
Random mutagenesis in haploid human cells coupled to quantitative protein measurements with different antibodies is used as a readout for individual cellular phenotypes.
Dynamic corticostriatal activity biases social bonding in monogamous female prairie voles
In a prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) model of social bonding, a functional circuit from the prefrontal cortex to nucleus accumbens is dynamically modulated to enhance females’ affiliative behaviour towards a partner.
Structure of the Cpf1 endonuclease R-loop complex after target DNA cleavage
The structure of Cpf1, a CRISPR–Cas/RNA-guided nuclease, is presented with a three-stranded RNA–DNA loop after cleavage, providing insight into its working mechanism.
News and Views  
Structural biology: Signalling under the microscope
Ching-Ju Tsai, Joerg Standfuss, Robert M. Glaeser
Astrophysics: Multi-molecular views of a stellar nursery
Jennifer Wiseman, Marta Sewilo
Cell imaging: An intracellular dance visualized
Sang-Hee Shim

An open access journal dedicated to highlighting the most important scientific advances in Parkinson's disease research, spanning the motor and non-motor disorders of Parkinson's disease.

Part of the Nature Partner Journals series, npj Parkinson's Disease is published in partnership with the Parkinson's Disease Foundation.
Condensed-matter physics: Functional materials at the flick of a switch
Shriram Ramanathan
50 & 100 Years Ago
Atmospheric science: The self-cleansing ability of prehistoric air
Michaela I. Hegglin
Genomics: Sunflowers sequenced
Orli G. Bahcall
Microbiology: Diversity breeds tolerance
David G. Russell
Biomedical research: Premature lambs grown in a bag
Claire T. Roberts
Anna Armstrong
Speciation gradients and the distribution of biodiversity
Dolph Schluter, Matthew W. Pennell
Beyond pairwise mechanisms of species coexistence in complex communities
Jonathan M. Levine, Jordi Bascompte, Peter B. Adler et al.
Linking the influence and dependence of people on biodiversity across scales
Forest Isbell, Andrew Gonzalez, Michel Loreau et al.
Future threats to biodiversity and pathways to their prevention
David Tilman, Michael Clark, David R. Williams et al.
Coral reefs in the Anthropocene
Terry P. Hughes, Michele L. Barnes, David R. Bellwood et al.
Upgrading protected areas to conserve wild biodiversity
Robert M. Pringle
A neural circuit architecture for angular integration in Drosophila
A neural circuit in Drosophila reveals how the fly’s internal sense of heading rotates when it turns.
Jonathan Green, Atsuko Adachi, Kunal K. Shah et al.
Phase-plate cryo-EM structure of a class B GPCR–G-protein complex
Volta phase-plate cryo-electron microscopy reveals the structure of the full-length calcitonin receptor in complex with its peptide ligand and Gαsβγ.
Yi-Lynn Liang, Maryam Khoshouei, Mazdak Radjainia et al.
Blocking FSH induces thermogenic adipose tissue and reduces body fat
An antibody against the pituitary hormone Fsh reduces adiposity and increases thermogenesis in ovariectomized mice or mice fed a high-fat diet.
Peng Liu, Yaoting Ji, Tony Yuen et al.
Ensemble cryo-EM elucidates the mechanism of translation fidelity
Structural ensembles of the 70S ribosome bound to cognate or near-cognate charged tRNAs in complex with EF-Tu illustrate the crucial role of the nucleotide G530 in decoding of mRNA, and demonstrate that translational fidelity results from direct control of GTPase by the decoding centre.
Anna B. Loveland, Gabriel Demo, Nikolaus Grigorieff et al.
Electric-field control of tri-state phase transformation with a selective dual-ion switch
Materials are described here that can change their crystalline phase in response to the electrically controlled insertion or extraction of oxygen and hydrogen ions, giving rise to three distinct phases with different optical, electrical and magnetic properties.
Nianpeng Lu, Pengfei Zhang, Qinghua Zhang et al.
Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault
Extreme temperatures and fluid pressures are measured, and their causes modelled, in a borehole into the Alpine Fault, where an earthquake rupture is expected within the next few decades.
Rupert Sutherland, John Townend, Virginia Toy et al.
Leaf bacterial diversity mediates plant diversity and ecosystem function relationships
A tree biodiversity and ecosystem function experiment shows that leaf bacterial diversity is positively related to plant community productivity, and explains a portion of the variation in productivity that would otherwise be attributed to plant diversity and functional traits.
Isabelle Laforest-Lapointe, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier et al.
Isotopic evidence of multiple controls on atmospheric oxidants over climate transitions
Observations from a Greenland ice core reveal that tropospheric oxidants are sensitive to climate-driven changes in reactive halogen chemistry and stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of ozone, in addition to ozone precursor emissions.
Lei Geng, Lee T. Murray, Loretta J. Mickley et al.
Large conservation gains possible for global biodiversity facets
Expanding protected areas for ecological conservation by just 5% has the potential to markedly increase terrestrial biodiversity protection.
Laura J. Pollock, Wilfried Thuiller, Walter Jetz
Femtosecond response of polyatomic molecules to ultra-intense hard X-rays
Upon exposure to ultra-intense, hard X-ray pulses, polyatomic molecules containing one heavy atom reach a much higher degree of ionization than do individual heavy atoms, contrary to previous assumptions.
A. Rudenko, L. Inhester, K. Hanasaki et al.
The sunflower genome provides insights into oil metabolism, flowering and Asterid evolution
A high-quality reference for the sunflower genome (Helianthus annuus L.) and analysis of gene networks involved in flowering time and oil metabolism provide a basis for nutritional exploitation and analyses of adaptation to climate change.
Hélène Badouin, Jérôme Gouzy, Christopher J. Grassa et al.
Deletion of a mycobacterial divisome factor collapses single-cell phenotypic heterogeneity
The mycobacterial protein LamA functions as an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis at the nascent cell pole, contributing to asymmetry in polar growth, and could represent a much-needed target for the development of anti-tuberculosis therapies.
E. Hesper Rego, Rebecca E. Audette, Eric J. Rubin
Lymphatic endothelial S1P promotes mitochondrial function and survival in naive T cells
The chemoattractant S1P is identified as an extrinsic factor that supports naive T cell survival, and acts via a signalling mechanism to maintain mitochondrial content and function.
Alejandra Mendoza, Victoria Fang, Cynthia Chen et al.
Applying systems-level spectral imaging and analysis to reveal the organelle interactome
Using confocal and lattice light sheet microscopy, the authors perform systems-level analysis of the organelle interactome in live cells, allowing them to visualize the frequency and locality of up to five-way interactions between different organelles.
Alex M. Valm, Sarah Cohen, Wesley R. Legant et al.
CPS1 maintains pyrimidine pools and DNA synthesis in KRAS/LKB1-mutant lung cancer cells
In human cell lines with mutant KRAS and loss of LKB1, CPS1 expression correlates inversely with LKB1 expression; silencing CPS1 in these cells induces DNA damage and cell death as a result of pyrimidine depletion rather than ammonia toxicity.
Jiyeon Kim, Zeping Hu, Ling Cai et al.
Careers & Jobs
Workplace habits: Full-time is full enough
Chris Woolston
Paths of glory
Ushma S Neill
How to choose
Physics and maths.
Michael Haynes
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1 comment:

Pathy Ephele said...

I was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease a year ago at the age of 68. For several months I had noticed tremors in my right hand and the shaking of my right foot when I was sitting. My normally beautiful cursive writing was now small cramped printing. And I tended to lose my balance. Neurologist had me walk down the hall and said I didn't swing my right arm. I had never noticed! I was in denial for a while as there is no history in my family of parents and five older siblings, but now accept I had classic symptoms. I was taking pramipexole (Sifrol), carbidopa/levodopa and Biperiden, 2 mg. and started physical therapy to strengthen muscles. nothing was really working to help my condition.I went off the Siferol (with the doctor’s knowledge) and started on parkinson’s herbal formula i ordered from Health Herbal Clinic, my symptoms totally declined over a 3 weeks use of the Parkinsons disease natural herbal formula. i am now almost 70 and doing very well, the disease is totally reversed!! Visit there website www. healthherbalclinic. net