Monday, April 24, 2017

Science X Newsletter Monday, Apr 24

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for April 24, 2017:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Jellyfish-shaped galaxy found in Abell 2670 cluster

Graphene holds up under high pressure

Best of Last Week—Creating negative mass, consequences of drinking soda and isolating a higher state of consciousness

Cassini, Voyager missions suggest new picture of Sun's interaction with galaxy

First-ever direct observation of chiral currents in quantum Hall atomic simulation

Research moves closer to unravelling mystery cause of multiple sclerosis

Conservation not an effective tool for reducing infectious disease in people, study finds

Tiny 'cages' could keep vaccines safe at high temperatures

Game-changing PanDDA method unveils previously hidden 3-D structure data

Solving the separase–securin complex

A black hole in a low mass X-ray binary

Research on ready-to-use therapeutic food seeks drastic reduction in fatalities from severe acute malnutrition

Makerspaces could enable widespread adoption of microfluidics

How our brains can recognize previously unseen scenes, objects or faces in a fraction of a second

Swarms of autonomous aerial vehicles test new dogfighting skills

Astronomy & Space news

Jellyfish-shaped galaxy found in Abell 2670 cluster

(Phys.org)—Using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE), astronomers have identified a new elliptical jellyfish-like galaxy in the Abell 2670 cluster. The newly detected galaxy showcases spectacular one-sided tails of gas and young stars, which indicates intense ram-pressure stripping. The findings were presented Apr. 18 in a paper published on the arXiv pre-print server.

Cassini, Voyager missions suggest new picture of Sun's interaction with galaxy

New data from NASA's Cassini mission, combined with measurements from the two Voyager spacecraft and NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, suggests that our sun and planets are surrounded by a giant, rounded system of magnetic field from the sun—calling into question the alternate view of the solar magnetic fields trailing behind the sun in the shape of a long comet tail.

A black hole in a low mass X-ray binary

A globular cluster is a roughly spherical ensemble of stars (as many as several million) that are gravitationally bound together, and typically located in the outer regions of galaxies. Low mass X-ray binary stars (LMXBs) are systems in which one star is compact (a neutron star or black hole) and is accreting matter from a companion star.

Ancient stone pillars offer clues of comet strike that changed human history

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers with the University of Edinburgh has found what they describe as evidence of a comet striking the Earth at approximately the same time as the onset of the Younger Dryas in carvings on an ancient stone pillar in southern Turkey. The group has published their findings in the journal Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry.

Cassini completes final—and fateful—Titan flyby

NASA's Cassini spacecraft has had its last close brush with Saturn's hazy moon Titan and is now beginning its final set of 22 orbits around the ringed planet.

'Celestial Sleuth' credits Messier with discovery 238 years after the fact

The Ring Nebula is one of the most spectacular deep-sky objects in the heavens. It is easily located by backyard astronomers, intensely studied by astrophysicists and relied upon for show-stopping images on countless book covers and calendar pages.

Cassini mission revealed Saturn's secrets

Cassini is the most sophisticated space probe ever built. Launched in 1997 as a joint NASA/European Space Agency mission, it took seven years to journey to Saturn. It's been orbiting the sixth planet from the sun ever since, sending back data of immense scientific value and images of magnificent beauty.

Astronaut breaks US space record, gets call from Trump (Update)

Astronaut Peggy Whitson broke the U.S. record Monday for most time in space and talked up Mars during a congratulatory call from President Donald Trump.

'Better you than me,' Trump tells record-breaking astronaut

US President Donald Trump congratulated NASA astronaut Peggy Whitson for setting a new space record on Monday, but expressed disdain for a particular rigor of space life—drinking recycled urine.

Video: Earth as a planet

Earth is the largest rocky planet in our Solar System, and the only body we know of capable of supporting life. With so much news about exoplanets dominating the headlines, in this episode of Space we take a step back to take a look at Earth as a planet.

Technology news

Swarms of autonomous aerial vehicles test new dogfighting skills

Aerial dogfighting began more than a century ago in the skies over Europe with propeller-driven fighter aircraft carried aloft on wings of fabric and wood. An event held recently in southern California could mark the beginning of a new chapter in this form of aerial combat.

Projection system shines makeup on actors during live performances

The facial appearance of actors can be transformed during live stage performances using a new advanced system developed by a team at Disney Research that can track an actor's movements and changing expressions so that the face can be painted with light, rather than physical makeup.

Bright future for self-charging batteries

Who hasn't lived through the frustrating experience of being without a phone after forgetting to recharge it? This could one day be a thing of the past thanks to technology being developed by Hydro-Québec and McGill University.

'Personal flying machine' maker plans deliveries this year

A Silicon Valley "flying car" startup, Kitty Hawk, reportedly backed by Google co-founder Larry Page, released a video Monday of its airborne prototype and announced plans for deliveries of a "personal flying machine" this year.

Philips posts sevenfold jump in profits in Q1

Dutch electronics giant Philips on Monday posted a sevenfold leap in first quarter profits after spinning off its lighting business last year.

Samsung to update software over 'red screen' smartphone

Electronics giant Samsung will this week offer an unusually early software update for its newly-released Galaxy S8 phone, it said Monday after some consumers complained of red-tinted screens.

Japan's Nikon sues ASML, Zeiss over chip-making technology

Nikon Corp. said Monday it has taken legal action in the Netherlands, Germany and Japan over the use of semiconductor lithography technology in products made by Dutch and German companies.

Internet of the future via massive mobile antennae technology

Mobile base stations for 5G solutions will consist of hundreds of small antennas. Benefits include faster transmission, improved energy efficiency, better security and wider coverage. Researchers at Aalborg University are at the forefront of developing the new antenna technology.

Space technologies improve surgeries back on earth

Researchers in Hong Kong have developed a novel surgical robotic system that provides tactile feedback and is capable of single-incision and natural orifice (incision-free) robotic surgery. The system minimizes surgical trauma and is safer than currently available robotic systems.

How punk and Thatcherism came together in the surreal ZX Spectrum Pimania craze

Listeners tuning in to Portsmouth's independent station Radio Victory, late at night in 1977, would have found themselves confronted with a mysterious electronic squeal. It sounded more like a transmitter malfunction or cat-like yawl than a music show. And yet, for the few hobbyists who owned a new-fangled "micro-computer", this tinny squawk could be recorded and then fed via a tape-deck into one's machine to play a puzzle game with "real prizes."

Solar cell design with over 50% energy-conversion efficiency

Solar cells convert the sun's energy into electricity by converting photons into electrons. A new solar cell design could raise the energy conversion efficiency to over 50% by absorbing the spectral components of longer wavelengths that are usually lost during transmission through the cell. These findings were published on April 6 in the online edition of Nature Communications.

Why and how businesses should protect against data breaches from within

As we become more connected and companies hold more data, breaches are increasing, with more than 4,000 reported in 2016 alone. A statistical analysis of breaches in the United States found that 85% were conducted by someone known to the business, usually an employee or partner.

Hand scanner measures bitumen quality

TU Wien presents several technological innovations at the Hannover Messe: With a simple hand scanner, the quality of the bitumen, which holds the asphalt together, can be measured directly on-site.

Organ donation—a new frontier for AI?

Organ transplants are a game of odds. Success depends on a number of factors: how old and how healthy the donor is, how old and how healthy the recipient is, how good a biological match can be found, how ready the patient is to receive it.

New method enables more realistic hair simulation

When a person has a bad hair day, that's unfortunate. When a virtual character has bad hair, an entire animation video or film can look unrealistic. A new innovative method developed by Disney Research makes it possible to realistically simulate hair by observing real hair in motion.

Dish unveils $999 system to make live online video easier

Dish, a company known largely for its old-school satellite TV, is now trying to make it easier for people to stream quality video live over YouTube and Facebook.

LinkedIn membership reaches half a billion

The professional social network LinkedIn said Monday its membership had swelled to 500 million, as its user base showed steady growth following its acquisition last year by Microsoft.

France probes Peugeot over emissions cheating

France on Monday opened a judicial enquiry into allegations carmaking giant PSA cheated on diesel pollution tests in the latest twist in a huge emissions scandal which hit the industry in 2015.

Tests find Samsung's S8 phones more prone to screen cracks

Samsung's latest phones feature big wraparound screens and lots of glass. They also appear to break more easily, according to tests run by SquareTrade, a company that sells gadget-repair plans.

Satcom-based Planet service boosting special flight operations

Thanks to ESA, aircraft are using satcoms to share realtime information with other aircraft and ground stations to improve flight operations.

Medicine & Health news

Research moves closer to unravelling mystery cause of multiple sclerosis

A new study has made a major new discovery towards finding the cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), potentially paving the way for research to investigate new treatments.

How our brains can recognize previously unseen scenes, objects or faces in a fraction of a second

At the end of a long day, as we put our feet up, reach for the remote control and begin watching TV, we may find ourselves confronted with images beyond our experience—such as "The Upside-Down," the mysterious parallel dimension inhabited by a tulip-headed monster portrayed in the Netflix show Stranger Things.

Gene may hold key to hearing recovery

Researchers have discovered that a protein implicated in human longevity may also play a role in restoring hearing after noise exposure. The findings, where were published in the journal Scientific Reports, could one day provide researchers with new tools to prevent hearing loss.

Study identifies hundreds of genes that influence timing of puberty

The largest genomic analysis of puberty timing in men and women conducted to date has identified 389 genetic signals associated with puberty timing, four times the number that were previously known.

Hormone-influenced social strategies shape human social hierarchy, study shows

In a game of chicken, the most aggressive players are fueled by testosterone and are more willing to harm others; and while it may be easy to demonize such hawkish behaviors, psychology researchers from The University of Texas at Austin say there is sound evolutionary reason for their existence.

Brain circuit enables split-second decisions when cues conflict

When animals hunt or forage for food, they must constantly weigh whether the chance of a meal is worth the risk of being spotted by a predator. The same conflict between cost and benefit is at the heart of many of the decisions humans make on a daily basis.

Patients with drug-resistant malaria cured by plant therapy

When the standard malaria medications failed to help 18 critically ill patients, the attending physician in a Congo clinic acted under the "compassionate use" doctrine and prescribed a not-yet-approved malaria therapy made only from the dried leaves of the Artemisia annua plant. In just five days, all 18 people fully recovered. This small but stunningly successful trial offers hope to address the growing problem of drug-resistant malaria.

T cell revival correlates with lung cancer response to PD-1 immunotherapy

In lung cancer patients who were taking immunotherapy drugs targeting the PD-1 pathway, testing for CD8 T cell activation in their blood partially predicted whether their tumors would shrink. The results are scheduled for publication in PNAS.

Active ingredients in both hot peppers and cannabis calm the gut's immune system

You wouldn't think chili peppers and marijuana have much in common. But when eaten, both interact with the same receptor in our stomachs, according to a paper by UConn researchers published in the April 24 issue of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The research could lead to new therapies for diabetes and colitis, and opens up intriguing questions about the relationship between the immune system, the gut and the brain.

Discovery offers new hope to repair spinal cord injuries

Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes created a special type of neuron from human stem cells that could potentially repair spinal cord injuries. These cells, called V2a interneurons, transmit signals in the spinal cord to help control movement. When the researchers transplanted the cells into mouse spinal cords, the interneurons sprouted and integrated with existing cells.

Inflammatory pathways link to obsessive behaviors in a common form of dementia

Scientists from the Gladstone Institutes identified that mutations in a protein commonly linked to frontotemporal dementia (FTD) result in obsessive-like behaviors. They linked these behaviors to immune pathways, implicating that targeting key components of the immune system could be a new therapeutic strategy for FTD.

Implanted scaffold with T cells rapidly shrinks tumors

Cellular therapy hasn't had much success in fighting solid tumors, partly because it's been difficult to deliver anti-cancer T cells to the tumors.

Suggests a novel treatment approach that may protect against diabetic kidney disease

More than 660,000 people in the United States suffer from end-stage kidney disease, which can only be treated by dialysis or kidney transplantation. Almost half of these patients develop the condition as a complication of diabetes. Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have revealed an unexpected route to slow the progression of diabetic kidney disease, targeting a biological pathway that is the main channel for the metabolism of glucose in the cell.

The placebo effect can mend a broken heart too, study shows

Feeling heartbroken from a recent breakup? Just believing you're doing something to help yourself get over your ex can influence brain regions associated with emotional regulation and lessen the perception of pain.

Scientific discovery game significantly speeds up neuroscience research process

A new scientific discovery game is allowing video gamers to significantly speed up reconstructing the intricate architecture of brain cells, a fundamental task in 21st century brain science.

Brain's power to adapt offers short-term gains, long-term strains

Like air-traffic controllers scrambling to reconnect flights when a major hub goes down, the brain has a remarkable ability to rewire itself after suffering an injury. However, maintaining these new connections between brain regions can strain the brain's resources, which can lead to serious problems later, including Alzheimer's Disease, according to researchers.

Higher prostate cancer risks for black men may warrant new approach to screening

A new study indicates that higher prostate cancer death rates among black men in the US may be due to a higher risk of developing preclinical prostate cancer as well as a higher risk of that cancer progressing more quickly to advanced stages. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the study suggests that screening policies may need to be tailored to the higher-risk status of this population.

New Canadian guideline: No screening for hepatitis C in adults not at increased risk

The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care recommends against screening for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in adults at low risk in a guideline published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Research finds new info about higher number of male babies of Indian-born women in Canada

The researchers who reported last year that more male babies than expected were being born to Indian-born women living in Canada have now found the numbers are driven by women whose mother tongue is Punjabi and, to a lesser extent, Hindi.

Few studies consider hearing loss when assessing communication with physicians

Doctors believe that communication with those under their care is important, but most studies of communication between physicians and older adults do not mention that hearing loss may affect this interaction. The findings come from a review published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Little kids' regular bedtimes and ability to regulate emotions may lessen obesity risk

Family structure including regular bedtimes, mealtimes and limited screen time appear to be linked to better emotional health in preschoolers, and that might lower the chances of obesity later, a new study suggests.

Patients in team-based practices less likely to visit ED after hospital discharge

Older patients enrolled in team-based primary care practices in Quebec had similar rates of hospital readmission, and lower rates of emergency department visits and death after hospital discharge, compared with those in traditional fee-for-service practices, found a study published in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).

Genetics are key to hormone therapy lowering risk of broken bones in older women

Women at the highest genetic risk for fracture benefit the most from hormone therapy, according to a first-of-its-kind study led by researchers at the University at Buffalo.

New test can identify dangerous bacteria with resistance to last-resort antibiotic

New research suggests it is possible to quickly and accurately diagnose some the most dangerous and drug-resistant types of bacterial infections, using equipment already owned by most hospitals.

First large-scale malaria vaccine trials for Africa (Update)

A new malaria vaccine will be tested on a large scale in Kenya, Ghana and Malawi, the World Health Organization said Monday, with 360,000 children to be vaccinated between 2018 and 2020.

Malaria sickening thousands in US and racking up millions in healthcare costs, new study finds

Though transmission of malaria was wiped out in the United States decades ago and infections are falling in parts of the developing world, malaria hospitalizations and deaths in the U.S. appear to be far more common than generally appreciated as a steady stream of travelers returns home with the dangerous mosquito-borne disease. That's the key finding from a new study published today in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene that shows malaria led to a count of hospitalized patients and deaths that easily eclipsed other travel-related illness and generated about half a billion dollars in healthcare costs in the U.S. over a 15-year period.

Researcher provides a more effective method for treating aneurysms

What started as a whiteboard concept nearly 20 years ago by Dr. Duncan Maitland, the Stewart & Stevenson Professor I in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Texas A&M University, could soon turn into a revolutionary product for the medical industry for treating vascular problems like aneurysms.

Blood samples give clues to social inequality

More than a decade's worth of blood samples in Portugal and Ireland are being analysed to look for clues about the health impacts of socio-economic inequalities on children.

CRISPR genome editing and immunotherapy – the early adopter

It's been a couple of years since the genome editing tool CRISPR first hit the headlines. And talk of its potential to cure all manner of diseases, create superhumans and bring dinosaurs back from the dead has followed.

Obesity behind surge in kidney cancers

An estimated 20,000 kidney cancer cases have been caused by obesity over the last decade in England, according to new figures from Cancer Research UK.

Researchers use heart drug to treat eye disease in groundbreaking study

Researchers in Southampton are leading a groundbreaking study into whether or not a drug used to treat heart failure could save the sight of patients with a currently untreatable eye condition.

Synchronized voltage rhythms could maintain the body's clock

Cells in the brain's master circadian clock synchronize voltage rhythms despite asynchronous calcium rhythms, which might explain how a tissue-wide rhythm is maintained. 

Can turmeric really shrink tumours, reduce pain and kill bacteria?

Turmeric is a yellow coloured spice widely used in Indian and South East Asian cuisine. It's prepared from the root of a plant called Curcuma longa and is also used as a natural pigment in the food industry.

Are Aussie women ageing up to 20 years faster than U.S. women?

Across the developed world, looking older than your chronological age is considered a drawback. Western societies value physical beauty and vitality while science is actively trying to find a way to reverse the ageing process altogether.

Exercise good for the spine

A world-first study has shown that specific physical activity benefits the discs in our spines and may help to prevent and manage spinal pain.

Providing mental health care to young people in a primary care setting

Anxiety and depression are the most common mental health problems in children and adolescents. Youth with these disorders often go to their primary care physicians for referrals, but only a small number of them obtain much-needed mental health care. A new study led by researchers at San Diego State University suggests that providing a brief behavioral therapy in the pediatric primary care setting can help more young people get the help they need. The brief intervention's benefits were especially noteworthy in Latino youth, more than three quarters of whom showed significant improvement.

Advertisers should limit temptations to indulge in high-calorie products, researchers say

When you push your trolley along the supermarket aisles, your choices are influenced by the wealth of options you find there, from juicy pears and healthy courgettes to aisles full of unhealthy crisps, chocolate, cocktail nuts and cookies. Recent research shows that people with morbid obesity shopping in the same supermarket are much more influenced by the high-calorie foods on offer than by healthy alternatives. This applies not only to the sight of high-calorie food itself, but also to illustrations that are suggestive of fast food or snacks, such as brand logos. Poppy Watson, Sanne de Wit (Innovational Research Incentives Scheme Vidi) and colleagues publish their research findings this week in the journal Frontiers in Psychology—Eating Behavior.

Attitudes to learning may influence mental health

Students' mental health may be tied to their approach to learning, research suggests.

Characterising the profile of breast cancer metastases for improved treatment

Researchers at the Jules Bordet Institute - Université libre de Bruxelles, VIB and KU Leuven published this 21 of April an important study offering a better understanding of the progression of breast cancer. The conclusions could have an impact on care for patients suffering from a metastatic breast cancer. This is one of the first studies based on the analysis of multiple metastases obtained at the time of patient autopsies.

Novel method to detect toxic effects of chemicals could reduce need for animal testing

Traditional toxicological investigations performed on animals (in vivo) are expensive, time-consuming and may cause animal suffering. But research from Umeå University demonstrates that a neuronal cell model, derived from mouse, can be used to evaluate the neurotoxic effect of chemicals. The alternative toxicity risk assessment could reduce reliance on animal testing while also enable quick large scale toxicity evaluations.

Researchers find readiness of public access AEDs alarmingly low

No national standards exist for the maintenance of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and their registration with manufacturers, making these practices voluntary and highly variable. What the public may not realize, however, is that regions where there is a high degree of unregistered AEDs also show a much greater chance that these devices will fail if needed.

Alternating skimpy sleep with sleep marathons hurts attention, creativity in young adults

Skimping on sleep, followed by "catch-up" days with long snoozes, is tied to worse cognition—both in attention and creativity—in young adults, in particular those tackling major projects, Baylor University researchers have found.

Recommendation against inhaled flu vaccine is good—for now

Recent federal recommendations against offering the inhaled nasal influenza vaccine due to lack of effectiveness could lead to more flu illness in the U.S. if the inhaled vaccine becomes effective again or if not having the choice of the needle-less vaccine substantially reduces immunization rates, according to a new analysis led by University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine scientists.

Maternal high-fat diet may increase offspring risk for liver disease

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition where fat builds up in the liver, is now the most common chronic liver disease diagnosed in adults and children. Although the disease is linked with obesity, scientists don't fully understand why some people develop it and others don't. Findings from a new mouse study suggest that exposure to a high-fat diet in the womb and immediately after birth may change the liver in a way that promotes more rapid progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease later in life.

Link found between financial strain and low-birth-weight babies

A financially strapped pregnant woman's worries about the arrival and care of her little one could contribute to birth of a smaller, medically vulnerable infant, a new study suggests.

Mothers' relationship happiness may influence infant fussiness

How happy a mother is in her relationship and the social support she receives may affect the risk of infant colic, according to Penn State College of Medicine researchers. The study sheds new light on the factors that may contribute to infant fussiness, a common complaint, especially among first-time mothers.

Growing body of evidence supports use of mind-body therapies in breast cancer treatment

In newly updated clinical guidelines from the Society for Integrative Oncology (SIO), researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center with an interdisciplinary team of colleagues at MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and other institutions in the U.S. and Canada, analyzed which integrative treatments are most effective and safe for patients with breast cancer.

Methadone may reduce need for opioids after surgery

Patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery who are treated with methadone during the procedure require significantly less intravenous and oral opioids to manage postoperative pain, reports a new study published in the May issue of Anesthesiology, the peer-reviewed medical journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA).

Gallbladder cancer rates decreasing in men, not women; late-stage diagnosis on the rise

Gallbladder cancer is a rare, but aggressive disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 3,700 people in the United States are diagnosed with gallbladder cancer each year. However, of those diagnosed, approximately 2,000 die each year from the disease. A new study by University of Missouri School of Medicine researchers has found that gallbladder cancer rates have decreased in men in recent years but not in women. The researchers also found that more people are being diagnosed with late-stage disease.

Prostate cancer screening rates appear to level after recent drop

Declines in prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing that came after changes in government screening guidelines have abated in recent years, according to a new study. Writing in JAMA Internal Medicine, American Cancer Society investigators say about one in three men 50 years or older still receive routine PSA testing.

Physicians vastly underestimate patients' willingness to share sexual orientation, study finds

A study that surveyed a national sample of emergency department health care providers and adult patients suggests that patients are substantially more willing to disclose their sexual orientation than health care workers believe.

Medicare recipients using rehabilitation services report major functional improvements

A new study showing significant patient-reported functional improvement among Medicare recipients who utilize rehabilitation services offers hope for America's 65-and-older set, which is expected to double by 2050. That's assuming Medicare—the nation's largest federal health insurance program for seniors—survives recent talk of its demise.

Robot radiology: Low cost A.I. could screen for cervical cancer better than humans

Artificial intelligence—commonly known as A.I.—is already exceeding human abilities. Self-driving cars use A.I. to perform some tasks more safely than people. E-commerce companies use A.I. to tailor product ads to customers' tastes quicker and with more precision than any breathing marketing analyst.

Does death of a sibling in childhood increase risk of death in surviving children?

Bereavement in childhood due to the death of a sibling was associated with an increased risk for death in both the short and long term, according to a new article published by JAMA Pediatrics.

Limiting patient mobility in hospitals may do more harm than good

Despite hospitals' best efforts, there is little proof that policies to inhibit patient mobility actually prevent falls and may actually increase the risk of serious side effects, according to Sharon K. Inouye, MD, MPH, Director of the Aging Brain Center at the Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife.

Images of health risks make indoor tanning messages more effective

Although the health risks associated with indoor tanning are clear, tanning bed use among college-aged women is still popular. A new study by UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers suggests that adding images depicting the longer-term impacts of indoor tanning might be an effective health risk communication strategy.

Findings challenge current approach to Glut1 deficiency

Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have discovered that diet changes and early diagnosis could help outcomes for patients with Glucose Transporter Type 1 Deficiency, a rare pediatric neurological disorder that can cause motor developmental problems and trigger seizures and epilepsy.

The top 5 conditions that shorten Americans' lives—and are preventable

(HealthDay)—More bad news for plus-sized Americans: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable life-years lost in the nation, a new study finds.

In America's poorest communities, a greater risk of child abuse deaths

(HealthDay)—Growing up in a poor family is a well-known risk factor for child abuse, but a new analysis suggests it may also raise a young child's chances of dying from that abuse.

Could breast milk tests replace mammograms?

(HealthDay)—Breast-milk analysis may someday offer an alternative to mammograms for women in their childbearing years, new research suggests.

Counting your way to weight loss

(HealthDay)—The concept of counting calories to lose weight is based on a pound of fat being equal to 3,500 calories, so that cutting 500 calories a day means you should lose about one pound a week.

Physical activity may ward off heart damage

Physical activity can lower the risk of heart damage in middle-aged and older adults and reduce the levels of heart damage in people who are obese, according to research published today in JACC: Heart Failure.

Researchers show dietary choline and TMAO linked with increased blood clotting

Cleveland Clinic researchers have shown, for the first time in humans, that choline is directly linked to increased production of a gut bacteria byproduct that increases the risk of blood-clotting events like heart attack and stroke. However, the research also showed that adding a low dose of aspirin may reduce that risk.

Savior of T-cells may be enemy of liver immune cells

Researchers at Houston Methodist demonstrated that a surface protein called OX40, responsible for keeping one type of immune system cell alive, can trigger the death of liver immune cells, in turn starting a chain reaction of events leading to liver inflammation and disease.

Solving the hepatitis C epidemic among people with substance abuse disorders

One of the most dramatic medical success stories in the past few years has been the introduction of new drugs that eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV). But it's a different story among HCV patients with substance use disorders.

Genetic factors may contribute to adverse effects produced by synthetic cannabinoids

Synthetic cannabinoid abuse is a growing problem in the United States, with new versions of the drugs coming on the market every year. New research is examining how the body processes these man-made drugs and the role that genetics might play in their metabolism. The work could reveal genetic factors that increase a person's risk for experiencing the most dangerous effects of these drugs and lead to new treatments to counteract those effects.

Research shows surgery adds years for kidney cancer patients

Mayo Clinic researchers have discovered that surgery could more than double life expectancy for many patients with late-stage kidney cancer, giving them anywhere from two to almost 10 years more than they'd have without the surgery. A paper, published recently in The Journal of Urology, found a "clinically meaningful difference in survival" between renal cell carcinoma patients who had surgery to completely remove secondary tumor growths, called metastases, compared to those who didn't.

Most new to Medicaid have no other option if Affordable Care Act repealed

Almost everyone covered through Ohio's Medicaid expansion would have no other viable insurance option should the Affordable Care Act be repealed, a new study has found.

Stem cells help researchers identify neuronal defects causing Angelman syndrome

Researchers at UConn Health used stem cells derived from patients with Angelman syndrome to identify the underlying cellular defects that cause the rare neurogenetic disorder, an important step in the ongoing search for potential treatments for Angelman and a possible cure.

Experiencing nightmare scenarios before discharge boosts confidence of parents of premature babies

Anxiety is a common emotion experienced by first-time parents, one that is felt even more so among parents of newborns being treated in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Lyme disease researchers seek consensus as number of cases grows

Scientists have built a large body of knowledge about Lyme disease over the past 40 years, yet controversies remain and the number of cases continues to rise. In the United States, reported cases of Lyme disease, which is transmitted from wild animals to humans by tick bites, have tripled in the past 20 years.

Motion sickness drug worsens motion perception

A new study led by Massachusetts Eye and Ear researchers found that oral promethazine, a drug commonly taken to alleviate motion sickness, temporarily worsened vestibular perception thresholds by 31 percent, lowering one's ability to perceive sensory information about motion, balance and spatial orientation. These findings, published online in the Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, may suggest that people taking the medication should take extra precautions to prevent falls, since shifts in vestibular perception thresholds are associated with poorer performance on standardized balance tests.

How walking benefits the brain

You probably know that walking does your body good, but it's not just your heart and muscles that benefit. Researchers at New Mexico Highlands University (NMHU) found that the foot's impact during walking sends pressure waves through the arteries that significantly modify and can increase the supply of blood to the brain. The research will be presented today at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago.

Only select incidental thyroid nodules need further evaluation

(HealthDay)—Only a few select incidental thyroid nodules require further evaluation, according to a review published online April 20 in JAMA Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

More risks on school playgrounds linked to happier children

(HealthDay)—Children from schools with greater risk and challenge in the playground environment report being happier at school and playing with more children, according to a study published online April 24 in Pediatrics.

How fear of death affects human attitudes toward animal life

When reminded of death, humans become more likely to support killing animals, regardless of their existing attitudes about animal rights, according to new research from the University of Arizona.

Aerobic and resistance exercise combo can boost brain power of over 50s

A combination of aerobic and resistance exercises can significantly boost the brain power of the over 50s, finds the most comprehensive review of the available evidence to date, published online in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

Nurse practitioners are not regularly assessing brain health and need standardized assessment tools

Important new survey findings released today by WomenAgainstAlzheimer's and the National Association of Nurse Practitioners in Women's Health (NPWH) show that approximately 30 percent of nurse practitioners (NPs) in women's health do not raise brain health issues with patients, while only 18 percent of nurse practitioners occasionally broach the issues during office visits. In fact, 68 percent of the time, patients are raising brain health issues, rather than the nurse practitioners treating them.

Altered immune cells may both contribute to preeclampsia and offer new hope for treatment

Though the exact cascade of events leading to preeclampsia is unknown, reduced blood flow to the placenta (placental ischemia) is commonly thought to be a factor that contributes to the development of the pregnancy-related condition. In a new study presented today at the APS annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017, researchers have found that the immune system's natural killer (NK) cells activate and change in response to placental ischemia. Disrupting these altered cells seems to blunt some of the dangerous complications of the condition, including high blood pressure (hypertension) and inflammation in the mother and growth restriction in the fetus.

How states, hospitals and physician groups are affected by H-1B visa policy changes

A research letter authored by fourth-year Einstein medical student Peter Kahn, M.P.H., Th.M., investigates which U.S. hospitals hire physicians using the H-1B visa program, which allows employers to temporarily hire highly-skilled foreign workers. The authors found that hospitals in just a handful of states accounted for most of the H-1B applications. The letter was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) on Monday, April 16.

Visualisation in network psychometrics is effective

How do you map out psychological phenomena in a way that makes their relationships and interactions clear? Sacha Epskamp conducted research in this area known as 'network psychometrics', which explains various forms of psychological networks. Epskamp obtained his PhD on Wednesday 5 April at the University of Amsterdam.

Patients with asthma give doctors their thoughts on treatment goals

There is increasing emphasis on the importance of measuring patient-centered outcomes of emergency care; however, the existing and most commonly used discharge metrics, which were developed outside of the emergency department setting, have limited applicability to emergency care and fail to capture the concepts that are most important to patients and families. That is the finding of a study to be published in the May 2017 issue of Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM), a journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

Anti-viral treatment during pregnancy reduces HBV transmission from mother to child

An analysis of published studies indicates that the antiviral drug tenofovir given to pregnant women in the second or third trimester can help prevent mother to child transmission of the hepatitis B virus (HBV).

Statins may benefit cirrhotic patients with Hepatitis B or C infections

Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to cirrhosis as well as liver cancer. A Hepatology study from Taiwan has found that statins may provide benefits to patients with HBV- or HCV-related cirrhosis.

Using HEART score to risk stratify patients with chest pain is safe but underutilized in the ED

It is safe for physicians to use the HEART (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, and initial Troponin) score to make decisions about admission, observation, or discharge in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain. However, hesitance to refrain from admitting and testing patients with low scores could explain its small effect on health care costs seen in this analysis. The study is published in Annals of Internal Medicine.

ACP urges Congress to 'move away' from harmful changes to patient care in AHCA

The American College of Physicians (ACP) today sent a four-page letter to leaders in both the House and Senate urging Congress to "move away" from the harmful changes to patient care that would occur if the American Health Care Act (AHCA) were to become law. Instead, the letter written on behalf of the 148,000-member organization, emphasized that Congress should work for bipartisan solutions to improve the Affordable Care Act (ACA) rather than repealing and replacing it.

Military service boosts resilience, well-being among transgender veterans

Transgender people make up a small percentage of active-duty U.S. military personnel, but their experience in the service may yield long-term, positive effects on their mental health and quality of life.

Cherokee nation sues retailers, distributors over opioid crisis

(HealthDay)—A lawsuit has been filed by an Indian nation against six of the top drug distributors and pharmacies in the United States for harm done by prescription pain medications.

Biology news

Conservation not an effective tool for reducing infectious disease in people, study finds

Conservation projects that protect forests and encourage a diversity of plants and animals can provide many benefits to humans.

Genome sequence of fuel-producing alga announced

The genome of the fuel-producing green microalga Botryococcus braunii has been sequenced by a team of researchers led by a group at Texas A&M AgriLife Research.

New insight into brain development disorder

Two years ago, the Zika virus drew attention to microcephaly, a developmental disorder in which the brain and skull display inhibited growth. But there are other causes of microcephaly, such as congenital genetic diseases. Much is still unknown about brain development, but researchers at Utrecht University, in collaboration with their colleagues in Switzerland, have now new shed light on the molecules involved. The results of their research will be published in Nature Cell Biology.

Scientists reveal a new mechanism mediating environment-microbe-host interactions

Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have uncovered a new mechanism showing how microbes can alter the physiology of the organisms in which they live. In a paper published in Nature Cell Biology, the researchers reveal how microbes living inside the laboratory worm C. elegans respond to environmental changes and generate signals to the worm that alter the way it stores lipids.

New function discovered for ADAR1 in protecting stressed cells from apoptotic death

The RNA editing protein ADAR1 was first discovered several decades ago. Now, scientists at The Wistar Institute have identified a new function for the protein: It stops cells that have been exposed to stressors such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation from dying. Study results were published recently in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.

The Radiohead ant: A new species of 'silky' ant grows fungus gardens for food

The ants of the genus Sericomyrmex - literally translated as 'silky ants' - belong to the fungus-farming ants, a group of ants that have figured out how to farm their own food. The silky ants are the less well-known relatives of the famous leaf-cutter ants - well-studied, photogenic model organisms that you simply cannot avoid if you take a trip to the Neotropics.

Caterpillar found to eat shopping bags, suggesting biodegradable solution to plastic pollution

Scientists have found that a caterpillar commercially bred for fishing bait has the ability to biodegrade polyethylene: one of the toughest and most used plastics, frequently found clogging up landfill sites in the form of plastic shopping bags.

Banded mongooses target family members for eviction

Banded mongooses target close female relatives when violently ejecting members from their social groups, University of Exeter scientists have found.

Examining the role of the microbiome in the effectiveness of colorectal cancer treatment

The bacteria residing in your digestive tract, or your gut microbiota, may play an important role in your ability to respond to chemotherapy drugs in the clinic, according to a new study by scientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Published in Cell, the study by Marian Walhout, PhD, and colleagues show that when a common research model, the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegan, is fed a diet of E. coli bacteria, the worms were one hundred times more sensitive to the chemotherapy drug floxuridine (FUDR) than worms who were fed different bacteria. FUDR is a commonly used drug to treat colorectal cancer.

Fossils may be earliest known multicellular life: study

Fossils accidentally discovered in South Africa are probably the oldest fungi ever found by a margin of 1.2 billion years, rewriting the evolutionary story of these organisms which are neither flora nor fauna, researchers said Monday.

Team identifies genetic target for growing hardier plants under stress

The function of a plant's roots go well beyond simply serving as an anchor in the ground. The roots act as the plant's mouth, absorbing, storing and channeling water and nutrients essential for survival.

Scientific survey shows highest-ever level of spawning-age female crabs

The Virginia Marine Resources Commission this week released the results of the 2017 Blue Crab Winter Dredge Survey, which shows a 31 percent increase in adult female crabs and forecasts another year of improved harvests. This is the highest level of adult, spawning-age females recorded in the survey's 28-year history.

The mathematics of why our grandmothers love us

Based on the strong reactions that it provokes from people, it would be fair to say that mathematics has an image problem.

Bio-prospecting for better enzymes

When people hear about prospecting, they might imagine old forty-niners (miners) with pickaxes hunting for gold, or maybe an agent for the San Francisco 49ers (football team) scouting for new talent. In my lab we do another version, called bio-prospecting – searching for useful substances from natural sources. Bio-prospecting has produced many valuable products, including anti-cancer drugs derived from plants and extremely strong silks spun by tropical spiders.

Photosynthesis in the dark? Unraveling the mystery of algae evolution

Scientists have long studied which of the three primary photosynthetic eukaryotes (red algae, green algae, and glaucophytes) has come into existence first to unravel the biological mystery of algae evolution by analyzing their genetic information.

What can we learn from dinosaur proteins?

DNA might get all the attention, but proteins do the work. The recent confirmation that it is possible to extract proteins—which are encoded by DNA and perform all of the functions that keep living cells alive—from 80-million-year-old dinosaur bones has provided fodder for big questions about everything from evolution to biomaterials to extraterrestrial life.

Nanosponges lessen severity of streptococcal infections

In a new study, researchers show that engineered nanosponges that are encapsulated in the membranes of red blood cells can reduce the severity of infections caused by group A Streptococcus, the bacteria responsible for strep throat and life-threatening infections such as necrotizing fasciitis, or flesh-eating disease. The new treatment approach could be particularly useful for severe or antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

Starvation prompts body temperature, blood sugar changes to tolerate next food limitation

Rats that have experienced past episodes of limited food resources make physiological adaptations that may extend their lives the next time they are faced with starvation. New research about starvation physiology will be presented today at the American Physiological Society (APS) annual meeting at Experimental Biology 2017 in Chicago.


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3 comments:

Mariana Giovanni said...

HERBAL MEDICINE: OUR BREAKTHROUGH
My son was diagnosed with epilepsy in his early age (4years), there was no known cause or reason, many investigations have since taken place to achieve a diagnosis, It came from nowhere. I cannot describe to you how helpless we feel as parents, our happy life was turned upside down. We felt shocked, devastated and utterly helpless. All we could do was to hold and comfort him. His seizures contributed to his lack of developmental progress. If he was in the midst of doing something he would fall over or just curl up into a ball. I also have a Youtube video. It is a very difficult symptoms, despite continued medical intervention we are unsuccessful in stopping her seizures. We have tried multiple medicines, including CBD and a special diet, but all to no avail. Dr. Allen!!!, your input bring about his recovery. I will forever be indebted to you. I was delighted to share this information to Epilepsy Research UK, and I would urge anyone who also have same symptoms to try such a worthy path because this is the only way to improve the lives of those diagnosed with epilepsy. To get more information, write drallenchase@gmail.com

Jessical Alba said...

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SOPHIE LEWIS said...

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